4. s2013 Law to Anarchy to Anjou

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The progress towards a centralized administration with a relatively uniform system of justice is interrupted by the succession conflict between Matilda, daughter of Henry I, and Stephen, nephew of Henry I

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  • Confessor, the third Abbot of Cîteaux, was born at Sherborne in Dorsetshire, England, about the middle of the eleventh century; died 28 March, 1134. He received his early education in the monastery of Sherborne and afterwards studied in Paris and Rome. On returning from the latter city he stopped at the monastery of Molesme and, being much impressed by the holiness of St. Robert, the abbot, joined that community. Here he practised great austerities, became one of St. Robert's chief supporters and was one of the band of twenty-one monks who, by authority of Hugh, Archbishop of Lyons, retired to Cïteaux to institute a reform in the new foundation there. When St. Robert was recalled to Molesme (1099), Stephen became prior of Cïteaux under Alberic, the new abbot. On Alberic's death (1110) Stephen, who was absent from the monastery at the time, was elected abbot. The number of monks was now very reduced, as no new members had come to fill the places of those who had died. Stephen, however, insisted on retaining the strict observance originally instituted and, having offended the Duke of Burgundy, Cïteau'sx great patron, by forbidding him or his family to enter the cloister, was even forced to beg alms from door to door. It seemed as if the foundation were doomed to die out when (1112) St. Bernard with thirty companions joined the community. This proved the beginning of extraordinary prosperity. The next year Stephen founded his first colony at La Ferté, and before is death he had established thirteen monasteries in all. His powers as an organizer were exceptional, he instituted the system of general chapters and regular visitations and, to ensure uniformity in all his foundations, drew up the famous "Charter of Charity" or collection of statues for the government of all monasteries united to Cïteaux, which was approved by Pope Callistus II in 1119 (see CISTERCIANS). In 1133 Stephen, being now old, infirm, and almost blind, resigned the post of abbot, designating as his successor Robert de Monte, who was accordingly elected by the monks. The saint's choice, however, proved unfortunate and the new abbot only held office for two years
  • Know that by the mercy of God and the common counsel of the barons of the whole kingdom of England I have been crowned king of said kingdom; and because the kingdom had been oppressed by unjust exactions , I, through fear of god and the love which I have toward you all, in the first place make the holy church of God free, so that I will neither sell nor put ot farm, nor on the death o farchbishop or bishop or abbot will I take anything from the church's demesne orfrom its men until the successor shall enter it. And I take away all the badcustoms by which the kingdom of England was unjustly oppressed; which badcustoms I here set down in part:
  • Common law of Catholic countriesDifferences on legitimacyCanon law legitamacy possible if parents later wed provided that they were free to marry at the time of the birth of the child.Common Law Legimacy only if child born to married parents.
  • Matilda and Henry V 1114 (Matilda at age just short of 12, betrothed at 7) widowed at 23.
  • Geoffrey of Anjou (1113-1151) was Count of Maine and Anjou and father of the future King Henry II of England, and thus the forefather of the Plantagenet dynasty of English kings. His image on an unusually large enamelled plaque, which functioned as a funerary effigy, shows him not as an individual, but in an emblematic and generalized way, as a representative of his class. Geoffrey has a sword in his right hand and holds a tall shield with his left. The shield is emblazoned with one of the earliest representation of a coat-of-arms, consisting of four gilded lions standing on their hind legs against a blue background.
  • 4. s2013 Law to Anarchy to Anjou

