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OER as Educational Philosophy






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OER as Educational Philosophy OER as Educational Philosophy Presentation Transcript

  • OER as Educational Philosophy
    Rob Farrow18/10/11
    The Open University's Institute of Educational Technology
  • Context
    OLnet / Evidence Hub
    The OER Turn (Thomas, 2011)http://infteam.jiscinvolve.org/wp/2011/09/16/the-oer-turn/
    visible and invisible use (use often not recorded/illegal… Impact)
    the importance of licensing (nb. metrics)
    the role of the university (institutional reform/publicity)
    WSIS OER Debate
  • WSIS OER Debate 12th-24th Octoberhttp://www.wsis-community.org/pg/debates/group:14358/phase/400536/400538
  • Educational Philosophy
    Normative theory of education
    Pedagogy, curriculum & learning theory
    Implicit/explicit metaphysical, epistemological & axiological assumptions
    Succinctly: what education should be like / how education should be persued
  • Educational Philosophies
    Perrenialism (Plato, 1911)
    Behaviourism (Watson, 1913)
    Progressivism/Pragmatism (Dewey, 1916)
    Social Development Theory (Vygotsky, 1934)
    Essentialism (Bagley, 1934)
    Existentialism (Neill, 1960)
    Constructivism (Piaget, 1967)
  • Educational Philosophy
    Basic normative premises about what is good or right
    Basic factual premises about humanity and the world
    From 1. & 2., recommendations about the dispositions education should foster
    Further factual premises about such things as the psychology of learning and methods of teaching
    Further conclusions about such things as methods used
    Frankena, Raybeck & Burbules (2002)
  • Questions
    Does the use of OER imply a particular standpoint in educational philosophy?
    Which values are implied by the OER approach?
    What might follow from adopting a pro-OER model of education?
  • ci.olnet.org
  • 12 Key Challenges
    Who and how to create new appropriate Assessment/Evaluation models and practices for OER?
    What are the costs and benefits of using OER in teaching?
    What can be done to improve OER Sustainability?
    How can we improve the value and impact of OER Research?
    What Technologies & Infrastructure are needed/in place to help the OER movement?
    What Institutional Policies are needed/in place to promote OER?
  • 12 Key Challenges
    What are the best ways to Promote and Advocate educational methods which use OERs?
    How do we create the right culture of teaching and learning to improve OER Adoption?
    What evidence is there of Use (and Re-Use) of OER?
    What are the issues surrounding Copyright and Licensing, and how can they be overcome?
    How do we ensure OER is of high Quality?
    How can we improve Access to OER?
  • Advocacy Claims:
    • Unobstructed licenses expand student access to high-quality, up-to-date, engaging, and customized content more quickly, cost-effectively, and efficiently than today.
    • Unobstructed licenses unlock educational resources that are developed using taxpayer dollars so they can be shared, customized, and improved, yielding a far greater return on investment to the public.
    • Open educational resources with unobstructed licenses are the path forward to ensure every student has access to high-quality, engaging, personalized, and up-to-date content.
    • Ultimately, open educational resources with unobstructed licenses can help transform our schools by producing better equipped teachers, better prepared students, and better education outcomes
  • Context: Summary
    OER movement remains fragmented and not well documented
    Lack of clear evidence about the best use of OER
    Diverse contexts of application
    Uncertainty about the future
    There is no single approach to OER, and any philosophical description needs to account for this
  • OER - Definitions
    OER is a term that was first adopted at UNESCO’s 2002 Forum on the Impact of Open Courseware for Higher Education in Developing Countries
  • OER - Definitions
    “OER are teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use or re-purposing by others. Open educational resources include full courses, course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, software, and any other tools, materials, or techniques used to support access to knowledge.”
    (Atkins, Seely Brown & Hammond, 2007:4)
  • OER - Definitions
    “Open educational resource, (n). Any artifact that is either (1) licensed under an open copyright license or (2) in the public domain.”
