8. S2013 Richard Lionheart


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Richard I Lionheart and the effects of the Third Crusade on England. Anti-Jewish activity, new taxes and the importance of the Templars.

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  • Does not include other revenues that go into funds at castles and the wardrobe (personal funds) and revenues for ransom.
  • The Round Church was consecrated in 1185 by the patriarch of Jerusalem. It was designed to recall the holiest place in the Crusaders’ world: the circular Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.
  • During the First Crusade, the Pope decided that knights of different nationalities should be distinguished by different colors of cross: English crusaders would be distinguished by wearing a white cross on red, and French crusaders a red cross on white, with Italian knights allocated a yellow cross on a white background.[1] At some point however English crusaders began wearing the red cross on white.In 1188 the French King, Philip II of France accepted the claim of the English to the red cross on white,[2] and the English and French officially exchanged their respective crosses. As both English and French crusaders had thereby become associated with the symbol, it became the standard Crusader emblem.
  • Dating from around the same time, in Conisborough, near Doncaster, is an image on a grave slab which appears to depict St George defending a bishop from a dragon
  • It depicts St George on horseback carrying a lance. To the right are two crusaders kneeling in prayer and to the left are two pagan soldiers, fleeing in panic (Budge 1930 26; Marcus 41; Riches 22–23). Thus, George is seen as suppressing human enemies rather than a dragon. This carving is contemporary with times his spectral form was apparently seen in the first crusade, leading the knights in the sieges of Jerusalem (1096–99) and Antioch (1097–98), so George is depicted as a crusader knight.
  • In theory, all property of the‘King’s Jews’ escheated to the Crown on death, but in practice the kingwas usually content with a ‘relief’ of one-third of the estate. Aaron’s wealthwas so great (he was the wealthiest financier of the medieval EnglishJewry) that Henry II could not resist the temptation to confiscate hisentire fortune. A special department (the ScaccariumAaronis) was createdto deal with the business of realising outstanding loans, and possiblyopened the eyes of the treasurer to the profits that could be made fromJewish usury.
  • Jews apparently could not own land but only as a pledge (or gage). In default they gained the income from the land. Their interests were sold on an open market with the investor paying off the debt to acquire the land. Monasteries were frequent investors.
  • A house built c1170 with late 18th and 19th century alterations was restored in 1878 and again during the 20th century. The building is situated on the eastern side of Steep Hill with an elevation to Christs Hospital Terrace. The building is double range in plan and two storeys high with an attic range lit by segmental headed windows on the southern gable. It is constructed of dressed stone and brick with two double pitch pantile roofs with chimney stacks at the northern gable and between the ranges. The principle facade to Steep Hill has a four window range with a casement to the far left, two central sashes and a two light Norman round headed window with a central column and decorated capitals under a deep hood mould. The ground floor has two central entrance doorways, the left door is an 18th century insertion with an attached bow shop window and the right door is round headed with single shafts and crocket capitals under a truncated hood. To the far right is a casement shop window with a wooden pilaster surround and cornice and to the far left is a partially blocked small two light casement window. The house is associated with Aaron the Jew and is very similar to Jews House approximately 160m south.
  • Cecil Roth identified these from names which is often a questionable method.
  • 8. S2013 Richard Lionheart

    1. 1. Fortz causa es Gaucelm Faidit (1150-1205), 1199 Planh
    2. 2. It is a a cruel thing that it behoves me to sing of the great hurt and the greatest pain which I have ever felt and which I must forever lament with tears, for he who was the head and the father of worth, the powerful, valiant Richard, king of the English, is dead - Ah! Lord, what harm and loss is here!
    3. 3. Richard I ‘Lionheart’ “The Best of Kings, the Worst of Kings” John Gillingham Richard I
    4. 4. Coeur de Leon
    5. 5. Criteria • Domestic policy • Foreign Adventures – Winner or loser • Contemporary views • Historian’s views
    6. 6. Coronation • Massacres of Jews • Appointment of William Longchamp as Chancellor, Justiciar and papal legate • Grants of power to John in Normandy – John marries Isabel of Gloucester • Embarks on Third Crusade
    7. 7. Map
    8. 8. Crusades and Their Effects • Increased need for revenues • Knights Templar • St. George • Impacts on Jews • Expansion of trade and travel
    9. 9. Richard I Dr. Jennifer Paxton
    10. 10. Arab View
    11. 11. Crusaders’ View
    12. 12. Third Crusade – Raising Money • 1188 Saladin Tithe • 1190 Forest Laws • Sale of Offices • Customs taxes; taxes on movable wealth • Vacancies in church offices Nick Barratt “The English Revenue of Richard I” The English Historical Review, Vol. 116, No. 467 (Jun., 2001), pp. 635-656
    13. 13. Exchequer Revenue
    14. 14. Knights Templar • 1118 Founded as protectors for pilgrims to Jerusalem • Acceptance by Bernard and the Pope • 1137 Queen Matilda (Stephen) gives Cressing • 1185 London • 1188 Templars and Hospitallers given role in collection of Saladin tithe
    15. 15. Temple Church
    16. 16. Cross of St. George • Widespread use: France, Genoa, Milan, Lombard League • 1188 Granted to England by Phillip II
    17. 17. ~1100 Grave slabs
    18. 18. Tympanum, St George‟s Church Fordington, Dorset ~1100
    19. 19. Jews in England • Arrival • Money-lending • Aaron of Lincoln • Jewish Exchequer
    20. 20. Exchequer of the Jews 1179-80 Taxes and cases involving Jews considered under Great Exchequer ~ 1186 Aaron of Lincoln dies; estate confiscated by Henry II 1189-90 Mob violence against Jews Need to protect records from destruction by creditors 1194 Exchequer of the Jews
    21. 21. Exchequer of the Jews - System • Contracts witnessed by – Two Christian lawyers – Two Jewish lawyers – Clerks of William of the Church of St Mary’s and William of Chimilli • Exchequer heard disputes between Jews and Christians
    22. 22. Safeguards - Archae • Two sets of pipe rolls • Documents kept in a chest with three locks • Three seals; Three copies of working rolls • Chirographs • Release of debts: starr (shetar) • Chests (archae) located in major cities Reva Berman Brown and Sean McCartney “The Exchequer of the Jews Revisited: The Operation and Effect of the Scaccarium Judeorum” The Medieval History Journal, 8, 2 (2005)
    23. 23. Hebrew signatures on starrs in the British Museum Robin R. Mundill “Out of the Shadow and into the Light – the Impact and Implications of Recent Scholarship on the Jews of Medieval England 1066– 1290” History Compass 9/8 (2011): 572–601, 2011
    24. 24. Norman House, Lincoln, home associated with Aaron http://www.pastscape.org.uk/hob.aspx?hob_id=326685#aRm; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_House
    25. 25. Jews House, Lincoln
    26. 26. Norwich Jurnet ‘Music House’ Cameron Self, Flckr
    27. 27. Moyse’s Hall Bury St. Edmunds
    28. 28. Jews in England • Estimate 2/3 of Jewish wealth in the hands of 82 individuals in 18 families • Other occupations – Doctors – Engraver at the Mint?; painter of holy pictures?, a crossbowman, a fencing master, soldiers – Presumably peddlers Suzanne Bartlet (2000): Three Jewish Businesswomen in Thirteenth-Century Winchester, Jewish Culture and History, 3:2, 31-54