    1. 1. From Lawto„Anarchy‟ to Anjou Henry II Stephen
    2. 2. Henry I and the Church• Obtained revenue from vacancies• Established new monasteries• Fostered new orders
    3. 3. OrdersCistercian Benedictine Augustinian
    4. 4. Cistercians – White Monks• Cîteaux (1098) Alberic , Stephen Harding – L‟Aumône, Normandy • Waverley (1128) 13 daughters • Tintern, Wales (1131)• Claivaux (1115) St. Bernard – Rievaulx, Yorkshire (1132) • Melrose, Scotland (1136) – Fountains, Yorkshire (1132)
    5. 5. StephenHarding
    6. 6. Spread ofCistercians Clairvaux L‟Aumone Savigny
    7. 7. Waverley
    8. 8. Tintern Abbey
    9. 9. Spread of Cistercians - Yorkshire
    10. 10. Fountains
    11. 11. Scotland
    12. 12. Roche Abbey-1147,1170
    13. 13. Roche Abbey
    14. 14. Roche Abbey
    15. 15. William‟s Legacy
    16. 16. Henry I: Coronation Oath Charter of Liberties• Overturn excesses of William Rufus: Limitations on what the King may do relative to his barons – Inheritance, marriage of daughters, remarriage of widows• Tax exemption of knights in military service• “I impose a strict peace upon my whole kingdom and command that it be maintained henceforth.”http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/hcoronation.asp
    17. 17. Legal Differences Anglo-Saxon NormanProof Oaths and ordeals Add trial by battlePunishment Wergild Imprisonment, forfeiture, mutilation, deathRole of Involved in lay Ecclesiastical andChurch justice spiritual matters. The latter included marriage, legitimacy
    18. 18. Towards a „Common‟ Law• ~1088 Foundation of Bologna University• Focus – Newly rediscovered Roman law – A universal Canon Law• Ultimate appeal to the Pope
    19. 19. (Great) Curia regis• Successor to witanFunctions• Legislative• Judicial• Advisory
    20. 20. LegitimateDiplomacyMatilda andEmperor Henry V
    21. 21. White Ship
    22. 22. LegitimateDiplomacy II(Matilda) andGeoffrey of Anjou
    23. 23. Normandy and Angevin territory
    24. 24. King Stephen• Arguments for Stephen – Support of London – Report of deathbed designation – Reluctant support of Robert of Gloucester in turn for maintenance of position.• Possession of treasury
    25. 25. Empress Matilda
    26. 26. Matilda• Arguments against "Mathildis Imperatrix Henrici regis filia et Anglorum domina." – Oath of allegiance forced & subsequent marriage – ♀ – Brought up in German court – Personality• Argument for – primogeniture – Stephen had been first to sign oath.
    27. 27. Robert of Gloucester• Arguments for – Wisdom – Integrity• Argument against – Bastards no longer accepted as having the same inheritance rights.
    28. 28. Matilda vs. Stephen• 1139 With Robert of Gloucester goes to Bristol• England divided on local level between Stephen, Matilda and barons.
    29. 29. Matilda• Empress• Queen of the Romans• Lady of the English (Winchester 1141)• Countess of Anjou (used by Stephen supporter)
    30. 30. Debasement of Money• “The king himself was reported to have ordered the weight of the penny, as established in King Henrys time, to be reduced, because, having exhausted the vast treasures of his predecessor, he was unable to provide for the expense of so many soldiers.”
    31. 31. Debasement of Money Official coin of Stephen Coin issued by a baron• “All things, then, became venal in England; and churches and abbeys were no longer secretly, but even publicly exposed to sale”
    32. 32. Matilda vs. Matilda• Matilda of Boulogne, wife of Stephen attacked Matildas forces.• Matilda demands money from London• Rift with Henry of Blois• Robert of Gloucester captured• Prisoners exchanged
    33. 33. Peace (Stephen & Henry) - 1153• Summer of battles• Steven‟s son Eustace dies• Mediation by bishops• Treaty of Wallingford (Westminster) - November – Henry, son of Geoffrey and Matilda, granted succession – Stephen accorded life possession – Adulterine castles to be destroyed
    34. 34. 1154 Stephen dies“He was soft and easy going and there was no justice” Anglo-Saxon Chronicle "A reign which was no reign, when none could sit By his own hearth in peace; when murder common As nature‟death, like Egypt‟s plague, had filled All things with blood.“ Tennyson

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