3..F2011  Britain becomes Roman   Claudius
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3..F2011 Britain becomes Roman Claudius

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Claudius invades Britain

Claudius invades Britain

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    3..F2011  Britain becomes Roman   Claudius 3..F2011 Britain becomes Roman Claudius Presentation Transcript

    • Britain Becomes Roman Britain
      Caesar to Claudius
      You must know, till the injurious Romans did extort this tribute from us, we were free.
      Cymbeline Cymbeline Act III, Scene 1
    • Roman Britain Before Claudius?
      Did Rome appoint Commius and another king?
      Changes in coins.
      Gold coins more uniform
      Inscribed with names; new image style
      Lack of mixed early and later coins in hoards
    • Roman Britain Before Claudius?
      Obsides – hostages?
      Creation of Kings in Roman territories (Judea)
      Burials
      Construction at Fishbourne, Gosbecks, Silchester
    • Kingdoms
    • Burial: Roman Influence
      Welwyn, 50-20 BCE
    • Aylsford 75-25 BCE
    • Celtic Burial with Imported Amphorae, Welwyn
    • From a British Grave c. 1 AD
    • Pottery Imports from Gaul
      c. 15 BCE – 30 CE
    • Inscriptions on Coins
    • Catuvellauni
    • Cunobelin(us)
    • Foreign Policy Augustus (27 BCE- 14 CE)
      Trade
      Hostages(?) educated in Rome
      Threats (26/7 BCE)
      Diplomacy
      Is there too little of Roman blood spilled upon land and sea? [And this,] not that the Romans might burn the proud towers of envious Carthage, or that the Britons, hitherto unassailed, might go down the sacred way bound in chains: but that, agreeably to the wishes of the Parthians, this city may fall by its own might.
      Horace, c. 29 BCE
    • Augustus Res gestae
      To me were sent supplications by kings: … of the Britons, Dumnobellaunus and Tincommius
    • Cunobelin Coins
      Augustus
      Cunobelin
    • Homage to the Emperor
      Lexden Tumulus
    • Roman Foreign Policy Tiberius (14 – 37 CE)
      Augustus’ counsel: “the empire should be confined to its present limits”
      Britons tolerate import/export taxes
    • Homage to Tiberius
    • Roman Foreign Policy -Caligula
      Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
      Spectacle and emulation
      Surrender of Adminius
      ‘Conquest of Ocean’
    • Atrebates
    • Coinage
      Tincommius
      Cunobelin
    • Early Fishbourne
    • Roman-style Military HardwareFishbourne, pre 43 CE?
    • Internal Conflict
      25 Verica, ruler at Calleva replaced by Eppilius
    • Internal Conflict
      35 Eppilius dies, Verica regains territory
      40 Caraticus defeats Verica
    • Reasons for Invasion
      • Solicitation by Britons
      • Desire by Claudius to demonstrate military success
      • Risk of revolt by legions in Germany to “restore” the Republic
      • Economic Motives – Depletion of Spanish silver mines
    • Verica
    • Planning
      • Intelligence
      • British Collaborators
      • Experience of Caesar
      • Season
      • Selection of troops
      • Amphibious experience
      • Transport
      • Coordination of landing
    • Invasion Forces
      • AulusPlautius
      • II Augusta (Vespasian)
      • IX Hispania
      • XIV Gemina
      • XX Valeria
      (Geta)
      • 20,000 auxiliaries
    • Opposing Forces
    • Opposing Forces
      Caratacus
      Emerges as leader of anti-Roman forces
    • Kelvedon (Essex) horseman (25 BCE-25CE?)
    • Kent vs. Sussex
      See Handout for some arguments.
    • Invasion Route
    • Kent
    • Richborough
    • Fishbourne
      Later site of “Palace”
      Two military buildings
      Granary with raised floor
      Supply depot with cart turn around area
      Possible camp at Chichester
    • Artefacts - Fishbourne
    • Invasion Route-Medway
    • Invasion Route-Thames
    • Phase II - Claudius
    • Claudius-16 Days
      Brings members of Senate
      Arrives with elephants.
      Reviews troops at Thames
      Receives allies
      Marches on Camulodunum
    • Invasion Route
    • Celebrating Victory
      Victory Relief at Aphrodisias
    • Claudius-Triumphal Arch
    • Claudius-Triumphal Arch
    • Text? -Triumphal Arch
      The Roman Senate and People to Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, son of Drusus, Pontifex Maximus, Tribunician power eleven times, Consul five times, Imperator 22 times, Censor, Father of the Fatherland, because he received the surrender of eleven kings of the Britons defeated without any loss, and first brought barbarian peoples across the Ocean into the dominion of the Roman people.
    • Another eulogy
      Britain – what sort of a place it is and what sort of inhabitants it produces – will soon be described more precisely and on the basis of greater exploration.
      …the greatest of emperors is opening it up after it has been closed so long, the conqueror of people not only unconquered but unknown to the boot!
      PomponiusMela
    • Caratacus
      Defeated in the East but regroups in the West
      Druids
      Use threat to their religion as a means of unifying people
    • Aftermath
      Rome in control of Thames valley and Kent
      Client kingdoms of Regni in Sussex and Iceni in Suffolk
      Face continued opposition from Caratacus, based in Wales
    • Aftermath-Client Kingdoms
    • Frontier
    • Map With Legionary Forts
      Wroxeter Legio XIV
      Gloucester Legio XX
      Exeter Legio II
    • What 1st Century Divorce Case Threatened Roman Britain?
    • CartimanduaWilliam Whitaker, 1990
      • Quisling?
      • Cruel, treacherous, immoral?
      • Counterpart to Claudius’ consort Messalina
      • Loyal?
    • Out of the Fire Into the Frying Pan
      Caratacus escapes
      Allies with Ordovicians in Wales
      Defeated
      Seeks aid from Roman client, Cartimandua
      Is turned over to Romans (51 CE)
      Brought to Rome
    • Caratacus before Claudius
    • Roman Legions Client Kingdoms
    • Roman Britain~47 CE
    • Tribes
      Tribes of Wales
    • Coming
      What 1st Century Briton joined 20th Century notables: Boy George, Princess Diana and Margaret Thatcher, in the list of “100 Greatest Britons”?
    • The Next Steps
      Wales will succumb
      Meanwhile back at the ranchthe natives are restless