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Thorium energy cheaper than from coal can solve more than just global warming. Fossil fuel burning releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, contributing to global warming and deadly air pollution. ...

Thorium energy cheaper than from coal can solve more than just global warming. Fossil fuel burning releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, contributing to global warming and deadly air pollution. Natural resources are rapidly being depleted by world population growth. Safe, inexpensive energy from the liquid fluoride thorium reactor can stop global warming and raise prosperity of humanity to adopt US and OECD lifestyles, which include lower, sustainable birth rates.

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  • Global warming has the public’s ear. Deforestation, desertification and drought makes food hard to grow. Brazil rainforest clearing 3x last years rate. Overfishing has already ended most sealife. Tuna are 90% gone. Air pollution from burning coal kills 23,000 annually in the US; 100,000s in China.
  • Global warming has the public’s ear. Deforestation, desertification and drought makes food hard to grow. Brazil rainforest clearing 3x last years rate. Overfishing has already ended most sealife. Tuna are 90% gone. Air pollution from burning coal kills 23,000 annually in the US; 100,000s in China.
  • Global warming has the public’s ear. Deforestation, desertification and drought makes food hard to grow. Brazil rainforest clearing 3x last years rate. Overfishing has already ended most sealife. Tuna are 90% gone. Air pollution from burning coal kills 23,000 annually in the US; 100,000s in China.
  • Global warming has the public’s ear. Deforestation, desertification and drought makes food hard to grow. Brazil rainforest clearing 3x last years rate. Overfishing has already ended most sealife. Tuna are 90% gone. Air pollution from burning coal kills 23,000 annually in the US; 100,000s in China.
  • Dartmouth professor. We’re experiencing the limits to growth. Peak oil. Retreating forests. Global warming. Air pollution, acid rain from coal. Fresh water. Desertification. Food costs. Energy prices.
  • Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Birth rate < replacement rate in US and OECD nations. Net growth from immigration.
  • No need for young to work in fields or care for aging parents. No need to plan on child deaths. Access to contraceptives. Educated women in workforce choose. Outlier = Saudi Arabia. . “presperity” is ~ $7,500.
  • No need for young to work in fields or care for aging parents. No need to plan on child deaths. Access to contraceptives. Educated women in workforce choose. Outlier = Saudi Arabia. . “presperity” is ~ $7,500.
  • No need for young to work in fields or care for aging parents. No need to plan on child deaths. Access to contraceptives. Educated women in workforce choose. Outlier = Saudi Arabia. . “presperity” is ~ $7,500.
  • Prosperity also depends on education, basic health care, rule of law and property rights, financial system, non-oppressive government. Electricity consumed is one important energy indicator. Canada, US off the chart. Energy for heat, water, transportation, food, goods, IT. Say 2000 KWH is target. US is 12000.
  • Prosperity also depends on education, basic health care, rule of law and property rights, financial system, non-oppressive government. Electricity consumed is one important energy indicator. Canada, US off the chart. Energy for heat, water, transportation, food, goods, IT. Say 2000 KWH is target. US is 12000.
  • Prosperity also depends on education, basic health care, rule of law and property rights, financial system, non-oppressive government. Electricity consumed is one important energy indicator. Canada, US off the chart. Energy for heat, water, transportation, food, goods, IT. Say 2000 KWH is target. US is 12000.
  • Talk about CO2 emissions, global warming
  • Units are 10^12 KWH, PWH, per year. Developing nations want a lifestyle like the US. Just a small “boost” for very poor nations to 2,000 KWH per capita would add 5.
  • Units are 10^12 KWH, PWH, per year. Developing nations want a lifestyle like the US. Just a small “boost” for very poor nations to 2,000 KWH per capita would add 5.
  • Advisor to Bolivia, Poland, Russia. Twice one of Time’s Most Influential World Leaders. Director of UN Millennium Project. Author, End of Poverty, Common Wealth Special Advisor to United Nations Secretary-General
  • Advisor to Bolivia, Poland, Russia. Twice one of Time’s Most Influential World Leaders. Director of UN Millennium Project. Author, End of Poverty, Common Wealth Special Advisor to United Nations Secretary-General
  • Advisor to Bolivia, Poland, Russia. Twice one of Time’s Most Influential World Leaders. Director of UN Millennium Project. Author, End of Poverty, Common Wealth Special Advisor to United Nations Secretary-General
  • No need for carbon tax, or fraud-prone cap-and-trade. Why did US reject Kyoto? Copenhagen failed. High temp reactors make cheap hydrogen, reformed into fuel. Millennia of known thorium. Soot kills 23,000/yr in US. heat, SOx, soot, slag, CO 2 , spent fuel, mine tailings High-efficiency reactors mean less heat wasted. One 1/1000 the radioactive waste. $10,000 income family can buy 2000 KWH @ $0.10.
  • No need for carbon tax, or fraud-prone cap-and-trade. Why did US reject Kyoto? Copenhagen failed. High temp reactors make cheap hydrogen, reformed into fuel. Millennia of known thorium. Soot kills 23,000/yr in US. heat, SOx, soot, slag, CO 2 , spent fuel, mine tailings High-efficiency reactors mean less heat wasted. One 1/1000 the radioactive waste. $10,000 income family can buy 2000 KWH @ $0.10.
  • No need for carbon tax, or fraud-prone cap-and-trade. Why did US reject Kyoto? Copenhagen failed. High temp reactors make cheap hydrogen, reformed into fuel. Millennia of known thorium. Soot kills 23,000/yr in US. heat, SOx, soot, slag, CO 2 , spent fuel, mine tailings High-efficiency reactors mean less heat wasted. One 1/1000 the radioactive waste. $10,000 income family can buy 2000 KWH @ $0.10.
  • No need for carbon tax, or fraud-prone cap-and-trade. Why did US reject Kyoto? Copenhagen failed. High temp reactors make cheap hydrogen, reformed into fuel. Millennia of known thorium. Soot kills 23,000/yr in US. heat, SOx, soot, slag, CO 2 , spent fuel, mine tailings High-efficiency reactors mean less heat wasted. One 1/1000 the radioactive waste. $10,000 income family can buy 2000 KWH @ $0.10.