    (Wiley, 2011b)
    (1) locates OER within the taxonomy of ‘things-that-can-be-copyrighted’
    Ideas, concepts, methods, people, places, events can never be OER
    (2) suggests that publicity alone can be enough to make an educational resource open
  • OER - Definitions
    • The (Platonic) form of an ‘ideal’ OER (Wiley):
    ACCESS: immediately and freely accessible by every person in the world
    2. LICENSING: grant the user the legal permissions necessary to engage in each and every possible usage of the resource with no restrictions whatsoever
    3. EFFICACY : effectively support the educational goals of the user
    • Access “is in the eye of the beholder”
    • Efficacy depends on use
    • These can nonetheless function as regulative ideals (Kant, 1929)
    • Licensing remains the most tangible/least contentious form of description
  • OERs - Summary
    OER still typically defined in terms of copyright & licensing
    The convention (derived from funding bodies) is to consider resources open when produced under a creative commons license
    OERs need not be digital (though typically are)
    The ‘openness’ of OER is contextual
    But what kind of values does the movement espouse?
  • Ethics/Values
    OER makes education more affordable to ‘developing’ countries (Heller et al., 2007; IJsselmuidenet al., 2009)
    OER & Human Rights/Public Health (Geith & Vignare, 2008)
    Communities of Practice: sharing resources & expertise (Lee et al., 2008)
    Continuity with academic tradition (Joyce, 2006)
  • Bildung
    Roots in the Enlightenment
    More comprehensive than ‘education’
    Unifying selfhood and identity within broader society
    Less about acquiring specific skills/outcomes; more about developing a wide range of abilities
    Kritik: challenging the (political) status quo
    Markus Deimann
    (OLnet Fellow )
  • OER/Bildung: Tropes
    Critical Pedagogy
  • “The priority… is not to establish the case for free and open, but to find the right place for existing institutions and more importantly to help develop the right skills to help humanity progress.”
    McAndrew (2009)
  • Open Educational Practices?
    “Open Educational Practices (OEP) are defined as practices which support the production, use and reuse of high quality open educational resources (OER) through institutional policies, which promote innovative pedagogical models, and respect and empower learners as co-producers on their lifelong learning path. OEP address the whole OER governance community: policy makers, managers and administrators of organizations, educational professionals and learners.” ICDE
    It makes little sense to talk about OER rather than (or independently of) OEP – yet that is how the debate has typically been framed
  • “Open Educational Practices (OEP) are the set of activities and support around the creation, use and repurposing of Open Educational Resources. It also includes the contextual settings within which these practices occur.”
    Conole (2011)
  • Institutional Implications
    The copyright status of an educational resource remains abstract… but the adoption of OEPs implies changes throughout the entire educational system
    Publishing (authorship & review)
    Curriculum Design / IP
    Opening up educational institutions and making knowledge public
    Implications for expectations made of staff
    NB. Weller (2011)
    The Open University's Institute of Educational Technology
  • Institutional Implications
    “The philosophy of the COSL team is that all resources emitted by eduCommons should be covered by an educational” Creative Commons license...
    This philosophy suggests that two different digital course resource systems would emerge within a university: one built entirely of creative commons material, and another built within the IP environment of the institution’s digital library/repository allowing access to copyright material only to authenticated members of community.”
    (Atkins, Seely Brown & Hammond, 2007:12)
    The Open University's Institute of Educational Technology
  • Institutional Implications
    OER University #oeru
    free learning to all students worldwide using OER learning materials
    courses and programs based solely on OER and open textbooks
    pathways to gain credible qualifications from recognised education institutions
    pathways for OER learners to earn formal academic credit
    administrative: nota formal teaching institution and does not confer degrees or qualifications
    OAR (Open Assessment Resources)
    existing assessments neither reusable, revisable, remixable, or redistributable
    Wiley estimates that 1.5 billion OARs are needed
    The Open University's Institute of Educational Technology
  • Conclusions
    Discourse about OERs has reached a point of maturity and needs to be (at least) supplemented with explicit focus on OEPs
    Focus on OEPs weakens the link between OERs and learning objects
    OEPs are potentially much further-reaching and more radical than OERs
    While OERs themselves are not aligned with a specific educational philosophy, there are distinct values associated with the OER movement
    The Enlightenment concept of education as Bildung may help to flesh out a distinctive educational philosophy pertaining to OERs/OEPs
    The Open University's Institute of Educational Technology
  • References
    Atkins, Daniel E., John Seely Brown & Allen L. Hammond (2007). A Review of the Open Educational Resources (OER) Movement: Achievements, Challenges, and New Opportunities. Menlo Park, CA: The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation.
