6. S2013 Henry II and the Angevin Empire

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The expansion of the dominion of Henry II with the foreseen breakup of that dominion through family feud. Acquisition of Ireland and homage of Wales and Scotland.

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  • Gambeson-padded jacket
  • American law and culture is to a great extent grounded in English Common Law and English history. Here also, we can find examples to support an American right to keep and bear arms. King Henry II signed, in 1181 C.E., a law called the Assize of Arms. This law was passed in great part to allow for the rapid formation and collection of a militia for defense of the realm. It also allowed for the carrying and use of arms for self-defense.Plato, in his Republic, maintained that disarming the citizenry was essential to keeping a properly ordered society. Seventeenth-century England saw the confiscation of any weapons owned by Roman Catholics as well as passage of the Game Act of 1676. n7 But in America, there was never enough scholarship, legislation, or public interest in firearms regulation to constitute, or perhaps even permit, an American social debate on guns or gun ownership, until the twentieth century.Aristotle thought that bearing arms was an essential part of true citizenship. Cicero encouraged an armed Roman citizenry. Machiavelli viewed an armed citizen as a necessary defense against rulers whose interests were their own and not those of their people.2. The first limitation in England on the right of a law-abiding person to keep and bear arms was enacted as one of the provisions in the 1181 Statute of Assize of Arms.  It prohibited the possession and ordered the disposition of all coats of mail or breastplates in the hands of Jews.  The next prohibition apparently came in the 1328 Statute of Northampton under King Edward III,  and banned all private persons from using any force in public "in affray of the peace," or from going or riding armed in public at all.  This Statute of Northampton was re-enacted with increased penalties under Richard II:   In its re-enacted version the statute focused solely on going or riding armed, that is, regardless of an affray of the peace.
  • Returned to Hugh Bigod in 1163. Bigod had acceded to Stephen.
  • It was built between 1165 and 1173 by Henry II of England to consolidate royal power in the region.
  • 6. S2013 Henry II and the Angevin Empire