  • No need for carbon tax, or fraud-prone cap-and-trade. Why did US reject Kyoto? Copenhagen failed. High temp reactors make cheap hydrogen, reformed into fuel. Millennia of known thorium. Soot kills 23,000/yr in US. heat, SOx, soot, slag, CO 2 , spent fuel, mine tailings High-efficiency reactors mean less heat wasted. One 1/1000 the radioactive waste. $10,000 income family can buy 2000 KWH @ $0.10.
  • No need for carbon tax, or fraud-prone cap-and-trade. Why did US reject Kyoto? Copenhagen failed. High temp reactors make cheap hydrogen, reformed into fuel. Millennia of known thorium. Soot kills 23,000/yr in US. heat, SOx, soot, slag, CO 2 , spent fuel, mine tailings High-efficiency reactors mean less heat wasted. One 1/1000 the radioactive waste. $10,000 income family can buy 2000 KWH @ $0.10.
  • U-233 from Th-232 Pu-239 from U-238
  • How LWRs work. E = mc2. Many other pairs of fission products, too. Multiply by Avogadro's number 6 x 10**23 for 235 grams of U, or 4.4GWH of heat! Plus decay of fission products (+7%?)! ..or about .7 t/GWeY.
  • U-235 fission provides power. 96% of LWR reactor uranium is U-238. About 1/3 of the energy comes from burning plutonium.
  • U-235 fission provides power. 96% of LWR reactor uranium is U-238. About 1/3 of the energy comes from burning plutonium.
  • Similarly….
  • Similarly….
  • There is a unique way to use thorium, a liquid fuel reactor.
  • Neutrons have 2 roles: sustain U reaction, and convert Th. Chemistry can separate elements with different numbers of electrons (protons). Fission products like Barium, Krypton – two per fission.
  • Neutrons have 2 roles: sustain U reaction, and convert Th. Chemistry can separate elements with different numbers of electrons (protons). Fission products like Barium, Krypton – two per fission.
  • Neutrons have 2 roles: sustain U reaction, and convert Th. Chemistry can separate elements with different numbers of electrons (protons). Fission products like Barium, Krypton – two per fission.
  • Neutrons have 2 roles: sustain U reaction, and convert Th. Chemistry can separate elements with different numbers of electrons (protons). Fission products like Barium, Krypton – two per fission.
  • Neutrons have 2 roles: sustain U reaction, and convert Th. Chemistry can separate elements with different numbers of electrons (protons). Fission products like Barium, Krypton – two per fission.
  • How to start? U-233 half life is 160,000 years. Only enough U-233 for research. Discuss HEU/LEU, Pu.
  • How to start? U-233 half life is 160,000 years. Only enough U-233 for research. Discuss HEU/LEU, Pu.
  • How to start? U-233 half life is 160,000 years. Only enough U-233 for research. Discuss HEU/LEU, Pu.
  • If it's so good, why didn't we do it?
  • If it's so good, why didn't we do it?
  • If it's so good, why didn't we do it?
  • If it's so good, why didn't we do it?
  • If it's so good, why didn't we do it?
  • Too good to be true? Why wasn't the thorium reactor developed? Only 2.5 neutrons released per fission. Today's priorities differ from those of the Manhattan Project.
  • Too good to be true? Why wasn't the thorium reactor developed? Only 2.5 neutrons released per fission. Today's priorities differ from those of the Manhattan Project.
  • The other reason…. Ironic: Weinberg's patent; had recommended PWR to Rickover.
  • The year Nautilus was launched, with Weinberg's earlier PWR recommendation to Rickover. Aircraft Reactor Experiment
  • show arms spread
  • "humankind's whole future depended upon this" inexhaustible energy Invented PWR, but not necessarily for utility electric power. What's humankind's future now?
  • discuss successes thorium breeding blanket never installed in this reactor (did in Shippingport)
  • My proposal, and that of 100 volunteer contributors on "Energy from Thorium" forum, Theo, TEA… Significant R&D in all areas. Core/blanket need 7% passive cooling of FP @ shutdown. Cooler is air cooler. Triple reheat Brayton turbine for 50% efficiency @ 800 C. Hydrogen generator is also big project. Might generate ammonia directly, instead.
  • My proposal, and that of 100 volunteer contributors on "Energy from Thorium" forum, Theo, TEA… Significant R&D in all areas. Core/blanket need 7% passive cooling of FP @ shutdown. Cooler is air cooler. Triple reheat Brayton turbine for 50% efficiency @ 800 C. Hydrogen generator is also big project. Might generate ammonia directly, instead.
  • My proposal, and that of 100 volunteer contributors on "Energy from Thorium" forum, Theo, TEA… Significant R&D in all areas. Core/blanket need 7% passive cooling of FP @ shutdown. Cooler is air cooler. Triple reheat Brayton turbine for 50% efficiency @ 800 C. Hydrogen generator is also big project. Might generate ammonia directly, instead.
  • My proposal, and that of 100 volunteer contributors on "Energy from Thorium" forum, Theo, TEA… Significant R&D in all areas. Core/blanket need 7% passive cooling of FP @ shutdown. Cooler is air cooler. Triple reheat Brayton turbine for 50% efficiency @ 800 C. Hydrogen generator is also big project. Might generate ammonia directly, instead.
  • My proposal, and that of 100 volunteer contributors on "Energy from Thorium" forum, Theo, TEA… Significant R&D in all areas. Core/blanket need 7% passive cooling of FP @ shutdown. Cooler is air cooler. Triple reheat Brayton turbine for 50% efficiency @ 800 C. Hydrogen generator is also big project. Might generate ammonia directly, instead.
  • My proposal, and that of 100 volunteer contributors on "Energy from Thorium" forum, Theo, TEA… Significant R&D in all areas. Core/blanket need 7% passive cooling of FP @ shutdown. Cooler is air cooler. Triple reheat Brayton turbine for 50% efficiency @ 800 C. Hydrogen generator is also big project. Might generate ammonia directly, instead.
