3. S2013 After the Conquest The Second generation - William Rufus & Henry i


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The children of William the Conqueror battle or connive for the throne. Administrative changes to improve government efficiency under Henry I. King-Chruch conflicts are continuing.

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  • One of Anselm's first conflicts with William came the very month he was consecrated. William was preparing to fight his elder brother, Robert II, Duke of Normandy, and needed funds for doing so.[19] Anselm was among those expected to pay him, and he offered £500; rather less than he was expected to pay. William refused the offer, insisting on a greater sum. Later on, a group of bishops suggested that William might now settle for the original sum, but Anselm told them he had already given the money to the poor. In this episode Anselm was careful, and managed to both avoid charges of simony, and be generousRufus does not accept lower offer. Cause one of his Norman campaigns.In the eleventh century, when the papacy split between pope Urban II and antipope Clement, the effect raised waves around the Christian world. The waters beat against the shores of faraway England. King William Rufus, in a moment of serious illness, "repented." He compelled Anselm to become Archbishop of Canterbury. Later, he regretted this choice. When Anselm asked for permission to obtain his pallium (a white, woolen band indicating high church authority) from the pope, William asked which pope. "Urban, of course," said Anselm. Seeking a quarrel with the scholarly archbishop, the king said that it was not the archbishop's decision to choose who would be recognized as pope by England. Anselm might as well try and take the crown from him! Anselm defended himself as best he could. He said that he could loyally serve both pope and king, and persuaded William to summon a council of bishops and nobility to resolve the issue.On this day, March 11, 1095, the bishops and nobles met in Rockingham. The king maneuvered behind the scenes. Anselm himself addressed the assembly. "My brethren, Sons of the Church of God, for so I call all you who are assembled here in the name of the Lord, please pay attention and on the question which you have been convened to discuss give to the best of your ability the help of your considered opinion." He reminded the bishops that when he was forced to become Archbishop, he had plainly declared his allegiance to Urban. "At that time, no one had a complaint against me," he protested.Now he asked them to "examine whether it be possible for me, while retaining allegiance to the King, to keep obedience to the Apostolic See." He added, "To me it is a terrible thing to show disrespect to and disown the Vicar of St. Peter; a terrible thing, too, to transgress the allegiance which under God I have promised to maintain to the King; terrible most of all to be told that it will be impossible for me to be true to one of these loyalties without being false to the other."The nobles and bishops feared William too much to stand with Anselm. Anselm declared he would yield to Caesar what was Caesar's and to God what was God's. The bishops turned against him, refusing to bear his message to the king. They urged him to yield, pointing out that Urban was too far away to help him. When Anselm could not be turned from his determination and no accusations or arguments stood up to his wise answers, the King renounced him as Archbishop and required everyone else to do the same. The bishops complied, but the nobles put them to shame by refusing to follow their quisling example.William secretly obtained the pallium and tried to browbeat Anselm into receiving it from his hand. Anselm held out. Eventually, the king had to allow the pallium to be taken by a bishop to Canterbury and laid on the altar, where Anselm, as highest clergyman in the land, placed it on himself, demonstrating that his authority came from the church, not the king.
  • Tomb of Robert, Duke of NormandyRobert  (b 1054) was the oldest son of William the Conqueror .   Though he had rebelled against his father in  1077 and in 1082, he became Duke of Normandy when William died in 1087.  Participated in the First Crusade 1097-99.  After  the sudden  death of his brother, William Rufus in a mysterious hunting accident in  1100, Robert contended with his youngest brother, Henry I for the English throne. He was defeated by Henry at the Battle of Tinchbrai  on Sept. 28, 1106, and remained a captive until his death in 1134 at Cardiff Castle, Wales.Date of effigy is unknown, but probably before 1300. Many scholars date it to mid thirteenth century, others to ca 1280Figure has legs crossed, right hand pulling sword from scabbard.Effigy is 5"10" long and made of wood- Irish bog oak, covered with thick paint during the reign of Charles II (for description and bibliography, see Fryer, pp 82-3)During the English Civil War, the effigy was broken into pieces and sold to Sir Humphrey Tracey of Stanway. It was returned to the Cathedral after the Restoration. Fryer, p. 25) He was buried in the Abbey church of St Peter which became the chapter house of Gloucester Cathedral. Robert's effigy is of painted Irish bog oak and was made about 100 years after his death.2 The effigy is that of a cross legged knight, which since the 16th century was thought to symbolize one who had participated in the Crusades. However this theory has since been rejected, and it is now thought that the cross legged form where the figure is drawing a sword allowed sculpture to impart vigour into the effigy.3 The tomb chest that his effigy lies on dates from the 15th century
  • As archbishop Anselm had behaved towards King William, so he behaved to King Henry, in prohibiting investitures. Nor would he consecrate or bless any bishop or abbot invested by the royal hand. But although the king acted more moderately and did not follow up the anger he felt against him, he did not love him fully afterwards. But at length the king renounced investitures because of [the threat of] interdict and anathema by the Roman church, a renunciation by which he lost little or nothing, a little indeed of his royal dignity but absolutely nothing of his power to enthrone whomever he wished
  • In abbreviated Latin until 1733 (except under Cromwell)
  • 3. S2013 After the Conquest The Second generation - William Rufus & Henry i

