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2. F2013 Edward III: Hundred Years War, Wine and Wool

2. F2013 Edward III: Hundred Years War, Wine and Wool



The first phases of the Hundred Years War through Crecy and Calais. The importance of wine imports from Gascony and wool exports to Flanders.

The first phases of the Hundred Years War through Crecy and Calais. The importance of wine imports from Gascony and wool exports to Flanders.



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  • Biblical warfare image believed based on Bannockburn Wikipedia
  • The queen is in the centre of the wheel. The four figures of a king round the wheel are grasping, wearing, losing, and without a crown, referring to their ascent and descent. The fallen king drops his sceptre. The falling and fallen kings are bearded; an allusion to the ages of man. Image taken from Holkham Bible Picture Book. Originally published/produced in England, circa 1320-1330.at thetop ofthe wheel sits a young king holding a sceptrein his right hand, and, in his left hand, ascroll boldly inscribed Regno (i rule).18 to theright a kingwith grey hair and beard plungesdownhead-first,hissceptre and crownfallingaway from him. he holds a scroll on whichis written, upside-down like the figure, Regnavi (Ihave ruled). across the bottom of thepage a barefoot, grey-haired, bearded man isstretched out and looks up at Fortune. he hasReached the nadir of his fortunes, and holds a scrollinscribed Sum sine regno (Iam without akingdom). Finally we see a youthful beardless man ascending with the turning wheel,whostretches up to grasp a crown with his left hand, while holding a scroll with his right. thescroll bears the inscription Regnabo (Ishallrule). t
  • Overturned previous restrictions on aliens living in the country for an extended period and selling retail. The struggle with the Gascon merchant vintners culminated in the grant to them by the crown of the so-called Gascon Charter in 1302 This allowed the Gascons safe conduct throughout the kin's realm, permitted them to trade wholesale, and allowed them to dwell where they wished and to keep their own hostels. Moreover, on the arrival of the new vintage, all existing wine stocks were to be tested by juries and any which had deteriorated were to be destroyed. The king also released the Gascons from the recta prise; and in exchange they agreed to the payment of a new duty of 2s. on every tun of wine (256 gallons) which they imported (Lloyd, 1982). Five months later in 1303 these privileges were extended to the whole alien community.The CartaMercatoria, meaning 'the charter of the merchants', was a 1303 charter granted by Edward I to foreign merchants in England. It guaranteed them freedom to trade, protection under the law, and exemption from tolls on bridges, roads and cities. It also guaranteed no increase in the duty rates they paid.The charter was revoked by Edward II, owing to complaints by English mechants. In practice however, foreign merchants retained most of their rights.by the 15th century so much of the Duchy's lands had gone over to viticulture that its population was no longer capable of supporting itself with foodstuffs, and was forced to rely on the importation of grain and dairy products from England (Crawford, 1977, p. 16). The growing interdependence of Gascony and England had fundamental consequences for the wine trade and the personnel involved in it. Primarily, it succeeded in securing a constant supply of wine which stabilised the mechanisms of trade, and improved its potential and actual capability to generate wealth and investment. The impetus and leadership in the encouragement and maintenance of this investment was largely the remit of the merchants centred on London.
  • Andrew may have been a tavern keeper. Robert moved to London and was an apprentice of a John le Chaucer. John was involved in a street brawl following a series of attacks by two groups. The result of the brawl was a mortal injury. He left property to Robert perhapos with the condition that he assume the name and also take care of his daughters. Robert married Mary the widow of a pepperer.John Heyron the younger, with this John de Dowgate and with Stephen de Abingdon, was riding on the feast of the Translation of St Thomas, 1301, a day savouring of pilgrimage, on the Canterbury road through Sittingbourne and Ten- ham, when neighbouring villagers tried to take Heyron's dog, perhaps for illicit hunting, since it is described as leporarius. When the party reached Tenham two leaders among the peasants dragged Heyron from his horse, holding him whilst it was killed by their reeve, and assaulting Stephen de Abingdon also. Heyron, Abingdon, and John de Dowgate all sued the villagers for damages in the King's Bench at York, suing out their writs in the Michaelnas term of 1301. Their son The lad, John, had been abducted in Cordwainer Street Ward by his paternal aunt, Agnes de Westhall, by night in December, 1324, from the custody of his mother and her third husband Richard Chaucer,'0 that is in all probability from their home at tenement B in Watling Street The objective was to marry him to her daughter Joan to secure inheritance.