  • My proposal, and that of 100 volunteer contributors on "Energy from Thorium" forum, Theo, TEA… Significant R&D in all areas. Core/blanket need 7% passive cooling of FP @ shutdown. Cooler is air cooler. Triple reheat Brayton turbine for 50% efficiency @ 800 C. Hydrogen generator is also big project. Might generate ammonia directly, instead.
  • My proposal, and that of 100 volunteer contributors on "Energy from Thorium" forum, Theo, TEA… Significant R&D in all areas. Core/blanket need 7% passive cooling of FP @ shutdown. Cooler is air cooler. Triple reheat Brayton turbine for 50% efficiency @ 800 C. Hydrogen generator is also big project. Might generate ammonia directly, instead.
  • My proposal, and that of 100 volunteer contributors on "Energy from Thorium" forum, Theo, TEA… Significant R&D in all areas. Core/blanket need 7% passive cooling of FP @ shutdown. Cooler is air cooler. Triple reheat Brayton turbine for 50% efficiency @ 800 C. Hydrogen generator is also big project. Might generate ammonia directly, instead.
  • These message to challenge engineers. switch units on/off to follow demand. shut one down for maintenance; make capital investments << $2B
  • These message to challenge engineers. switch units on/off to follow demand. shut one down for maintenance; make capital investments << $2B
  • These message to challenge engineers. switch units on/off to follow demand. shut one down for maintenance; make capital investments << $2B
  • These message to challenge engineers. switch units on/off to follow demand. shut one down for maintenance; make capital investments << $2B
  • These message to challenge engineers. switch units on/off to follow demand. shut one down for maintenance; make capital investments << $2B
  • Vermont Yankee can either cool with river or cooling tower.
  • Vermont Yankee can either cool with river or cooling tower.
  • Vermont Yankee can either cool with river or cooling tower.
  • Airport trains, Vancouver operate without personnel. Ditto drones, spacecraft, Oak Ridge turned off MSR this way on weekends. No "insider" terrorism.
  • Airport trains, Vancouver operate without personnel. Ditto drones, spacecraft, Oak Ridge turned off MSR this way on weekends. No "insider" terrorism.
  • Airport trains, Vancouver operate without personnel. Ditto drones, spacecraft, Oak Ridge turned off MSR this way on weekends. No "insider" terrorism.
  • Airport trains, Vancouver operate without personnel. Ditto drones, spacecraft, Oak Ridge turned off MSR this way on weekends. No "insider" terrorism.
  • 6 more neutron absorptions needed; full burnup
  • Compare to standard reactor. “almost” no U, Pu. Depends on the effectiveness of the chemical separation of the waste stream.
  • Compare to standard reactor. “almost” no U, Pu. Depends on the effectiveness of the chemical separation of the waste stream.
  • Ralph Moir and Teller at Lawrence Livermore. Teller had designed the H-bomb. Proposal was not acted on. Now public is more aware of global warming.
  • Europe spent $80 billion on cap and trade, but emissions rose 0.7% per year. Carbon taxes won't be accepted. All nations want increased productivity. Economics is the solution. Ave cost of US coal delivered to power plant. Another 2 cents for capital cost.
  • Europe spent $80 billion on cap and trade, but emissions rose 0.7% per year. Carbon taxes won't be accepted. All nations want increased productivity. Economics is the solution. Ave cost of US coal delivered to power plant. Another 2 cents for capital cost.
  • Europe spent $80 billion on cap and trade, but emissions rose 0.7% per year. Carbon taxes won't be accepted. All nations want increased productivity. Economics is the solution. Ave cost of US coal delivered to power plant. Another 2 cents for capital cost.
  • Now our objective is clear. Keep cost objective in all decisions. Don’t forget the reasons for the project.
  • Now our objective is clear. Keep cost objective in all decisions. Don’t forget the reasons for the project.
  • Now our objective is clear. Keep cost objective in all decisions. Don’t forget the reasons for the project.
  • Now our objective is clear. Keep cost objective in all decisions. Don’t forget the reasons for the project.
  • Now our objective is clear. Keep cost objective in all decisions. Don’t forget the reasons for the project.
  • Now our objective is clear. Keep cost objective in all decisions. Don’t forget the reasons for the project.
  • Now our objective is clear. Keep cost objective in all decisions. Don’t forget the reasons for the project.
  • Now our objective is clear. Keep cost objective in all decisions. Don’t forget the reasons for the project.
  • Now our objective is clear. Keep cost objective in all decisions. Don’t forget the reasons for the project.
  • GE bwr< 160 atm
  • only 100 MW LFTR
  • only 100 MW LFTR
  • Same safety goals, same hi-tech construction, design, materials concerns
  • Factory production enables learning. Five estimates of $2/watt. 20% in early aircraft industry; 50% in information technology 100 MW units have a 30% cost advantage over 1,000 units, because of the 10 X more production experiences.
  • < 3 cents
  • < 3 cents
  • < 3 cents
  • Meaning zero coal produced CO2 World total 12,624 billion KWH
  • Hydrogen per se is a difficult fuel to contain, cool, compress, transport. Combine with nitrogen to make transportable ammonia. Use coal plant CO2 to make standard fuels. Very rough cost estimates. Ignores SI R&D costs. Free CO2. Efficiency unknown. Olah book.
  • 6 million BTU/bbl. LFTR is 200 MWt. LFTR makes 38.5 bbl/hr, 250,000 bbl/year. There is a LOT of energy in petroleum! Could build one LFTR per day for 50 years! Hydrogen no better. Electric cars? Algal biofuels?
  • 6 million BTU/bbl. LFTR is 200 MWt. LFTR makes 38.5 bbl/hr, 250,000 bbl/year. There is a LOT of energy in petroleum! Could build one LFTR per day for 50 years! Hydrogen no better. Electric cars? Algal biofuels?
