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Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
Digital cinema   newest
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Digital cinema newest

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  • 1. Section B: Audiences and Institutions
  • 2. <ul><li>Traditionally films are made up images printed on to acetate negatives. </li></ul><ul><li>These are then “spliced” together to form a reel of film. </li></ul><ul><li>These are then feed through a projector at a constant speed of 24 frames a second which makes the pictures appear to be moving. </li></ul><ul><li>This is known as analogue </li></ul>
  • 3. <ul><li>Digital cinema uses bits and bytes (strings of 1s and 0s) to record, transmit and reply images, instead of chemicals on film. </li></ul><ul><li>The whole process is electronic so there is no printing or “splicing” involved. </li></ul>
  • 4. <ul><li>Digital cinema has grown rapidly in the last 10 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Star Wars: Episode II, the Attack of the Clones (2002) was the first big budget live action film shot entirely on digital video. </li></ul><ul><li>However, transferred to 35mm film to be exhibited in cinemas </li></ul><ul><li>Film makers were far from convinced that digital was the future of cinema. </li></ul>
  • 5. <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Digital technology can store, transmit and retrieve a huge amount of data exactly as it was originally recorded. </li></ul><ul><li>The quality of digital film does not deteriorate. </li></ul><ul><li>Analogue technology (film) loses information in transmission and generally degrades with each viewing </li></ul>
  • 6. <ul><li>Digital information is a lot more flexible than analogue information </li></ul><ul><li>A computer can manipulate bytes of data very easily </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. ease of editing using a program such as iMovie/Final Cut/Final Cut Express </li></ul><ul><li>This saves time and therefore saves money. </li></ul>
  • 7. <ul><li>Digital cinema affects the three stages of film-making: </li></ul><ul><li>Production – how the film is made </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution – how the film gets from the production company to the cinema </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibition – how the cinema shows the film </li></ul>
  • 8. <ul><li>How has digital cinema changed: </li></ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibition </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare to feedback to the class </li></ul>
  • 9. <ul><li>Production </li></ul><ul><li>New digital camera technology rivals traditional film for quality </li></ul><ul><li>Digital camcorders using a high-definition format called HD-CAM are much cheaper than standard film cameras. </li></ul>
  • 10. <ul><li>Virtually no processing necessary before the editing stage </li></ul><ul><li>Tapes can be re-used many times – unlike film </li></ul><ul><li>Footage can be viewed on immediately on set </li></ul><ul><li>Production time is cut and so are costs </li></ul><ul><li>BY HOLLYWOOD STANDARDS DIGITAL VIDEO COSTS VIRTUALLY NOTHING </li></ul>
  • 11. <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Attack of the Clones </li></ul><ul><li>$16,000 on 220 hours of digital tape </li></ul><ul><li>Would have spent: </li></ul><ul><li>$1.8million on 220 hours of film </li></ul>
  • 12. <ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Film prints are very expensive (£1500-£3000 per print) </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive to ship heavy reels of film and then to collect them when film finishes its run </li></ul>
  • 13. <ul><li>Digital films are basically big computer files </li></ul><ul><li>Can be written to DVD-ROM </li></ul><ul><li>Sent via broadband </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitted via satellite </li></ul><ul><li>Virtually no shipping costs </li></ul><ul><li>Not much more expensive to show in 100 cinemas as 1 </li></ul>
  • 14. <ul><li>Because of cost you have to very cautious about where films are played – unless it is a guaranteed hit it is a risk to send film to a lot of cinemas </li></ul><ul><li>This is one reason why there is such a limited choice at multiplexes </li></ul><ul><li>Films can be opened simultaneously all over the world </li></ul>
  • 15. <ul><li>Exhibition </li></ul><ul><li>A good analogue film projector produces a clear, crisp vibrant image but every time the print is projected the film is damaged. </li></ul><ul><li>A digital projector produces a high quality image and sound every time. </li></ul><ul><li>The 1000 th view is a good as the first! </li></ul>
  • 16. <ul><li>High quality, low cost home exhibition </li></ul><ul><li>BluRay </li></ul><ul><li>HD Television </li></ul>
  • 17. <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Piracy – much easier to make illegal copies </li></ul><ul><li>Pirated copies may be of a much higher quality than before </li></ul><ul><li>Needs to be more advanced encryption systems </li></ul>
  • 18. <ul><li>With much cheaper home entertainment technology and professional cinema technology - will people still bother to visit cinemas? </li></ul>
  • 19. The digitalisation of the film industry has affected Hollywood Studios and Independent film makers in different ways. Hollywood Independent
  • 20. <ul><li>Opens up competition to Hollywood through decreased production and distribution costs </li></ul><ul><li>Could break Hollywood hold on exhibition in Britain </li></ul>
