Digital cinema updated


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Digital cinema updated

  1. 1. Section B: Audiences and Institutions
  2. 2. <ul><li>Films are made up images printed on to acetate negatives. </li></ul><ul><li>These are then “spliced” together to form a reel of film. </li></ul><ul><li>These are then feed through a projector at a constant speed of 24 frames a second which makes the pictures appear to be moving. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Digital cinema uses bits and bytes (strings of 1s and 0s) to record, transmit and reply images, instead of chemicals on film. </li></ul><ul><li>The whole process is electronic so there is no printing or “splicing” involved. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Digital cinema has grown rapidly in the last 10 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Star Wars: Episode II, the Attack of the Clones (2002) was the first big budget live action film shot entirely on digital video. </li></ul><ul><li>However, transferred to 35mm film to be exhibited in cinemas </li></ul><ul><li>Film makers were far from convinced that digital was the future of cinema. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Digital technology can store, transmit and retrieve a huge amount of data exactly as it was originally recorded. </li></ul><ul><li>The quality of digital film does not deteriorate. </li></ul><ul><li>Analogue technology (film) loses information in transmission and generally degrades with each viewing </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Digital information is a lot more flexible than analogue information </li></ul><ul><li>A computer can manipulate bytes of data very easily </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. ease of editing using a program such as iMovie/Final Cut </li></ul><ul><li>This saves time and therefore saves money. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Digital cinema affects the three stages of film-making: </li></ul><ul><li>Production – how the film is made </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution – how the film gets from the production company to the cinema </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibition – how the cinema shows the film </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>How has digital cinema changed: </li></ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibition </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare to feedback to the class </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Production </li></ul><ul><li>New digital camera technology rivals traditional film for quality </li></ul><ul><li>Digital camcorders using a high-definition format called HD-CAM are much cheaper than standard film cameras. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Virtually no processing necessary before the editing stage </li></ul><ul><li>Tapes can be re-used many times – unlike film </li></ul><ul><li>Footage can be viewed on immediately on set </li></ul><ul><li>Production time is cut and so are costs </li></ul><ul><li>BY HOLLYWOOD STANDARDS DIGITAL VIDEO COSTS VIRTUALLY NOTHING </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Attack of the Clones </li></ul><ul><li>$16,000 on 220 hours of digital tape </li></ul><ul><li>Would have spent: </li></ul><ul><li>$1.8million on 220 hours of film </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Film prints are very expensive (£1500-£3000 per print) </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive to ship heavy reels of film and then to collect them when film finishes its run </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Digital films are basically big computer files </li></ul><ul><li>Can be written to DVD-ROM </li></ul><ul><li>Sent via broadband </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitted via satellite </li></ul><ul><li>Virtually no shipping costs </li></ul><ul><li>Not much more expensive to show in 100 cinemas as 1 </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Because of cost you have to very cautious about where films are played – unless it is a guaranteed hit it is a risk to send film to a lot of cinemas </li></ul><ul><li>This is one reason why there is such a limited choice at multiplexes </li></ul><ul><li>Films can be opened simultaneously all over the world </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Exhibition </li></ul><ul><li>A good analogue film projector produces a clear, crisp vibrant image but every time the print is projected the film is damaged. </li></ul><ul><li>A digital projector produces a high quality image and sound every time. </li></ul><ul><li>The 1000 th view is a good as the first! </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>High quality, low cost home exhibition </li></ul><ul><li>BluRay </li></ul><ul><li>HD Television </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Piracy – much easier to make illegal copies </li></ul><ul><li>Pirated copies may be of a much higher quality than before </li></ul><ul><li>Needs to be more advanced encryption systems </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>With much cheaper home entertainment technology and professional cinema technology - will people still bother to visit cinemas? </li></ul>
  19. 19. The digitalisation of the film industry has affected Hollywood Studios and Independent film makers in different ways. Hollywood Independent
  20. 20. <ul><li>Opens up competition to Hollywood through decreased production and distribution costs </li></ul><ul><li>Could break Hollywood hold on exhibition in Britain </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>DIGITAL CINEMA IN THE UK 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>The UK Film Council is investing £12m of National Lottery money into a DIGITAL SCREEN NETWORK </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Digital distribution is significantly cheaper than 35mm and will allow a richer diet of films to be distributed’ </li></ul><ul><li>John Woodward </li></ul>