  • Chevy Volt, 8 KWH costs $1.20. Assume 40 miles per day driven. 42 gal bbl oil makes 20 gal gasoline. 19.8 mpg fleet average. 40 miles/day x 365 days/yr x (1 gal gas/20 miles) x (1 bbl oil/20 gal gas) = 36.5 bbl oil saved per car per year = 11 million bbls/LFTR 62,500,000 cars / (300,000 cars/LFTR) => 208 LFTRS in 208 weeks = 4 years
  • Chevy Volt, 8 KWH costs $1.20. Assume 40 miles per day driven. 42 gal bbl oil makes 20 gal gasoline. 19.8 mpg fleet average. 40 miles/day x 365 days/yr x (1 gal gas/20 miles) x (1 bbl oil/20 gal gas) = 36.5 bbl oil saved per car per year = 11 million bbls/LFTR 62,500,000 cars / (300,000 cars/LFTR) => 208 LFTRS in 208 weeks = 4 years
  • Chevy Volt, 8 KWH costs $1.20. Assume 40 miles per day driven. 42 gal bbl oil makes 20 gal gasoline. 19.8 mpg fleet average. 40 miles/day x 365 days/yr x (1 gal gas/20 miles) x (1 bbl oil/20 gal gas) = 36.5 bbl oil saved per car per year = 11 million bbls/LFTR 62,500,000 cars / (300,000 cars/LFTR) => 208 LFTRS in 208 weeks = 4 years
  • Chevy Volt, 8 KWH costs $1.20. Assume 40 miles per day driven. 42 gal bbl oil makes 20 gal gasoline. 19.8 mpg fleet average. 40 miles/day x 365 days/yr x (1 gal gas/20 miles) x (1 bbl oil/20 gal gas) = 36.5 bbl oil saved per car per year = 11 million bbls/LFTR 62,500,000 cars / (300,000 cars/LFTR) => 208 LFTRS in 208 weeks = 4 years
  • Chevy Volt, 8 KWH costs $1.20. Assume 40 miles per day driven. 42 gal bbl oil makes 20 gal gasoline. 19.8 mpg fleet average. 40 miles/day x 365 days/yr x (1 gal gas/20 miles) x (1 bbl oil/20 gal gas) = 36.5 bbl oil saved per car per year = 11 million bbls/LFTR 62,500,000 cars / (300,000 cars/LFTR) => 208 LFTRS in 208 weeks = 4 years
  • Gen IV Int'l Forum Shippingport built in 32 months; Weinberg's Oak Ridge reactor #2 in 9 months
  • 10 nations, started in 2002, US a member. Little funding. Not quite the same as LFTR
  • Gen IV Int'l Forum GE-Hitachi 39 months
  • "a milliion years"

Aim High! Aim High! Presentation Transcript

  • Aim High!
    • Limits to growth
    • Thorium
    • Experience
    • Aim High
    • Benefits
    Robert Hargraves, Hanover NH http://rethinkingnuclearpower.googlepages.com/aimhigh
  • Global environmental problems mount.
  • Global environmental problems mount.
  • Global environmental problems mount.
  • Global environmental problems mount.
  • Dennis Meadows’ Limits to Growth showed effects of finite resources. http://www.aspoitalia.net/images/stories/aspo5presentations/Meadows_ASPO5.pdf Resources Population Food Pollution Industrial Output 2010 1972
  • Population is stable in developed nations. http://caliban.sourceoecd.org/vl=1260748/cl=17/nw=1/rpsv/factbook/010101.htm US World OECD 6.7 billion 2008 http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/13/38/16587241.pdf
  • Prosperity stabilizes population. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/docs/rankorderguide.html GDP per capita Children per woman 82 nations with populations over 10 million.
  • Prosperity stabilizes population. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/docs/rankorderguide.html GDP per capita Children per woman 82 nations with populations over 10 million.  Stable replacement rate
  • Prosperity stabilizes population. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/docs/rankorderguide.html GDP per capita Children per woman 82 nations with populations over 10 million.  Stable replacement rate Prosperity
  • Prosperity depends on energy. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2042rank.html GDP per capita Annual kWh per capita Nations with populations over 10 million.
  • Prosperity depends on energy. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2042rank.html GDP per capita Annual kWh per capita Nations with populations over 10 million.
  • Prosperity depends on energy. Prosperity https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2042rank.html GDP per capita Annual kWh per capita Nations with populations over 10 million.
  • Energy and coal use is growing rapidly in developing nations. Non-OECD energy use World coal use http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/world.html
  • Conservation won’t stop the growth. 3.8 1.9 US Scenario US cuts per capita energy use in half to 6,000 KWH per person per year. Rest Of World nations cut or grow to achieve the same. Units are 10 15 watt hours per year
  • Conservation won’t stop the growth. 15.4 3.8 1.9 37.7 ROW US Scenario US cuts per capita energy use in half to 6,000 KWH per person per year. Rest Of World nations cut or grow to achieve the same. Units are 10 15 watt hours per year
  • Technology policy lies at the core of the climate change challenge. http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=technological-keys-to-climate-protection-extended "If we try to restrain emissions without a fundamentally new set of technologies, we will end up stifling economic growth, including the development prospects for billions of people. Prof. Jeffrey Sachs Economist, Columbia University Director of The Earth Institute
  • Technology policy lies at the core of the climate change challenge. http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=technological-keys-to-climate-protection-extended "If we try to restrain emissions without a fundamentally new set of technologies, we will end up stifling economic growth, including the development prospects for billions of people. "We will need much more than a price on carbon. Prof. Jeffrey Sachs Economist, Columbia University Director of The Earth Institute
  • Technology policy lies at the core of the climate change challenge. http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=technological-keys-to-climate-protection-extended "If we try to restrain emissions without a fundamentally new set of technologies, we will end up stifling economic growth, including the development prospects for billions of people. "We will need much more than a price on carbon. "The US, Europe and Japan will need to start all this technological innovation soon …technologies developed in the rich world will need to be adopted rapidly in poorer countries. Prof. Jeffrey Sachs Economist, Columbia University Director of The Earth Institute
  • Aim High! Set aggressive goals. Develop a new energy source that
  • Aim High! Set aggressive goals.