    1. 1. Normans: The Second Generation William I m. Matilda Robert II Richard William II Henry I AdelaDuke of Normandy {<1056-1075} {1056-1100} England (1100-1135) m. Stephen of Blois (1087-1106) Normandy (1106-1135) d. 1137 {c. 1051-1134} {1068-1135}
    2. 2. William Rufus
    3. 3. White Tower Completed
    4. 4. White Tower Completed
    5. 5. Tower Fireplace
    6. 6. Tower garde-robe
    7. 7. Investiture Controversy1075 Pope Gregory declares and the LateranCouncil agrees that only the Pope: Can appoint, remove or move churchmenQuestion of homage
    8. 8. Rufus and Anselm• Archbishop of Canterbury 1093• Refuses request for £2000, offers £500• 1095 Differences over Pope
    9. 9. Rufus and Anselm• Rufus refuses to hold church council- Issues – simony – sodomy – vacant churches• Anselm to Rome 1097• Return refused
    10. 10. Rufus and the Church Anselm ] [
    11. 11. Henry I
    12. 12. Robert Curthose, effigy, Gloucesster From Flickr
    13. 13. Henry I and the Church Investiture1100 Recall of Anselm – Persuades barons to support Henry over Robert. Ultimatum to Henry that any waiver of investiture depended upon the Pope.1101 Henry threatens to break with the Popeif he does not yield.
    14. 14. Investiture (2)1102 Pope gives primacy to Anselm.Adamant on investiture but softer on clericalhomage.1102 Henry supports synod Council of London• Denounce simony, sodomy, lax discipline and wild dress and enforce celibacy.
    15. 15. Investiture (3)1103 Anselm again goes into exile.1103-5 Three warning letters from the Pope toHenry threatening excommunication.1105 Anselm goes to Rome1106 Compromise–no investitures but clericalhomage. 1107 Agreement of London
    16. 16. Hugh the Chanter on the investiture settlementBut at length the king renounced investitures becauseof [the threat of] interdict and anathema by theRoman church, a renunciation by which he lost littleor nothing, a little indeed of his royal dignity butabsolutely nothing of his power to enthronewhomever he wished.Professor Timothy Reuter, University of Southampton. Hugh the Chanter, The History of theChurch of York, 1066-1127, ed. C. Johnson, revised ed. by. M. Brett, C.N.L. Brooke and M.Winterbottom, Oxford Medieval Texts (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990), p. 22. Translatedby T. Reuter.http://www.keele.ac.uk/history/currentundergraduates/tltp/PAPACY/COMMENTS/CD4COM11.HTM
    17. 17. Monetary Reform (1108)• “he who was caught passing bad denarii should not escape by redeeming himself but should lose his eyes and members “• “…since denarii were often picked out, bent, broken, and refused, he decreed that no denarius or obol, which he said were to be round, or even a quadrans, if it were whole, should be refused “
    18. 18. Monetary Reform (1107-1108)• Cut edges to prevent plating• Round half penny replaces split penny
    19. 19. Monetary Reform (1124)• Enforcement “…the Bishop Roger of Salisbury sent over all England, and bade [moneyers] come to Winchester at Christmas. … were they [the ones judged guilty of false coinage] taken one by one, and deprived each of the right hand and the testicles beneath.”• Elimination of some mints and of periodic changes in coinage. Control of mints on Welsh border.
    20. 20. Administrative Reform Exchequer• 1110-1 First recorded exchequer – marriage of his daughter• 1130 Oldest extant pipe roll
    21. 21. Components – Tally Sticks
    22. 22. Components –Court of Audit
    23. 23. Components – AbbreviatoThe Abbreviato is a workingversion of Domesday withnotes. Used by Exchequer.13th C., Westminster Abbey
    24. 24. Components – Pipe Rolls
    25. 25. When Did This System End?• Not yet• 1826 George IV ✔• 1399 Henry IV• 1535 Henry VIII• 1461 Edward IV
    26. 26. Turner
    27. 27. Bastard Diplomacy• Sybil (1107) Alexander of Scotland• Juliane (1103) Eustace, lord of Breteuil• Maud Fitzedith (1103) Rotrou II, Count of Perche• Maud (c1113) Conan III le Gros, Duke of Brittany
    28. 28. Bastard Diplomacy• Aline (1126) - Matthew de Montmorenci, constable of France• Daughter - Fergus, Lord of Galloway• Maud of Cornwall (c1165) - Robert de Beaumont, Earl of Mellent (Count of Meulan)