  • 21. <ul><li>DIGITAL CINEMA IN THE UK 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>The UK Film Council is investing £12m of National Lottery money into a DIGITAL SCREEN NETWORK </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Digital distribution is significantly cheaper than 35mm and will allow a richer diet of films to be distributed’ </li></ul><ul><li>John Woodward – Chief Executive UK Film Council </li></ul>
  • 22. <ul><li>‘ Digital will give the public unprecedented choice and filmmakers more opportunity to get their films onto the big screen’ (John Woodward – Chief Executive of the UK Film Council) </li></ul>
  • 23. <ul><li>The UK Film Council pledged to have more than 200 cinemas – including multiplexes – with digital projectors by 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>In return they would be required to devote more screen time to British and non-mainstream Hollywood films </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore – significantly improving the choice for viewing for audiences </li></ul>
  • 24. <ul><li>Over 4000 cinemas have digital projectors in the USA </li></ul><ul><li>In the UK around 300 cinemas now have digital projection. </li></ul>
  • 25. <ul><li>In 2009, the Academy Award for Best Cinematography was awarded for a film mostly shot digitally, Slumdog Millionaire . </li></ul><ul><li>Other digitally shot films include: </li></ul><ul><li>The Curious Case of Benjamin Button </li></ul><ul><li>Apocalypto </li></ul><ul><li>Gamer </li></ul><ul><li>Che: Parts 1 and 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Public Enemies </li></ul>
  • 26. <ul><li>New digitally enabled venues have been able to show a new generation of digitally produced 3D films. </li></ul><ul><li>The popularity of 3D has grown </li></ul><ul><li>rapidly. </li></ul><ul><li>Recent releases include: </li></ul><ul><li>Final Destination 3D </li></ul><ul><li>Up </li></ul><ul><li>Avatar </li></ul>
  • 27. <ul><li>Most 3D films are released alongside a 2D version. </li></ul><ul><li>Although it is becoming very popular among young audiences the jury is definitely still “out” on whether 3D is here to stay. </li></ul><ul><li>Many viewers find it difficult to watch and lots of films simply don’t suit being watched in 3D. Imagine watching “ Sweet Sixteen ” in 3D – it just isn’t necessary! </li></ul>
  • 28. <ul><li>Not everyone has been happy about the move to digital film </li></ul><ul><li>These directors still stand firm against using digital film: </li></ul><ul><li>Steven Spielberg </li></ul><ul><li>Christopher Nolan </li></ul><ul><li>M. Night Shyamalan </li></ul><ul><li>Oliver Stone </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Thomas Anderson </li></ul>
  • 29. <ul><li>How has digital cinema affected the film industry ? </li></ul><ul><li>The Third Revolution in film? </li></ul><ul><li>Sound (1928) </li></ul><ul><li>Colour (1930s) </li></ul><ul><li>Digital (21 st Century?) </li></ul>
  • 30. <ul><li>In 2005 the UK Film Council introduced 240 digital projectors into cinemas as part of Film Council’s Digital Screen Network initiative. </li></ul><ul><li>This was designed to enable cinemas to show a greater variety of films including UK and foreign language which would normally be too expensive or difficult to distribute. </li></ul>
  • 31. <ul><li>The pace of change was initially slow but accelerated rapidly due to the boom in 3D films which can’t be projected on the old equipment </li></ul>
  • 32. <ul><li>David Hancock of industry website Screen Digest explains the change: </li></ul><ul><li>2009 – 650 digital screens </li></ul><ul><li>2010 – 1,400 digital screens with 1,080 of them enabled to project 3D </li></ul><ul><li>In 2010 416 films were released wholly or partly on digital prints in the UK, which is 80% of all releases </li></ul>
  • 33. <ul><li>This compares to 20% in France </li></ul><ul><li>35% in Holland </li></ul><ul><li>The UK is the country in the world which is farthest down the digital route – currently by a long way </li></ul>
  • 34. <ul><li>Film prints will no longer be damaged – it will always look like new </li></ul><ul><li>There should be a more varied, flexible programme </li></ul><ul><li>Cinemas are able to show one-off events like live opera and major sports </li></ul><ul><li>However, it will be very difficult to show older films that have not yet been transferred to digital </li></ul>
  • 35. <ul><li>Digital projectors require fewer people in the projection box so staffing costs can be cut & overheads reduced </li></ul><ul><li>However, staff will still be needed to ensure that films are projected correctly, at the right time and on the right screen </li></ul><ul><li>With no need for a big projection booth, the space needed to build a cinema may shrink </li></ul>
  • 36. <ul><li>Edward Fletcher of the distribution company Soda has predicted that: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ In the next few years there will be an increase in smaller, high street cinemas that will show a good mix of mainstream and indie films’ </li></ul>
  • 37. <ul><li>Staff could be cut to a bare minimum. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Edward Fletcher: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ In place of the projectionist, you could have one person in a business park in Stevenage sat in front of a bank of screens. That person could programme their entire group of cinemas by doing some drag-and-drops on a laptop’ </li></ul>

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