Research DesignRobert Croker, Nanzan University
What is research?Research investigates an issue in a systematicway, by creating and analyzing data.
What is research design?                  Research                 Approaches                               Research    Wo...
Worldviews                Research               Approaches                             Research  Worldviews              ...
Worldviews                Research               Approaches                             Research  Worldviews              ...
The Scientist and the Psychiatrist           The           The         Scientist   Psychiatrist
The Scientist
The Scientist1930s
The Scientist1940s
The Scientist1950s
The Scientist• Research method: linear research design.     choose         collect       analyze     method          data ...
The Scientist• Participants are usually selected using  random sampling methods.
The Scientist• Data: usually numbers, but also words• Data collection: the researcher uses  instruments like questionnaire...
The Scientist• Data: usually numbers, but also words• Analysis: descriptive statistics,                  inferential stati...
The Scientist• Assumes: that there are laws or theories or  rules that govern the world.• These laws or theories or rules ...
The Scientist• Assumes: that there is one, objective reality  out there in the world.
Different Worldviews     The           The   Scientist   Psychiatrist
The Psychiatrist
The Psychiatrist1960s
The Psychiatrist
The Social Activist
The Social Activist• Do research to change the world!• Researchers have a responsibility to help  groups in our society wh...
The Social Activist• Research should not be done on the  participants, research should be done with  them – together.• The...
The Psychiatrist• Assumes: there is not one reality, but many.
The Psychiatrist• Purpose of research – to understand these  realities, and find patterns of experience.
The PsychiatristAssumes: Each person experiences asituation in different and unique ways.Each person ‘interprets’ this exp...
The Psychiatristcomplex – each person’s ideas are oftenquite complex, with many layersmultiple – each person often has man...
The Psychiatrist• Research purpose: to get inside the minds of  your participants …
The Psychiatrist• … to understand these complex, multiple,  and dynamic ways of seeing the world …
The Psychiatrist• … and to build up a deep understanding of  their lived experiences.
Ways of seeing the world …     Researchers use     different lenses to     ‘see’ the world.
… and exploring it! Researchers do research in different ways, too.
Research Approaches                   Research                  Approaches                                    Research    ...
What type of research …?Do you want to explore a phenomenon[exploratory research], or do you want to confirma theory [conf...
Research Approaches• The main research approaches: • Grounded theory – purpose: to create theory • Case studies – purpose:...
Research Methods                Research               Approaches                             Research  Worldviews        ...
The Psychiatrist• You are the primary research instrument: You create the data yourself (using observations or interviews)...
The Psychiatrist• Data is created in natural settings  like schools, hospitals, and homes.
The Psychiatrist• Participants are carefully selected to best  answer the research questions: purposive  sampling. • criti...
The Psychiatrist• The whole research  process is an              create  interactive process:  you create data,           ...
The Psychiatrist• Data: is mostly text (words) and images  (photos and videos), but also numbers.
The Psychiatrist• The researcher is the primary data  analysis instrument: • The researcher herself analyzes the   data, b...
The Psychiatrist• Purpose of analysis – to find patterns of  experience.
The Psychiatrist• Results: words and images, and figures.
Different Worldviews                    Constructivist /  Post-Positivist                     Interpretivist
The Old Man in the Café
The Old Man in the Café1980s
The Old Man in the Café1980s
The Old Man in the Café• The purpose of research is to question, to  challenge ways of seeing the world, to  interrupt, to...
Research Design                        Post-                  Modernist, EmaPost-Positivist                  ncipatory, Co...
Social Scientists
Social Scientists2000s
Social Scientists2000s
Social ScientistsCreating good quality data is   absolutely essential in  social science research.
Social Scientists questionnaires statistics and data interviews and focus groups observations journals, diaries, hist...
Research Design                     Post-Modernist,Post-Positivist       Emancipatory,                      Constructivist...
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These are the PowerPoint slides from the first class. The topic was the history of social science research.

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  • QnR and QR are best thought of as being at two opposite ends of a continuum. Some research is completely quantitative, and some research is completely qualitative, but much research has aspects of both quantitative research and qualitative research. Research that explicitly uses both QnR and QR is called Mixed Methods. Moreover, both QnR and QR are important approaches, that can be used for different research purposes, and to answer different research questions, even about the same research topic. The purpose of my presentation today is to help you understand QR, so that you could consider using it to do your own research in the future, and also to help you read and understand the increasing amount of research done using QR approaches.
  • That is, worldviews are the basis for all empirical research
  • Scientists are inspring people – they are always searching for something that they cannot attain. Their bus always stops one stop before the terminus called ‘truth’.
  • Scientists are inspring people – they are always searching for something that they cannot attain. Their bus always stops one stop before the terminus called ‘truth’.