    • Develop a new energy source that
    • produces electricity cheaper than from coal,
  • Aim High! Set aggressive goals.
    • Develop a new energy source that
    • produces electricity cheaper than from coal,
    • synthesizes vehicle fuel ,
  • Aim High! Set aggressive goals.
    • Develop a new energy source that
    • produces electricity cheaper than from coal,
    • synthesizes vehicle fuel ,
    • is inexhaustible ,
  • Aim High! Set aggressive goals.
    • Develop a new energy source that
    • produces electricity cheaper than from coal,
    • synthesizes vehicle fuel ,
    • is inexhaustible ,
    • reduces waste , and
  • Aim High! Set aggressive goals.
    • Develop a new energy source that
    • produces electricity cheaper than from coal,
    • synthesizes vehicle fuel ,
    • is inexhaustible ,
    • reduces waste , and
    • is affordable to developing nations.
  • Thorium is a plentiful fuel. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thorium Thorium, discovered in Norway in 1828, is named after Thor, the Norse god of thunder and lightning.
  • Thorium is a plentiful fuel. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thorium Thorium, discovered in Norway in 1828, is named after Thor, the Norse god of thunder and lightning. Idaho's Lemhi Pass has enough thorium to power the US for a millennium.
  • Thorium is a plentiful fuel. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thorium Thorium, discovered in Norway in 1828, is named after Thor, the Norse god of thunder and lightning. Idaho's Lemhi Pass has enough thorium to power the US for a millennium. Thorium is not fissionable. How can thorium be a fuel?
  • U-233, U-235, and Pu-239 are three possible reactor fission fuels. fission Natural nucleons Th 90 Pa 91 U 92 Np 93 Pu 94 241 240 239 238 237 236 235 234 233 232 Am 95
  • Uranium-235 fissions to krypton and barium releasing energy. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_fission The total mass of the resulting barium-141 krypton-92 neutrons (3) is less than the mass of the U-235 + neutron, releasing 166 MeV of energy.
  • Uranium-238 neutron absorption makes fissionable plutonium-239. neutron absorption beta decay fission nucleons Th 90 Pa 91 U 92 Np 93 Pu 94 241 240 239 238 237 236 235 234 233 232 Am 95
  • Uranium-238 neutron absorption makes fissionable plutonium-239. neutron absorption beta decay fission nucleons Th 90 Pa 91 U 92 Np 93 Pu 94 241 240 239 238 237 236 235 234 233 232 Am 95
  • Thorium-232 neutron absorbtion makes fissionable uranium-233. neutron absorption beta decay fission nucleons Th 90 Pa 91 U 92 Np 93 Pu 94 241 240 239 238 237 236 235 234 233 232 Am 95
  • Thorium-232 neutron absorbtion makes fissionable uranium-233. neutron absorption beta decay fission nucleons Th 90 Pa 91 U 92 Np 93 Pu 94 241 240 239 238 237 236 235 234 233 232 Am 95
  • U-238 and Th-232 are called fertile because they make fissionable fuel. neutron absorption beta decay fission fertile nucleons Th 90 Pa 91 U 92 Np 93 Pu 94 241 240 239 238 237 236 235 234 233 232 Am 95
  • Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor fuel is dissolved in liquid.
  • Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor fuel is dissolved in liquid. Molten fluoride salt mix: LiF and BeF 2
  • Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor fuel is dissolved in liquid. Molten fluoride salt mix: LiF and BeF 2 Excellent heat transfer
  • Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor fuel is dissolved in liquid. Molten fluoride salt mix: LiF and BeF 2 Excellent heat transfer Continuous chemical processing
  • Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor fuel is dissolved in liquid. Molten fluoride salt mix: LiF and BeF 2 Excellent heat transfer Continuous chemical processing Atmospheric pressure
  • Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor fuel is dissolved in liquid. Molten fluoride salt mix: LiF and BeF 2 Excellent heat transfer Continuous chemical processing Atmospheric pressure Room temperature solid
  • In a thorium reactor the Th-232 blanket becomes the U-233 core. Fertile Th-232 blanket Fissile U-233 core n n
  • In a thorium reactor the Th-232 blanket becomes the U-233 core. Chemical separator Fertile Th-232 blanket Fissile U-233 core Th-232 in n n
  • In a thorium reactor the Th-232 blanket becomes the U-233 core. Chemical separator Fertile Th-232 blanket Fissile U-233 core New U-233 fuel Th-232 in n n
  • In a thorium reactor the Th-232 blanket becomes the U-233 core. Chemical separator Chemical separator Fertile Th-232 blanket Fissile U-233 core Fission products out New U-233 fuel Th-232 in n n
  • In a thorium reactor the Th-232 blanket becomes the U-233 core. Chemical separator Chemical separator Fertile Th-232 blanket Fissile U-233 core Fission products out New U-233 fuel Th-232 in n n Heat
  • Start up the LFTR by priming it with a fissile fuel. Chemical separator Chemical separator Fertile Th-232 blanket ? Th-232 in n n .
  • Start up the LFTR by priming it with a fissile fuel. Chemical separator Chemical separator Fertile Th-232 blanket ? Th-232 in n n The US government has 500 kg of U-233.
  • Start up the LFTR by priming it with a fissile fuel. Chemical separator Chemical separator Fertile Th-232 blanket ? Th-232 in n n The US government has 500 kg of U-233. Prime with U-235, or Pu from spent LWR fuel.
