2s. Georgian Ireland Protestant Ascendancy
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2s. Georgian Ireland Protestant Ascendancy

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Ireland from 1814 to 1850

Ireland from 1814 to 1850

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2s. Georgian Ireland Protestant Ascendancy 2s. Georgian Ireland Protestant Ascendancy Presentation Transcript

  • Protestant Ascendancy
    Early Georgian Ireland
    • In Dublin's Fair CityWhere the girls are so prettyI first set my eyes on sweet Molly MaloneAs she wheel'd her wheel barrowThrough streets broad and narrowCrying cockles and mussels alive, alive o!
    • ChorusAlive, alive o!, alive, alive o!Crying cockles and mussels alive, alive o!
    • She was a fishmongerBut sure 'twas no wonderFor so were her father and mother beforeAnd they each wheel'd their barrowThrough streets broad and narrowCrying cockles and mussels alive, alive o!
    • Chorus
    • She died of a feverAnd no one could save herAnd that was the end of sweet Molly MaloneBut her ghost wheels her barrowThrough streets broad and narrowCrying cockles and mussels alive, alive o!
    • Chorus
  • Foreign Affairs
    1688-1697 England, Holland, HRE, Spain vs. France
    Fear of Irish collaboration
    Collaboration with HRE inhibits William from supporting anti-Catholic measures
    Treaty of Ryswick – Louis IV recognizes William
  • Irish Parliament of 1692
    Attempt to reject Treaty of Limerick
    1691 English Parliament prevents Catholics from being elected
    Penal Laws
  • House of Commons
    300 members
    32 county constituencies
    8 county boroughs (including Dublin and Cork)
    Trinity College
    Pot-walloping boroughs
    Many pocket boroughs
  • Irish House of Lords
    Spiritual
    Majority English - supported administration
    Temporal
    Majority “Old Protestant” [from Tudor or early Stuart periods] – supported administration
    “Old English” - More sympathetic to Catholic causes
    Few Catholics
  • Penal LawsProtestant Ascendancy
    Acts
    Against “papists”
    Requiring an oath of “supremacy,” “abjuration” or against transubstantiation
    Preventing “the further Growth of Popery”
  • Penal Laws
    Restrict occupations: lawyers, doctors, teachers, civil or military officeholders
    Restrict education in Ireland or abroad
    Restrict leases; land sales; inheritance
  • 1697 Banish Bishops, etc.
    Three leave voluntarily
    One transported
    Two acquitted
    Two pass as parish priests
    424 monastics transported
  • Test Act - Marriages
    Only Church of England marriages valid
    Catholic parish registers often not kept
    Mixed marriages
    Daughters in mother’s faith
    Sons in father’s faith
  • Test Act - Marriages
    Presbyterian marriages clandestine
    1737 Bill of Indemnity’ exempts Presbyterian marriage contracts from prosecution
    1782 Presbyterian ministers allowed to marry Presbyterians
    1845 Marriages of Presbyterians and others legalized
  • Land and Catholics
    Leases less than 31 years
    Rent not less than two thirds of the improved yearly value
    No Catholics in Limerick, Galway or their suburbs except sailors, fishermen or day laborers
  • Exceptions
    Brownes of Westport
    Brownes of Kenmare
  • Quaker Influence
    English Parliament exercised right to return bills to Dublin
    Quaker concerns about forced tithes
    Quaker concerns about marriage restrictions
    Quaker concerns about oaths
  • 1703Catholic Land
    Reduced to ~14%
  • Penal Laws – Consequences?
    Absenteeism
    Balance of payments
    Failure to improve property
    Conversion of tilled land to pasture
  • Mass Rocks
  • Hedge Schools
  • Scotland & Presbyterian migration
    1688-1697 30,000 from Scotland to Ulster
    1698-9 20,000 “ “
    1707 Scotland Act of Union
    Forced on Scotland for economic reasons
    Establishes Kirk (Presbyterian Church in Scotland)
    Irish request for union ignored
  • Presbyterians
    Traditional County Armagh Presbyterian prayer“May the Lord protect his ain Kirk [own Church] from the Whore that sits on the Seven Hills and her bastard daughter, the Church of Ireland”
    Regulation of marriage and inheritance
  • William Molyneux
    1698 The Case of Ireland's being Bound by Acts of Parliament in England, Stated 
  • The Case for Ireland
    England and Ireland were separate Kingdoms, i.e. Ireland is not a colony
    The happiness of a constitution, depended on a proper balance between the king's and the people's rights. 
    “All men are by nature in a state of equity” and have the right of “being free from all subjection to positive laws till by their own consent they give up their freedom by entering into civil societies.”
  • Jacobites
    1715 Jacobite Rising in Scotland
    Most Presbyterians support the government
    1745 Bonnie Price Charlie
    Lack of support from Catholic middle class
  • Economic issues – 1720’s
    Dependence on and cost of imported coal
    Rising debt
    Demands for “no new taxes”
    Outflow of silver
    Need to regulate baking industry
  • Swift a Modest Proposal . . .
  • Buy Irish
    Promoted by Swift in 1729
    1731 Dublin Society to foster textile industry
    Wearing Irish linens
    Non-importation boycotts
  • The Proposal for the Uniform Use of Irish Manufacture
    Burn every Thing that came from England . . . except their Coals
    Printer tried nine times but grand juries refuse to indict
  • Wood Half Penny
  • 1729 Famine
    Embargo on exports
    Riots in Cork, Limerick, Clonmel and Waterford in early 1729
    Mobs in Drogheda and Dublin prevent export of oats and potatoes
    Put down by Army with support of Catholic Church
    Prices lowered; public collections for poor
  • Immigration through Delaware River Ports
  • 1740-41 Famine
    Pan European cooling
    Inability to land coal
    Frozen mills
    Frozen potatoes
    Spring drought
  • Diet – Farm Family of 6
    Bread from 40 bushels
    Potatoes 52 bushels
    6 qts. buttermilk or skim milk/day
    Hundred of skim milk cheese
    Hundred of butter
    Beef from one carcass
  • Prison Diet – 1840s
    Bread diet—2 lbs. bread, 1 quart of pure milk.
    Potato—9 lbs potatoes, 1 pint of new milk, 1 pint buttermilk.
    Mixed diet—8oz. meal for stirabout, 4 lbs. potatoes, 1 pint of new milk and 1 pint of buttermilk
  • Potatoes and oats
  • Potatoes and Nutrition
  • Potatoes and Nutrition (1 Kg raw)
    330 % of Vitamin C (DV)
    140 % of Iron
    60-90 % of Mg, P, K
    Thiamine, niacin
    Milk – Ca, Vitamins A and D, B12