  • Scientists are inspring people – they are always searching for something that they cannot attain. Their bus always stops one stop before the terminus called ‘truth’.
  • Scientists are inspring people – they are always searching for something that they cannot attain. Their bus always stops one stop before the terminus called ‘truth’.
  • other factors are not important – the classroom atmosphere, prior experiences with cooperative learning activitieswant to control for all other factors e.g. class size, level of students, teacher experience,
  • other factors are not important – the classroom atmosphere, prior experiences with cooperative learning activitieswant to control for all other factors e.g. class size, level of students, teacher experience,
  • Cause-effect relationships allow you to predict, which allow you to control in the future
  • Cause-effect relationships allow you to predict, which allow you to control in the future
  • Each person in this room is experiencing this presentation in different ways – depending on who they are, where they’re sitting, who they’re sitting next to, what they expect from this presentation, and so on.The architect wants to map out these constructions from many different angles. An single event – and also the whole world and experience of living in it.
  • Do not do research for yourself! Do research to change the world! Do not write reports to sit in the library – find individuals or groups who usually have no or little voice in society, and give them one.
  • ie types of students
  • ie types of students
  • Each person in this room is experiencing this presentation in different ways – depending on who they are, where they’re sitting, who they’re sitting next to, what they expect from this presentation, and so on.The architect wants to map out these constructions from many different angles. An single event – and also the whole world and experience of living in it.
  • Each person in this room is experiencing this presentation in different ways – depending on who they are, where they’re sitting, who they’re sitting next to, what they expect from this presentation, and so on.The architect wants to map out these constructions from many different angles. An single event – and also the whole world and experience of living in it.
  • ie types of students
  • ie types of students
  • ie types of students
  • e.g. experiments and surveys in QnRe.g. grounded theory in QR
  • Many studies have elements of both sides, but emphasize one more strongly than the other.
  • e.g.DCMs: classroom observations, questionnaires, interviewsDAMs: statistical procedures, looking for patterns
  • The process is not linear but a spiral or cycle
  • The process is not linear but a spiral or cycle
  • The process is not linear but a spiral or cycle
  • The process is not linear but a spiral or cycle
  • The process is not linear but a spiral or cycle
  • ie types of students
  • The process is not linear but a spiral or cycle
  • their different worldviews dictate their research approach and research methods
  • Youdon’t always understand how he thinks or where his ideas come from, but they challenge the way that you look at the world.
  • Research? So what? The modern world is fucked up, and the whole process is all completely subjective anyway, and depends completely on who you are, where you stand, what your experiences you have had to bring to understand your present experiences. do! from Merriam So, have another coffee and cigarette and enjoy the absurdity of life!
  • Research? So what? The modern world is fucked up, and the whole process is all completely subjective anyway, and depends completely on who you are, where you stand, what your experiences you have had to bring to understand your present experiences. do! from Merriam So, have another coffee and cigarette and enjoy the absurdity of life!
  • Research? So what? The modern world is fucked up, and the whole process is all completely subjective anyway, and depends completely on who you are, where you stand, what your experiences you have had to bring to understand your present experiences. do! from Merriam So, have another coffee and cigarette and enjoy the absurdity of life!
  • Carefully think about what kind of data you want to create.
  • Carefully think about what kind of data you want to create.
  • Carefully think about what kind of data you want to create.
  • Carefully think about what kind of data you want to create.
  • Class 1 PowerPoint slides

    1. 1. Research DesignRobert Croker, Nanzan University
    2. 2. What is research?Research investigates an issue in a systematicway, by creating and analyzing data.
    3. 3. What is research design? Research Approaches Research Worldviews Methods Research Design Creswell (2009) • A research design is the plan and process for doing research.
    4. 4. Worldviews Research Approaches Research Worldviews Methods Research Design Creswell (2009)• Worldviews are your basic assumptions about how and why to do research.
    5. 5. Worldviews Research Approaches Research Worldviews Methods Research Design Creswell (2009)• Worldviews determine which research approaches and research methods you use.
    6. 6. The Scientist and the Psychiatrist The The Scientist Psychiatrist
    7. 7. The Scientist
    8. 8. The Scientist1930s
    9. 9. The Scientist1940s
    10. 10. The Scientist1950s
    11. 11. The Scientist• Research method: linear research design. choose collect analyze method data data• One step at a time.• Research processes are standardized, - there are set research rules to follow.
    12. 12. The Scientist• Participants are usually selected using random sampling methods.
    13. 13. The Scientist• Data: usually numbers, but also words• Data collection: the researcher uses instruments like questionnaires to collect data.
    14. 14. The Scientist• Data: usually numbers, but also words• Analysis: descriptive statistics, inferential statistics
    15. 15. The Scientist• Assumes: that there are laws or theories or rules that govern the world.• These laws or theories or rules need to be tested and refined, to help us understand the world better.
