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  • 1. Communities and PeopleRobert Croker, Nanzan University
  • 2. MY DEFINITION OF CULTURE !   Culture is the dynamic construction of meaning. It is not a static, fixed body of knowledge or practices, but rather is constantly evolving, always in a process of becoming. !   People, participating in groups and communities (that are always in a state of change), actively develop new cultural practices and construct new cultural products. These new practices and products develop from and contribute to the development of new cultural perspectives, or ways of understanding the world. !   The purpose of fieldwork is to understand this process, to understand how meaning is (re)constructed.
  • 3. PRODUCTS PRACTICES CULTURECOMMUNITIES PEOPLE PERSPECTIVES
  • 4. THE ICEBERG OF CULTURE
  • 5. THE ICEBERG OF CULTUREVISIBLE PRODUCTS PRACTICES COMMUNITIES CULTURE PEOPLE------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INVISIBLE PERSPECTIVES
  • 6. KNOWING WHATVISIBLE PRODUCTS PRACTICES COMMUNITIES CULTURE PEOPLE------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INVISIBLE PERSPECTIVES
  • 7. KNOWING HOWVISIBLE PRODUCTS PRACTICES COMMUNITIES CULTURE PEOPLE------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INVISIBLE PERSPECTIVES
  • 8. KNOWING WHYVISIBLE PRODUCTS PRACTICES COMMUNITIES CULTURE PEOPLE------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INVISIBLE PERSPECTIVES
  • 9. KNOWING WHOVISIBLE PRODUCTS PRACTICES COMMUNITIES CULTURE PEOPLE------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INVISIBLE PERSPECTIVES
  • 10. KNOWING WHO - CommunitiesVISIBLE PRODUCTS PRACTICES COMMUNITIES CULTURE PEOPLE------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INVISIBLE PERSPECTIVES
  • 11. PRODUCTS PRACTICES COMMUNITIES COMMUNI TIES CULTURE PEOPLE PERSPECTI VES!   COMMUNITIES are social groups or social contexts in which members of that community interact.!   Communities vary in size: !   broader communities – national culture, language, gender, race, religion, socio-economic class, or generation !   narrower communities – a local community group, a university club, a company, a family!   Communities are not isolated, but co-exist with other communities. They are in different relationships with one another: separation, cooperation, collaboration, conflict – and these change over time.
  • 12. PRODUCTS PRACTICESCOMMUNITIES COMMUNI TIES CULTURE PEOPLE PERSPECTI VES
  • 13. PRODUCTS PRACTICESCOMMUNITIES COMMUNI TIES CULTURE PEOPLE PERSPECTI VES
  • 14. PRODUCTS PRACTICESCOMMUNITIES COMMUNI TIES CULTURE PEOPLE PERSPECTI VES
  • 15. PRODUCTS PRACTICESCOMMUNITIES COMMUNI TIES CULTURE PEOPLE PERSPECTI VES
  • 16. KNOWING WHO - PeopleVISIBLE PRODUCTS PRACTICES COMMUNITIES CULTURE PEOPLE------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INVISIBLE PERSPECTIVES
  • 17. PRODUCTS PRACTICES PEOPLE COMMUNI TIES CULTURE PEOPLE PERSPECTI VES!   PEOPLE are the individual members of the community.!   Each person is a distinct mix of belonging to a number of communities on the one hand and having individual experiences on the other.!   Culture exists both in the communities (groups) and also in each individual member. That is, culture is both collective and individual – it is both social and psychological.
  • 18. PRODUCTS PRACTICESPEOPLE COMMUNI TIES CULTURE PEOPLE PERSPECTI VES
  • 19. PRODUCTS PRACTICESPEOPLE COMMUNI TIES CULTURE PEOPLE PERSPECTI VES
  • 20. PRODUCTS PRACTICESPEOPLE COMMUNI TIES CULTURE PEOPLE PERSPECTI VES
  • 21. EXPLORING CULTUREVISIBLE PRODUCTS PRACTICES COMMUNITIES CULTURE PEOPLE------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INVISIBLE PERSPECTIVES
  • 22. Changing Communities Changing People
  • 23. PRODUCTS PRACTICES Steps in Research COMMUNI TIES CULTURE PERSPECTI PEOPLE VESBeginnings:Look for things that are the same and forthings that are different.Second step:Find connections between different parts ofpeople’s experiences.
  • 24. PRODUCTS PRACTICES CULTURECOMMUNI TIES PEOPLE PERSPECTI VES
  • 25. PRODUCTS PRACTICES CULTURECOMMUNI TIES PEOPLE PERSPECTI VES
  • 26. PRODUCTS PRACTICES CULTURECOMMUNI TIES PEOPLE PERSPECTI VES
  • 27. PRODUCTS PRACTICES CULTURECOMMUNI TIES PEOPLE PERSPECTI VES
  • 28. PRODUCTS PRACTICES 1930s to 1950s COMMUNI TIES CULTURE PERSPECTI PEOPLE VESBeginnings:Look for things that are the same andlook for things that are different.How did children entertain themselves in the early Showa period andin the later Showa period.How did that affect relationships between children, and betweenchildren and older people?