  • Thorium fuel is plentiful, compact, and inexpensive. http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/thorium/690798.pdf  dense, silvery, ½ m, 1 ton thorium sphere
  • Thorium fuel is plentiful, compact, and inexpensive. http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/thorium/690798.pdf 1 ton, 1 city, 1 year  dense, silvery, ½ m, 1 ton thorium sphere
  • Thorium fuel is plentiful, compact, and inexpensive. http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/thorium/690798.pdf 500 tons, entire US, 1 year 1 ton, 1 city, 1 year  dense, silvery, ½ m, 1 ton thorium sphere
  • Thorium fuel is plentiful, compact, and inexpensive. http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/thorium/690798.pdf $300,000 per ton 500 tons, entire US, 1 year 1 ton, 1 city, 1 year  dense, silvery, ½ m, 1 ton thorium sphere
  • Thorium fuel is plentiful, compact, and inexpensive. http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/thorium/690798.pdf 3,752 tons in US storage $300,000 per ton 500 tons, entire US, 1 year 1 ton, 1 city, 1 year  dense, silvery, ½ m, 1 ton thorium sphere
  • Two Nobel laureates conceived two breeder reactors. One made better weapons faster. Eugene Wigner
    • 2.5
    • Th  U
  • Two Nobel laureates conceived two breeder reactors. One made better weapons faster. Eugene Wigner Enrico Fermi
    • 2.5
    • Th  U
    • 2.9
    • U  Pu
  • Rickover's drive, Nautilus submarine, and Shippingport power plant  100 US PWRs.
  • Weinberg and Oak Ridge developed the first molten salt nuclear reactor in 1954. 860 C Red hot! 100 hours 2.5 MW
  • 1.4 m diameter NaK metal would transfer 200 MW thermal power to jet engines.
  • Weinberg had envisioned LFTR ever since the 1943 Wigner design. " humankind's whole future depended upon this "
  • The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment ran until 1965. Salt flowed through channels in this graphite core.
  • http://www.ornl.gov/~webworks/cppr/y2006/pres/124659.pdf
    • The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment succeeded.
      • Hastelloy
      • Xe off-gas
      • Graphite
      • Pumps
      • Fluorination
      • Dump tanks
      • U-233
      • 17,655 hours
  • Aim High! Develop the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor. Waste separator Uranium separator Cooler Reactor core and blanket Heat exchanger Turbine and generator Control system H 2 O H 2 O 2 Hydrogen generator
  • Aim High! Develop the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor. Reactor core and blanket
  • Aim High! Develop the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor. Uranium separator Reactor core and blanket
  • Aim High! Develop the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor. Waste separator Uranium separator Reactor core and blanket
  • Aim High! Develop the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor. Waste separator Uranium separator Reactor core and blanket Heat exchanger
  • Aim High! Develop the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor. Waste separator Uranium separator Reactor core and blanket Heat exchanger Turbine and generator
  • Aim High! Develop the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor. Waste separator Uranium separator Cooler Reactor core and blanket Heat exchanger Turbine and generator
  • Aim High! Develop the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor. Waste separator Uranium separator Cooler Reactor core and blanket Heat exchanger Turbine and generator Control system
  • Aim High! Develop the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor. Waste separator Uranium separator Cooler Reactor core and blanket Heat exchanger Turbine and generator Control system H 2 O H 2 O 2 Hydrogen generator
  • Aim High! Develop a small modular reactor. Small LFTR modules can be transported by trucks. Many will be installed where there are no rails or rivers. 100 MW, < $200 million
  • Aim High! Develop a small modular reactor. Small LFTR modules can be transported by trucks. Many will be installed where there are no rails or rivers. 100 MW, < $200 million Affordable to developing nations
  • Aim High! Develop a small modular reactor. Small LFTR modules can be transported by trucks. Many will be installed where there are no rails or rivers. 100 MW, < $200 million Affordable to developing nations Power sources near points of use -- low transmission line losses -- less vulnerable to terrorism
  • Aim High! Develop a small modular reactor. Small LFTR modules can be transported by trucks. Many will be installed where there are no rails or rivers. 100 MW, < $200 million Affordable to developing nations Power sources near points of use -- low transmission line losses -- less vulnerable to terrorism Multiple units for large power stations
  • Aim High! Develop a small modular reactor. Small LFTR modules can be transported by trucks. Many will be installed where there are no rails or rivers. 100 MW, < $200 million Affordable to developing nations Power sources near points of use -- low transmission line losses -- less vulnerable to terrorism Multiple units for large power stations Incremental capital investments
  • Aim High! Use air cooling. A typical 1 GW coal or nuclear plant heats 600,000 gal/min of river water, or evaporates 20,000 gal/min.
  • Aim High! Use air cooling. A typical 1 GW coal or nuclear plant heats 600,000 gal/min of river water, or evaporates 20,000 gal/min. High temperature LFTR halves heat loss.
  • Aim High! Use air cooling. A typical 1 GW coal or nuclear plant heats 600,000 gal/min of river water, or evaporates 20,000 gal/min. High temperature LFTR halves heat loss. Air cooling is needed in arid lands, or any place water is in short supply.
  • Aim High! Design aesthetic structures. Can a cooling tower be graceful?
  • Aim High! Design aesthetic structures. Can a cooling tower be graceful? Cora Kent painted Boston's Rainbow Gas Tank.
  • Aim High! Use automated controls, backed by inherent passive safety.
    • Use high reliability systems for automated, unattended plant operations.
  • Aim High! Use automated controls, backed by inherent passive safety.
    • Use high reliability systems for automated, unattended plant operations.
  • Aim High! Use automated controls, backed by inherent passive safety.
    • Use high reliability systems for automated, unattended plant operations.
    • In event of loss of power or control the freeze plug melts, molten salt flows into containment, cools, solidifies. Freeze plug.
  • Aim High! Use automated controls, backed by inherent passive safety.
    • Use high reliability systems for automated, unattended plant operations.
    • In event of loss of power or control the freeze plug melts, molten salt flows into containment, cools, solidifies. Freeze plug.
    • Eliminate on-site workers. -- Lower operational costs. -- Low risk of safety over-rides, operator error, experimentation, terrorism
  • Aim High! Produce less long lived radiotoxic waste.
  • 250 t uranium containing 1.75 t U-235 35 t of enriched uranium (1.15 t U-235) 215 t of depleted U-238 (0.6 t U-235) U-235 is burned; some Pu-239 is formed and burned. 35 t of spent fuel stored containing: 33.4 t U-238 0.3 t U-235 1.0 t fission products 0.3 t Pu Aim High! Mine < 1% of the ore; bury < 1% of the waste.