    Bagley, William C. (1934) Education and Emergent Man: A Theory of Education With Particular Application to Public Education in the United States. New York: Nelson.
    Conole, G. (2011) Defining Open Educational Practices [online]. Available from http://e4innovation.com/?p=373. (Accessed 17th October 2011)
    Dewey, J. (1916) Democracy and Education: An introduction to the philosophy of education. New York: The Free Press
    Frankena, William K., Raybeck, Nathan & Burbules, Nicholas (2002). "Philosophy of Education". In Guthrie, James W. (ed). Encyclopedia of Education, 2nd edition. New York, NY: Macmilla
    Geith C. & Vignare K. (2008) Access to Education with Online Learning and Open Educational Resources: Can they Close the Gap? Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks. 0212:1, 105-126
    Hansen , K. H. (2008). Rewriting Bildung for Postmodernity. Curriculum Inquiry 38.1
    eller, R., Chongsuvivatwong, V., Hailegeorgios, S., Dada, J., Torun, P., Madhok, R., Sanders, J. (2007) Capacity-building for public health. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation, 85 (12) (Accessed 17th October 2011)
    Hylén, J. (2006). Open educational resources: Opportunities and challenges. OECD-CERI. Available from http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/1/49/35733548.doc (accessed Jan 2010)
    ICDE (undated). Definition of Open Educational Practices [online]. (Accessed 17th October 2011)
    IJsselmuiden, C., Nchinda, T., Duale, S., Tumwesigye, N., Serwadda, D. (2007) Mapping Africa's advanced public health education capacity: the AfriHealth project. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation, 85(12):14-922.
  • References
    Joyce, A. (2006) OECD study of OER; forum report. International Institute for Educational Planning. Available from http://www.schoolforge.net/IIEP_OECD_OER_forum_report.pdf
    Lee, M., Albright, S., O’Leary, L., GeronimoTerkla, D, Wilson, N. (2008) Expanding the reach of health sciences education and empowering others: the OpenCourseWare initiative at Tufts University. Medical teacher. Vol. 30, No. 2, Pages 159-163.
    OLnet. What are the Key Challenges facing Open Education?. OLnet Evidence Hub http://ci.olnet.org/CILite/global.php#challenge-list (Accessed 17th October 2011)
    Piaget, J. (1967). Logique et Connaissance scientifique, Encyclopédie de la Pléiade.
    Plato (1911) Phaedo. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Kant, I. (1929) [1781] Critique of Pure Reason. Translated by Norman Kemp Smith. London: Macmillan.
    Thomas, A. The OER Turn [online]. Available from http://infteam.jiscinvolve.org/wp/2011/09/16/the-oer-turn/ (Accessed 17th October 2011)
    Watson, J. B. (1913) ‘Psychology As the Behaviorist Views It’. Psychological Review 20, 1913, 158–177. Available from http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Watson/views.htm
    Weller, M. (2011). The Digital Scholar: How Technology is Transforming Scholarly Practice. Bloomsbury Academic.
    Wiley, D. (2011a) OER, Toothbrushes and Value [online]. Available from http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/2015. (Accessed 17th October 2011)
    Wiley, D. (2011b) On OER – Beyond Definitions [online]. Available from http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/1780. (Accessed 17th October 2011)
  • r.j.farrow@open.ac.ukInstitute of Educational TechnologyThe Open UniversityWalton HallMilton KeynesMK7 6AA