  • 29. PRODUCTS PRACTICES CULTURECOMMUNI TIES PEOPLE PERSPECTI VES
  • 30. PRODUCTS PRACTICES CULTURECOMMUNI TIES PEOPLE PERSPECTI VES
  • 31. PRODUCTS PRACTICES CULTURECOMMUNI TIES PEOPLE PERSPECTI VES
  • 32. PRODUCTS PRACTICES CULTURECOMMUNI TIES PEOPLE PERSPECTI VES
  • 33. PRODUCTS PRACTICES CULTURECOMMUNI TIES PEOPLE PERSPECTI VES
  • 34. PRODUCTS PRACTICES 1930s to 1950s COMMUNI TIES CULTURE PERSPECTI PEOPLE VESBeginnings:Look for things that are the same andlook for things that are different.How did children entertain themselves in the early Showa period andin the later Showa period.How did that affect relationships between children, and betweenchildren and older people?
  • 35. PRODUCTS PRACTICES 1930s to 1950s COMMUNI TIES CULTURE PERSPECTI PEOPLE VESVISIBLE PRODUCTS PRACTICES COMMUNITIES CULTURE PEOPLE------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INVISIBLE PERSPECTIVES
  • 36. PRODUCTS PRACTICES 1950s Comics COMMUNI TIES CULTURE PERSPECTI PEOPLE VESSecond step:Find connections between different parts ofpeople’s experiences.What images are there in comics in the 1950s?How do those images reflect what is happening in the broader world.What did that mean for children growing up in the 1950s?
  • 37. PRODUCTS PRACTICES CULTURECOMMUNI TIES PEOPLE PERSPECTI VES
  • 38. PRODUCTS PRACTICES CULTURECOMMUNI TIES PEOPLE PERSPECTI VES
  • 39. PRODUCTS PRACTICES CULTURECOMMUNI TIES PEOPLE PERSPECTI VES
  • 40. PRODUCTS PRACTICES CULTURECOMMUNI TIES PEOPLE PERSPECTI VES
  • 41. PRODUCTS PRACTICES CULTURECOMMUNI TIES PEOPLE PERSPECTI VES
  • 42. PRODUCTS PRACTICES CULTURECOMMUNI TIES PEOPLE PERSPECTI VES
  • 43. PRODUCTS PRACTICES CULTURECOMMUNI TIES PEOPLE PERSPECTI VES
  • 44. PRODUCTS PRACTICES CULTURECOMMUNI TIES PEOPLE PERSPECTI VES
  • 45. PRODUCTS PRACTICES CULTURECOMMUNI TIES PEOPLE PERSPECTI VES
  • 46. PRODUCTS PRACTICES CULTURECOMMUNI TIES PEOPLE PERSPECTI VES
  • 47. PRODUCTS PRACTICES CULTURECOMMUNI TIES PEOPLE PERSPECTI VES
  • 48. PRODUCTS PRACTICES CULTURECOMMUNI TIES PEOPLE PERSPECTI VES
  • 49. PRODUCTS PRACTICES 1950s Comics COMMUNI TIES CULTURE PERSPECTI PEOPLE VESSecond step:Find connections between different parts ofpeople’s experiences.What images are there in comics in the 1950s?How do those images reflect what is happening in the broader world.What did that mean for children growing up in the 1950s?
  • 50. PRODUCTS PRACTICES 1950s Comics COMMUNI TIES CULTURE PERSPECTI PEOPLE VESVISIBLE PRODUCTS PRACTICES COMMUNITIES CULTURE PEOPLE------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INVISIBLE PERSPECTIVES
  • 51. PRODUCTS PRACTICES 1960s Student Life COMMUNI TIES CULTURE PERSPECTI PEOPLE VESBeginnings:Look for things that are the same and forthings that are different.Second steps:Find connections between different parts ofpeople’s experiences.
  • 52. PRODUCTS PRACTICES1960s Student Life COMMUNI TIES CULTURE PERSPECTI PEOPLE VES
  • 53. PRODUCTS PRACTICES1960s Student Life COMMUNI TIES CULTURE PERSPECTI PEOPLE VES
  • 54. PRODUCTS PRACTICES 1960s Student Life COMMUNI TIES CULTURE PERSPECTI PEOPLE VESBeginnings:Look for things that are the same and forthings that are different.Second step:Find connections between different parts ofpeople’s experiences.
  • 55. PRODUCTS PRACTICES 1960s Student Life COMMUNI TIES CULTURE PERSPECTI PEOPLE VESVISIBLE PRODUCTS PRACTICES COMMUNITIES CULTURE PEOPLE------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INVISIBLE PERSPECTIVES
  • 56. PRODUCTS PRACTICES Sociology COMMUNI TIES CULTURE PERSPECTI PEOPLE VESA big question:How does belonging to a group change anindividual’s behavior (practices) and identity(perspectives)?
  • 57. PRODUCTS PRACTICES Sociology COMMUNI TIES CULTURE PERSPECTI PEOPLE VESAnother big question:Over time, how do changing products andpractices affect perspectives?Over time, how do changingcommunities affect perspectives?
  • 58. PRODUCTS PRACTICES Sociology COMMUNI TIES CULTURE PERSPECTI PEOPLE VESA third big question:Does change primarily come from changesin technology [products and practices] likethe TV, rockets, computers, the Internet) … … or does change primarily come fromchanges in ideas [that is, perspectives]like democracy, freedom, free trade,consumerism, and feminism?
  • 59. PRODUCTS PRACTICES CULTURECOMMUNI TIES PEOPLE PERSPECTI VES