    16. 16. The Scientist• Assumes: that there is one, objective reality out there in the world.
    17. 17. Different Worldviews The The Scientist Psychiatrist
    18. 18. The Psychiatrist
    19. 19. The Psychiatrist1960s
    20. 20. The Psychiatrist
    21. 21. The Social Activist
    22. 22. The Social Activist• Do research to change the world!• Researchers have a responsibility to help groups in our society who have no power and no voice – the young and old, the poor, women, gay and lesbian people, foreigners, people with special needs and disabilities – the marginalized.
    23. 23. The Social Activist• Research should not be done on the participants, research should be done with them – together.• The purpose of research is to empower participants, create new choices for them, and give them a voice to improve their lives.
    24. 24. The Psychiatrist• Assumes: there is not one reality, but many.
    25. 25. The Psychiatrist• Purpose of research – to understand these realities, and find patterns of experience.
    26. 26. The PsychiatristAssumes: Each person experiences asituation in different and unique ways.Each person ‘interprets’ this experiencedifferently, and ‘constructs’ their ownunderstandings of the situation.These understandings are oftencomplex, multiple, and dynamic.
    27. 27. The Psychiatristcomplex – each person’s ideas are oftenquite complex, with many layersmultiple – each person often has manydifferent ideas about somethingdynamic – these ideas change over time
    28. 28. The Psychiatrist• Research purpose: to get inside the minds of your participants …
    29. 29. The Psychiatrist• … to understand these complex, multiple, and dynamic ways of seeing the world …
    30. 30. The Psychiatrist• … and to build up a deep understanding of their lived experiences.
    31. 31. Ways of seeing the world … Researchers use different lenses to ‘see’ the world.
    32. 32. … and exploring it! Researchers do research in different ways, too.
    33. 33. Research Approaches Research Approaches Research Worldviews Methods Research Design Creswell (2009)• Research approaches are a set of processes that help you plan your research design.
    34. 34. What type of research …?Do you want to explore a phenomenon[exploratory research], or do you want to confirma theory [confirmatory research]? exploratory confirmatoryDo you want to describe something [descriptiveresearch], or to explain causes and relationships[explanatory research]? descriptive explanatory 34 concrete abstract
    35. 35. Research Approaches• The main research approaches: • Grounded theory – purpose: to create theory • Case studies – purpose: to explore one case • Ethnography – focus: the culture • Narrative analysis – focus: life stories • Phenomenology – focus: the experience Basic approach – purpose: just answer your research questions!
    36. 36. Research Methods Research Approaches Research Worldviews Methods Research Design Creswell (2009)• Research methods are the ways that you create and analyze your data.
    37. 37. The Psychiatrist• You are the primary research instrument: You create the data yourself (using observations or interviews), or get participants to directly create data using their own words (e.g. journals).
    38. 38. The Psychiatrist• Data is created in natural settings like schools, hospitals, and homes.
    39. 39. The Psychiatrist• Participants are carefully selected to best answer the research questions: purposive sampling. • critical case, typical vs. extreme case
    40. 40. The Psychiatrist• The whole research process is an create interactive process: you create data, analyze then analyze it, then create more data, then analyze that. create A spiral – with moreflexible research rules,based on research logic.
    41. 41. The Psychiatrist• Data: is mostly text (words) and images (photos and videos), but also numbers.
    42. 42. The Psychiatrist• The researcher is the primary data analysis instrument: • The researcher herself analyzes the data, by deeply reading it – and not using statistical techniques.
    43. 43. The Psychiatrist• Purpose of analysis – to find patterns of experience.
    44. 44. The Psychiatrist• Results: words and images, and figures.
    45. 45. Different Worldviews Constructivist / Post-Positivist Interpretivist
    46. 46. The Old Man in the Café
    47. 47. The Old Man in the Café1980s
    48. 48. The Old Man in the Café1980s
    49. 49. The Old Man in the Café• The purpose of research is to question, to challenge ways of seeing the world, to interrupt, to problematize, to deconstruct accepted ways of looking at the world.• So, have another coffee and cigarette, and enjoy how crazy life is!
    50. 50. Research Design Post- Modernist, EmaPost-Positivist ncipatory, Const ructivist
    51. 51. Social Scientists
    52. 52. Social Scientists2000s
    53. 53. Social Scientists2000s
    54. 54. Social ScientistsCreating good quality data is absolutely essential in social science research.
    55. 55. Social Scientists questionnaires statistics and data interviews and focus groups observations journals, diaries, histories
    56. 56. Research Design Post-Modernist,Post-Positivist Emancipatory, Constructivist Pragmatic (Mixed Methods)

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