    1. 1. The Angevin‘Empire’
    2. 2. Language of the Court• Written decisions, charters – Latin Later with French translation• Oral arguments, decisions – French• Informal exchanges – English
    3. 3. Legal French• Retention of Anglo-Norman terms• French word order – Attorney general, heir apparent, court martial, body politic – Fee simple, sum certain
    4. 4. Military Reform• 1166 Baronial Charters• 1181 Assize of Arms – Categories of freemen and their requirements to supply arms – Ready reserve – Prohibitions on export
    5. 5. 1181 Assize of Arms1. Knights shall have a shirt of mail, ahelmet, a shield, and a lance;2. Free layman who possesses chattelsor rents to the value of 16m. shall havea shirt of mail, a helmet, a shield, and alance;3. Item, all burgesses and the wholecommunity of freemen shall have agambeson, an iron cap, and a lance
    6. 6. KnightAlso Layman with > 16 marks• shirt of mail-hauberk• helmet• shield• lance
    7. 7. Layman > 10 marks• hauberk• iron cap• lance
    8. 8. Every Freeman• quilted coat• iron cap• lance
    9. 9. Assize of Arms8. Item, no one shall carry arms out ofEngland except by the command of the lordking: no one is to sell arms to another tocarry out of England; nor shall a merchant orany other man carry them out of England.12 . . . no one, as he loves his life and allthat he has, shall buy or sell any ship to betaken away from England, and that no oneshall carry any timber or cause it to becarried out of England.
    10. 10. Assize of Arms6. Any burgess who has more arms than heought to have by this assize shall sellthem, or give them away . . . And none ofthem shall keep more arms than he ought tohave by this assize.7. Item, no Jew shall keep in his possessiona shirt of mail or a hauberk, but he shall sellit or give it away or alienate it in some otherway, so that it shall remain in the kingsservice.
    11. 11. Legal Citations1. Rudolf B. Lamy “The Influence of History Upon a Plain Text Reading of the Second Amendment to the Constitution of the United States” 49 Am. J. Legal Hist. 217, 20072. David I. Caplan “The Right of the Individual to Bear Arms: A Recent Judicial Trend” Detroit College of Law Review 1982, Winter, Issue 4
    12. 12. Alfred the Great (?) and ArmsIt is the great natural law of selfpreservation, which, as we haveseen, cannot be repealed, or superseded, orsuspended by any human institution. Thislaw, however, is expressly recognised in theconstitution of Pennsylvania. "The right ofthe citizens to bear arms in the defence ofthemselves shall not be questioned." This isone of our many renewals of the Saxonregulations. James Wilson, Lectures on Law
    13. 13. The Family of Henry II
    14. 14. DynasticSuccessionHenry the YoungerRichard(Aquitaine)Geoffrey
    15. 15. Angevin Empire- Relationships
    16. 16. Video• Henry vs. Becket• Henry vs. his family
    17. 17. The Other Woman Dante Gabreil Rossetti Arthur Hughes
    18. 18. The Other Woman Mary Lizzie Macomber
    19. 19. Rebellion in the Family - 1173• Marriage alliance for 5 year old John marred by Henry the Younger• Eleanor and her sons go to Paris• Henry offers arbitration
    20. 20. Peter of Blois to EleanorMarriage is a firm and indissoluble union. …From thebeginning biblical truth has verified that marriage onceentered into cannot be separated. Truth cannotdeceive: it says, "What God has joined let us not putasunder [Matt 19]."So the woman is at fault who leaves her husband andfails to keep the trust of this social bond. …We knowthat unless you return to your husband, you will be thecause of widespread disaster.
    21. 21. Rebellion in the Family - 1173• Eleanor captured? Richard Henry Eleanor Joan Henry II Wall painting from the chapel in Chinon. interpreted to represent the departure of Eleanor of Aquitaine into captivity
    22. 22. Rebellion in England• Many barons declare for Henry the Younger – William the Lion of Scotland – William captured at Alnwick• Vassalage• Henry II – castles and cathedrals
    23. 23. Geography of Rebellion William the Lion Earl of Leicester and Flemish
    24. 24. William surprised at AlnwickResults Defeat in the Fens
    25. 25. Reconciliation• Henry the Younger given castles and money• Richard given half income of Poitou• Geoffrey given half of Brittany• Eleanor comfortable captivity
    26. 26. Angevin Empire- Relationships
    27. 27. The Angevin Empire• Wales – initially large scale – restore law and order – 1157 Owain of Gwynedd – 1164 Gwynedd, Deheubarth and Powys revolt
    28. 28. Wales
    29. 29. The Angevin Empire• Scotland – Social elite heavily influenced by Normans – No border but rather overlapping authority – 1173 William the Lion captured – Treaty of Falaise
    30. 30. Scotland
    31. 31. The Angevin Empire• Ireland – Irish laws different from Anglo-Saxon and Norman – 1167 Irish King Dermot asks Henry for support against Connacht – 1171 Invasion as show of force – 1175 Treaty of Windsor
    32. 32. Ireland
    33. 33. Vassalage• King of France – Henry the Younger (betrothed in 1157, married in 1160 to Margaret of France) Basis of claim by Philip of France to parts of Normandy • Geoffrey – Richard (offer of marriage to Alice of France in 1169)
    34. 34. Henry II - Patronage• Penance for murder of Thomas a Becket – Waltham – reform as Augustinian monastery – Ambresbury – replacement w. nuns from Fontevraud – Witham – Carthusian monastery – Promise to join Crusade
    35. 35. Bigod’s Castle – Bungay, 1163-73
    36. 36. Orford Castle 1165-73
    37. 37. Orford Castle
    38. 38. Orford Castle – Upper Hall
    39. 39. Orford Castle – 1660
    40. 40. Last Days of Henry II• 1182 Makes his will• 1183 Henry the Younger again in rebellion – seeks to be sole heir• Henry the Younger dies of dysentery• Henry comes to favor John• Rebuilding cathedrals
    41. 41. Lincoln
    42. 42. Peterborough, 1193
    43. 43. Last Days of Henry II• 1184 Assize of the Forest (Woodstock)• Philip of France incites Richard vs. Henry – Truce• Movement for new Crusade• An ill Henry submits to a treaty with Philip• Henry dies at Chinon
    44. 44. Chinon
    45. 45. Reunited - Fontevraud

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