• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Introduction to Qualitative Research
 

Introduction to Qualitative Research

on

  • 366 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
366
Views on SlideShare
357
Embed Views
9

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
24
Comments
0

2 Embeds 9

http://qualitativeresearchatnanzan.blogspot.jp 7
http://qualitativeresearchatnanzan.blogspot.co.uk 2

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Introduction to Qualitative Research Introduction to Qualitative Research Presentation Transcript

    • R O B E R T C R O K E R , N A N Z A N U N I V E R S I T YQUALITATIVE RESEARCH
    • DEFINING RESEARCHResearch is a process of collecting information, and thenanalyzing it.Research is systematic, and based upon principles.Research helps us to understand an issue better.Note: this is ‘empirical research’ – using direct, observable data toanswer your research questions.
    • DEFINING QUALITATIVE RESEARCH1. data – informationquantitative research uses numbersqualitative research uses text (and images)
    • TWO MAIN RESEARCH TRADITIONSexample 1: learning vocabularyA: 27% of students used word cards every day, and these students improvedtheir English vocabulary scores by 17 points in three months. 40% ofstudents kept a word list, and these students improved their scores by 12points.B: Yuki keeps a list of the new words that he reads and hears. Before class,he reads over the textbook, and marks the new words that he sees. He thenwrites these in his word list, checking the meaning from the dictionary. Inthe first column, he writes the new word, in the second the part of speech,in the third the main definition in Japanese, and in the fourth an examplesentence.
    • TWO MAIN RESEARCH TRADITIONSexample 2: motivation – why study English?A: In the sample, 47% of students study English because they want to workusing English in the future, 33% of students because they want to watchAmerican movies and read English books, and 20% of students because theywant to travel to an English-speaking country.B: Since she was a child, Nami has had a dream: she really wanted to be afluent English speaker. She would dream about talking in perfect English toa native speaker, and being able to understand everything that he said. Sheimagined living in another country, possibly England, and going walkingthrough the English countryside with her English friends, chatting abouttheir lives.
    • TWO MAIN RESEARCH TRADITIONSexample 3: teaching writingA: There are 17 teachers in the writing program. 14 of these teachers use apeer-editing review process, and 3 teachers check the students writingthemselves. The peer-editing review process was more effective, becausestudents increased their writing scores by 20%.B: Tanaka Sensei begins peer-editing from the first class – but not directly.She asks her students to write a short language learning history, and toshare that history with a partner. She then asks the partner to read over thehistory, underline sentences that are interesting, and to write a question inthe margin about that information. The writer then answers these questionsin a different colour pen.
    • TWO MAIN RESEARCH TRADITIONS•  quantitative research:•  use numbers•  focus on the product•  summarize for a group of students or teachers•  test hypotheses – confirmatory research•  tend to be more abstract•  use tests, questionnaires, and observations•  qualitative research:•  use text•  focus on the process•  look at individuals – from the bottom up•  beginning to understand something – exploratory research•  tend to be more descriptive and concrete•  use diaries and reflections, interviews, observations,
    • DEFINING QUALITATIVE RESEARCH1. data – informationquantitative research uses numbersqualitative research uses text (and images)
    • DEFINING QUALITATIVE RESEARCH2. how to create that data (the research methods) –personal histories, diariesportfolios and verbal reportsobservationsinterviewsquestionnairesie many different ways
    • DEFINING QUALITATIVE RESEARCH3. how to plan to collect that data (the research plan) –some parts are pre-planned, but not all – they come laterexploratory -‘looking for questions’ vs. ‘looking for answers’not linear but a cycle –create – analyze – reflect - create – analyze – reflect
    • DEFINING QUALITATIVE RESEARCH4. how to understand that data (the data analysis) –many different approaches –e.g. discourse analysis, narrative research, grounded theorybut basically bottom-up (‘inductive’) to build theoryrather than top-down to confirm a theory, using statistics
    • DEFINING QUALITATIVE RESEARCH5a. the types of questions askedie understanding processes rather than comparing outcomesQualitative research:How do teachers teach Japanese high school TOEFL?How do Japanese high school students study TOEFL?Quantitative research:Which teaching strategies are more effective for teaching TOEFL – yakudoku or CLT?
    • DEFINING QUALITATIVE RESEARCH5b. the types of questions askedie use text rather than numbersQualitative research:How do teachers teach Japanese high school TOEFL?How do Japanese high school students study TOEFL?Quantitative research:Which teaching strategies are more effective for teaching TOEFL – yakudoku or CLT?
    • DEFINING QUALITATIVE RESEARCH5c. the types of questions asked –exploring vs. confirmingie building theory vs. checking theory (hypotheses)Qualitative research:How do teachers teach Japanese high school TOEFL?How do Japanese high school students study TOEFL?Quantitative research:Which teaching strategies are more effective for teaching TOEFL – yakudoku or CLT?
    • DEFINING QUALITATIVE RESEARCH6. the research process –describe what is happening,and then explain whyQualitative research:How do teachers teach Japanese high school TOEFL?How do Japanese high school students study TOEFL?
    • DEFINING QUALITATIVE RESEARCH7. more broadly, how to think about what research is -the researcher is a person, too!data is ‘created’ not ‘collected’ – it is a co-constructionlook at the world from the participants’ perspectiveeach participant has a different perspective and experiencethe purpose of research is to understand theselearning and teaching happens in particular contexts, so …try to understand the whole context, not just parts of it
    • DEFINING TERMSthe researcher – YOU!the participants – the people who help you with your research(not passive subjects but ACTIVE participants)data – information (CREATE data – an active, interactive process)research methods – ways to create data - interviews, observationsresearch approaches – ways of thinking - narrative inquiry