  • http://wwf 250 t uranium containing 1.75 t U-235 35 t of enriched uranium (1.15 t U-235) 215 t of depleted U-238 (0.6 t U-235) U-235 is burned; some Pu-239 is formed and burned. 35 t of spent fuel stored containing: 33.4 t U-238 0.3 t U-235 1.0 t fission products 0.3 t Pu 1 t thorium Fluoride reactor converts Th-232 to U-233 and burns it. 1 t fission products In 10 yrs, 83% FP stable. 17% FP stored ~300 years. .0001 t Pu Aim High! Mine < 1% of the ore; bury < 1% of the waste.
  • Atomic physicist Edward Teller promoted the LFTR to the last month of his life. http://www.geocities.com/rmoir2003/moir_teller.pdf
  • Energy cheaper than from coal is critical.
  • Energy cheaper than from coal is critical. Copenhagen failed.
  • Energy cheaper than from coal is critical. Copenhagen failed. Coal costs $40 a ton – $0.02 / kWh just for the coal.
  • Aim High! Cost-engineer to < $2/watt capital and < 3¢ / kWh electricity cost. Fluoride-cooled reactor with gas turbine power conversion system
  • Aim High! Cost-engineer to < $2/watt capital and < 3¢ / kWh electricity cost.
    • All radioactive material at low pressure.
    Fluoride-cooled reactor with gas turbine power conversion system
  • Aim High! Cost-engineer to < $2/watt capital and < 3¢ / kWh electricity cost.
    • All radioactive material at low pressure.
    • No large containment structure.
    Fluoride-cooled reactor with gas turbine power conversion system
  • Aim High! Cost-engineer to < $2/watt capital and < 3¢ / kWh electricity cost.
    • All radioactive material at low pressure.
    • No large containment structure.
    Fluoride-cooled reactor with gas turbine power conversion system
  • Aim High! Cost-engineer to < $2/watt capital and < 3¢ / kWh electricity cost.
    • All radioactive material at low pressure.
    • No large containment structure.
    • Negative temperature reactivity and intrinsic load following.
    Fluoride-cooled reactor with gas turbine power conversion system
  • Aim High! Cost-engineer to < $2/watt capital and < 3¢ / kWh electricity cost.
    • All radioactive material at low pressure.
    • No large containment structure.
    • Negative temperature reactivity and intrinsic load following.
    • Simple inherent safety.
    Fluoride-cooled reactor with gas turbine power conversion system
  • Aim High! Cost-engineer to < $2/watt capital and < 3¢ / kWh electricity cost.
    • All radioactive material at low pressure.
    • No large containment structure.
    • Negative temperature reactivity and intrinsic load following.
    • Simple inherent safety.
    • Factory production..
    Fluoride-cooled reactor with gas turbine power conversion system
  • Aim High! Cost-engineer to < $2/watt capital and < 3¢ / kWh electricity cost.
    • All radioactive material at low pressure.
    • No large containment structure.
    • Negative temperature reactivity and intrinsic load following.
    • Simple inherent safety.
    • Factory production.
    • Cheap thorium fuel in liquid.
    Fluoride-cooled reactor with gas turbine power conversion system
  • Aim High! Cost-engineer to < $2/watt capital and < 3¢ / kWh electricity cost.
    • All radioactive material at low pressure.
    • No large containment structure.
    • Negative temperature reactivity and intrinsic load following.
    • Simple inherent safety.
    • Factory production.
    • Cheap thorium fuel in liquid.
    Fluoride-cooled reactor with gas turbine power conversion system Maintain the cost objective in all design decisions.
  • The median of five cost estimates for molten salt reactors is < $2/watt. Estimate Year $/watt 2009 $/watt Sargent & Lundy 1962 0.650 4.64 Sargent & Lundy ORNL TM-1060 1965 0.148 1.01 ORNL-3996 1966 0.243 1.62 Engel et al, ORNL TM7207 1978 0.653 2.16 Moir 2000 1.580 1.98
  • High thermal energy efficiencies keep LFTR compact at low cost. High thermal capacity heat exchange fluid Carbon composite high temperature heat exchanger
  • LFTR needs no costly 160-atmosphere pressure vessel and containment dome. GE-Hitachi ABWR 1,356 MW 36 x 29 meter containment 1,000 ton crawler cranes
  • The Westinghouse AP-1000 is massively larger than LFTR. 1.4 m Samen, China Jan 2010
  • The Westinghouse AP-1000 is massively larger than LFTR. 1.4 m 1.4 m Samen, China Jan 2010
  • Compact closed cycle Brayton turbine raises power conversion efficiency. Halving rejected heat enables air cooling.
  • Boeing factories produce a $200 million aircraft every day.
