3 Mali Empire Su2014

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The course of the Mali Empire during the 'medieval period.'Fall of the Ghana Empire and rise and fall of the Mali Empire. Coming of Islam to West Africa.Decline of the Mali Empire. Trade in gold and salt. Cowries as money.

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  • When a Mus- lim sage or marabout named Ismaila6 set- tled in Djenn& ,Koi Konboro, angry and suspicious, sought an excuse to kill him. A counselor hit on a scheme. Lend Is- maila gold, he suggested. I will find and steal it. You ask for it back. When Ismaila cannot produce it, you can execute him as a thief. Konboro agreed. He lent Is- maila a tobacco box filled with gold dust, which the marabout buried for safekeep- ing. The counselor, posing as a convert, grew friendly with Ismaila, who at last revealed where the gold was hidden. The counselor secretly dug it up and bore it to the king. Konboro had it thrown in the Bani River
  • The History of the Great Mosques of Djenné
    Jean-Louis Bourgeois
    African Arts, Vol. 20, No. 3 (May, 1987), pp. 54-63+90-92
  • First possibly 1200 CE 2nd 1835-6; third 1906-7
  • ~1000
  • 3 Mali Empire Su2014

    1. 1. Mali Empire Islam in West Africa What happened to the Ghana Empire
    2. 2. Islam in North Africa • Sunni – Almohad dynasty (1121–1269) • Shiite – 4th caliph, Ali – Almoravid dynasty (1040–1147) • Khajirite - anyone can become caliph – Ibadi – moderate form (from ~720) (777-909) Bierschenk, Thomas. "Religion and political structure: remarks on Ibadism in Oman and the Mzab (Algeria)." Studia islamica (1988): 107-127.
    3. 3. Essouk – Tadmekka Imports Song Dynasty (AD 960 - 1279) Cowrie
    4. 4. Decline of the Ghana Empire 1076 Almoravid leader, General Abu-Bakr Ibn- Umar captures the capital of Ghana and coverts everyone to Islam possible Almoravid rule to 1087 Legendary death of Wagadu-Bida Return to paganism with possible weakening of central control
    5. 5. Ghana Empire and surrounds Mali = Kangabo
    6. 6. Djenne Figure covered with snakes ~1350
    7. 7. Djenne, Coiled Snake, 12th-14th C. CE
    8. 8. Jenne-Jeno Conical pot w. snake
    9. 9. Sumanguru (1200-1235) • Considered last leader of Sosso (Susu) state • Possibly from a clan of former slaves who became palace guards and war chiefs • Blacksmith-magician • Suppression of Malinke?
    10. 10. Sundiata (1235-1255) • Invokes traditional powers – Blacksmith – Gold traders – Hunters – Ghana legacy • Adds Islam
    11. 11. Griots/jeli • Oral history through story telling w. music • Hereditary (Diabaté family) Keita
    12. 12. Balafon
    13. 13. Mali Empire
    14. 14. Mansa Wali (Ouali) (1255-1270) • Expands the Empire • Increases agricultural production • Hajj
    15. 15. Abu Bakr II (1310-1312) • Abdicates to lead a large navy to explore the ocean – Never returns – Evidence in Brazil and/or the Caribbean?
    16. 16. Mansa Musa (1312-1337)
    17. 17. Mansa Musa Hajj
    18. 18. Consequences • Construction of mosques, schools • Islam coexisting with native religions • Arab economic advisors • Commerce in gold to east
    19. 19. Mansa Sulaiman (1341-1360) • Visit by Ibn Battuta 1352-4 • Observation and comments on both wealth and lack of orthodoxy
    20. 20. Decline • Obscure rulers after 1389 • 1430 Tuareg seizure of Timbuktu Songhai becomes independent Mali confined to S. of former empire • 1450’s Portuguese raid the Atlantic coast • 1545 Songhai forces raid Niani
    21. 21. Decline
    22. 22. Economy of the Mali Empire • Agricultural production – Upper Niger and floodplain very good agricultural land – Sahelian grasslands good for grazing – Small villages send proportion of surplus to village chiefs and central government – State farms, slave labour, produced food needs for court and army
    23. 23. Trade in the Mali Empire • Gold trade in private hands: nuggets to king and tax on salt imports (as with Ghana) – Gold of Akan forest in 14th century • Class of professional traders (Wangara or Dyula, usually Muslim) • From 14th century, Cowrie shells from Indian Ocean: – Main currency for local trade – Gold dust & salt: currency of trans-Saharan trade
    24. 24. Traders (Dyula) • From early 11th C. • Manding speakers originating in Dia • Specific clans with high status • Transport Islam south to Ivory Coast and Ghana (current)
    25. 25. Wealth in the Mali Empire • Merchants 60,000 mithqals per year (1507) • Salt merchants 10,000 • 1 mithqal = 4.25 g ($178 at current gold prices) • Small change – 1,150 cowries to the mithqal – (note: ~1,000,000 to the mithqal in the Maldives)
    26. 26. Cowries • Cypraea moneta – Maldives • Cypraea annulus – East African Coast • Gao Saney C. moneta • Marco Polo’s family in cowrie import/export – ‘porcellana’ • 1352 Ibn Batuta finds cowries used as money in Gao
    27. 27. Trade Routes and Empires Ghana Mali
    28. 28. Timbuktu • Founding attributed to Tuaregs in the 12th century • Trade in Islamic culture – Import: Berber N. Africa – Export: Other parts of Empire; Sudan • Becomes intellectual center in 15th century
    29. 29. Djingareyber Mosque, 1325, enlarged 1570-83
    30. 30. Djingareyber Mosque
    31. 31. Sankore Mosque, 14th C., restored and enlarged 1578-82
    32. 32. Sankore Mosque
    33. 33. Mosque of Sidi Yahia, ~1400
    34. 34. Jenne-jeno
    35. 35. Jenne-Jeno History Phase I 250 BCE to 50 CE use of iron; lack of ‘permanent ‘ architecture; aquatic resources Phase II 50 – 400 CE cultivation of rice Phase III 400 – 900 CE Population growth Phase IV 900 – 1400 CE Decline after 1150 and rapid decline ~1400 CE 1180 Conversion of Koi-Konboro
    36. 36. Djenné Ruins of 13th century mosque
    37. 37. Great Mosque at Djenne (3rd version, 1906-7)
    38. 38. Jenne-jeno as depicted by a National Geographic artist
    39. 39. Jenne-jeno Smith’s workshop
    40. 40. Jenne-jeno Altar Smith’s Workshop
    41. 41. Jenne-jeno Statuettes Smith’s Workshop
    42. 42. Djenne, Spindle Whirls
    43. 43. Djenne style Embracing Couple ~1325 CE
    44. 44. Inland Niger Delta Style Equestrian figure 13th - 15th C. CE
    45. 45. Djenne style Equestrian figure
    46. 46. Djenne style Mounted warrior
    47. 47. Djenne Seated coupe 12th -15th C.
    48. 48. Djenne Seated couple (brass) 15th C

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