  • The learning curve reduces costs. 10% learning ratio
  • Aim High! Electricity cheaper than from coal. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601080&refer=asia&sid=aV_2FPlVxISE 100 MW LFTR $ Cost $ per mo, 40 yrs, 8% $ per KWH @ 90% Construction 200,000,000 1,390,600 0.0214
  • Aim High! Electricity cheaper than from coal. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601080&refer=asia&sid=aV_2FPlVxISE 100 MW LFTR $ Cost $ per mo, 40 yrs, 8% $ per KWH @ 90% Construction 200,000,000 1,390,600 0.0214 100 kg U startup 1,000,000 6,953 0.000108 Thorium fuel 30,000/yr 2500 0.00000386
  • Aim High! Electricity cheaper than from coal. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601080&refer=asia&sid=aV_2FPlVxISE 100 MW LFTR $ Cost $ per mo, 40 yrs, 8% $ per KWH @ 90% Construction 200,000,000 1,390,600 0.0214 100 kg U startup 1,000,000 6,953 0.000108 Thorium fuel 30,000/yr 2500 0.00000386 Decomm (½ const) 100,000,000 960 0.00000148 Operations 1,000,000/yr 83,333 0.00128 TOTAL 0.0228
  • Aim High! Check global warming. http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/international/iealf/table63.xls Install one 100 MW LFTR each day, worldwide, to replace all coal power. 2020 2058 10 billion tons CO 2 Annual emissions from world coal power plants  1400 GWY
  • Aim High! Synthesize vehicle fuel. http://wwwtest.iri.tudelft.nl/~klooster/reports/hydro_slides_2003.pdf Dissociate water at 900 o C to make hydrogen, with sulfur-iodine process. CO 2 + 3 H 2  CH 3 OH + H 2 O Methanol for gasoline Dimethyl ether for diesel Ammonia
  • Aim High! Cut US oil imports. http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/international/iealf/table63.xls Dissociate H 2 and synthesize fuel (50% x 50% efficiency). Standard LFTR makes 250,000 bbl/year. Install one LFTR each week. 2020 4.9 billion bbl Annual US oil imports for gasoline
  • Aim High! Cut US oil imports. http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/international/iealf/table63.xls Dissociate H 2 and synthesize fuel (50% x 50% efficiency). Standard LFTR makes 250,000 bbl/year. Install one LFTR each week. 2020 2100 4.9 billion bbl Annual US oil imports for gasoline 3.9 billion bbl
  • Electric cars help cut oil imports. Chevy Volt recharges with 8 kWh for 40 miles. A 100 MW LFTR can power 300,000 cars. 2020 4.9 billion bbl Annual US oil imports for gasoline http://www.boeing.com/commercial/gallery/787/index1.html http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3112/2654553896_fe93088b30_o.jpg 2.6 billion bbl
  • Electric cars help cut oil imports. Chevy Volt recharges with 8 kWh for 40 miles. A 100 MW LFTR can power 300,000 cars. 2020 4.9 billion bbl Annual US oil imports for gasoline http://www.boeing.com/commercial/gallery/787/index1.html http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3112/2654553896_fe93088b30_o.jpg 2.6 billion bbl
  • Electric cars help cut oil imports. Chevy Volt recharges with 8 kWh for 40 miles. A 100 MW LFTR can power 300,000 cars. Install one LFTR each week until half the 125,000,000, 20-mpg fleet is replaced. 2020 4.9 billion bbl Annual US oil imports for gasoline http://www.boeing.com/commercial/gallery/787/index1.html http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3112/2654553896_fe93088b30_o.jpg 2.6 billion bbl
  • Electric cars help cut oil imports. Chevy Volt recharges with 8 kWh for 40 miles. A 100 MW LFTR can power 300,000 cars. Install one LFTR each week until half the 125,000,000, 20-mpg fleet is replaced. 2020 2024 4.9 billion bbl Annual US oil imports for gasoline http://www.boeing.com/commercial/gallery/787/index1.html http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3112/2654553896_fe93088b30_o.jpg 2.6 billion bbl
  • Electric cars help cut oil imports. Chevy Volt recharges with 8 kWh for 40 miles. A 100 MW LFTR can power 300,000 cars. Install one LFTR each week until half the 125,000,000, 20-mpg fleet is replaced. 2020 2024 4.9 billion bbl Annual US oil imports for gasoline http://www.boeing.com/commercial/gallery/787/index1.html http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3112/2654553896_fe93088b30_o.jpg Best use of petroleum fuel is for airplanes. 2.6 billion bbl
  • Lemhi Pass has enough thorium to power the US for millennia. http://www.thoriumenergy.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=17&Itemid=33 Thorium Energy, Inc. claims 1,800,000 tons of high-grade thorium ore. http://www.energyfromthorium.com/ppt/ThoriumBriefSep2008.ppt
  • Lemhi Pass has enough thorium to power the US for millennia. http://www.thoriumenergy.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=17&Itemid=33 Thorium Energy, Inc. claims 1,800,000 tons of high-grade thorium ore. 500 tons of thorium can supply all US electricity needs for one year. http://www.energyfromthorium.com/ppt/ThoriumBriefSep2008.ppt
  • Lemhi Pass has enough thorium to power the US for millennia. http://www.thoriumenergy.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=17&Itemid=33 Thorium Energy, Inc. claims 1,800,000 tons of high-grade thorium ore. 500 tons of thorium can supply all US electricity needs for one year. The US has 3,200 tons stored in the Nevada desert. http://www.energyfromthorium.com/ppt/ThoriumBriefSep2008.ppt
  • Aim High! Build a prototype LFTR in 5 years. 2010 2015 2020 Develop Scale up Produce $ 1 B $ 5 B $ 70 B per year industry Commercialize One LFTR per day Export
  • The International Generation IV Forum estimates $990 million for R&D. http://nuclear.inl.gov/gen4/msr.shtml
  • Aim High! Build a prototype LFTR in 5 years. 2010 2015 2020 Develop Scale up Produce $ 1 B $ 5 B $ 70 B per year industry Commercialize One LFTR per day Export Rickover's Shippingport was built in 32 months . Weinberg-engineered Oak Ridge X-10 was built in 9 months .
  • Aim High! Results and benefits.
    • A new energy source that
    • produces electricity cheaper than from coal,
    < 3¢ / kWh
  • Aim High! Results and benefits.
    • A new energy source that
    • produces electricity cheaper than from coal,
    • synthesizes vehicle fuel ,
    1 billion bbl/yr
  • Aim High! Results and benefits.
    • A new energy source that
    • produces electricity cheaper than from coal,
    • synthesizes vehicle fuel ,
    • is inexhaustibl e ,
    1,800,000 t thorium
  • Aim High! Results and benefits.
    • A new energy source that
    • produces electricity cheaper than from coal,
    • synthesizes vehicle fuel ,
    • is inexhaustibl e ,
    • reduces waste
  • Aim High! Results and benefits.
    • A new energy source that
    • produces electricity cheaper than from coal,
    • synthesizes vehicle fuel ,
    • is inexhaustibl e ,
    • reduces waste , and
    • is affordable to developing nations.
  • Aim High! Results and benefits.
    • A new energy source that
    • produces electricity cheaper than from coal,
    • synthesizes vehicle fuel ,
    • is inexhaustibl e ,
    • reduces waste , and
    • is affordable to developing nations.
    • and
    • Checks global warming.
    • Enables worldwide prosperity and population stability.
  • Thank you. Aim High! Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactors Energy cheaper than from coal.