  • he Vintners' first charter (15th July, 1363) was in fact a grant of monopoly for trade with Gascony. It gave far-reaching powers, including duties of search throughout England and the right to buy herrings and cloths to sell to the Gascons.The wine trade was of immense importance to the medieval economy - between 1446 and 1448, wine made up nearly one-third of England's entire import trade. Since their first charter in 1363, it was the Vintners who presided over this trade. The Vintners' Company was placed eleventh out of the Twelve Great Livery Companies in the order of precedence of 1515.Swan Upping is an annual ceremonial and practical activity in Britain in which mute swans on the River Thames are rounded up, caught, marked, and then released.Traditionally, the Monarch of the United Kingdom retains the right to ownership of all unmarked mute swans in open water, but only exercises ownership on certain stretches of the River Thames and its surrounding tributaries. This dates from the 12th century, during which time swans were a common food source for royalty. Swan Upping is a means of establishing a swan census and today also serves to check the health of swans. Under a Royal Charter of the 15th century, theVintners' Company and the Dyers' Company, two Livery Companies of the City of London, are entitled to share in the Sovereign's ownership. They conduct the census through a process of ringing the swan's feet, but the swans are no longer eaten
  • The painting of the Feast of the Five Kings is a smaller replica by Albert Chevallier Taylor of his mural in the Royal Exchange. It was presented to the Company by Henry Dexter Truscott (Master 1922-3).It depicts the famous occasion in the fourteenth century when the Vintners are said to have entertained the kings of England, Scotland, Denmark, France and Cyprus. This event, when the Vintners out-classed all other Livery companies, has been preserved for six centuries in the Company's toast -"The Vintners' Company may it flourish root and branch forever with five and the Master”.
  • Gascon revenues made a more material contribution to royal power. Estimated in 1324 at 613,000, mostly from the customs duties on the wine exports for which England was Gascony's chief customer, they were worth more than the Crown's estate in England.But the most significant of the malcontents whom Edward attracted was undoubtedly Robert of Artois. Robert had long claimed the county of Artois, held from France, against his aunt, Matilda, who ruled there from 1302 until her death in '1330. Philip VI had refused to accept his claim, and when Matilda died Robert was accused of her murder. He had fled, first to Brabant, and then in 1334 to England. Two years later he was declared an enemy of the French kingdom. Edward's continuing support for the fugitive greatly embittered Anglo-French relations: it was an open breach of his feudal obligations, made more offensive by Robert's apparent advocacy of military measures against the French.The parliament of March 1337 gave its sanction to an expedition for the recovery of the Agenais. The final break came in May, when Philip VI declared Gascony confiscate, using as a pretext the support which his vassal, Edward III, had given to his enemy, Robert of Artois.
  • Twenty years after the invasion, 35% of England was covered in arable land, 25% put to pasture, with 15% covered by woodlands and the remaining 25% predominantly being moorland, fens and heaths.
  • Middelburg is a municipality and a city in the south-western Netherlands and the capital of the province of Zeeland. It was the seat of the staple from 1384-88Orwell is actually an interior town on the Orwell River.
  • In 1326the"foreign"staplewasre- placed by a numberof "home" staples.5The systemof home staples concerned woolsalesinEngland.A certain number of English townswereselectedas staple towns.All wool outsidethesetownscould be boughtonlybyEnglishmerchants. These buyersthencarriedtheirpurchasesto one of the staple townswheretheyofferedtheirwoolforsale to English clothiers,Englishtraders,and alien wool merchantsT.Thatthestaplesystem,whetherhomeorforeignw,asviewedasaproblemofthemerchantsandnotofthegovernmentis again evidentfromdiscussionsheld early in 18*32r8egardingthe futureof the compulsorystaple. The new govern- mentdidiiotdecideon a policybutsummonedanassemblyofmerchantsfor this puirpose
  • Case of Netey AbbeyHenry III addled to the endowment left by Peter des Roches. The king donated farmland, urban property in Southampton and elsewhere, and spiritual revenues from churches. By 1291, taxation returns show that the abbey had a clear annual revenue of £81, a comfortable income. However, shortly afterwards a period of bad management resulted in the abbey accruing substantial debts, and it was soon almost bankrupt. In 1328 the government was forced to appoint an administrator, John of Mere, to address the crisis. Despite forcing the abbot to apply revenues to debt repayment and to sell many of the estates, he was only partly successful. Ten years later the abbey was again appealing to the king for help with a disastrous financial situation. The monks blamed their problems on the cost of providing hospitality to the many travellers by sea, and the king's sailors who landed at the abbey. The king provided some small grants enabling the abbey to overcome its difficulties but the property sales meant that the abbey's income never recovered and it settled into what has been described as genteel poverty.
  • Winchester weightWinchester weightA bronze Edward III standard weight of 56 lb with a ring on top. The upper part is marked with four roundels carrying the arms of Edward III (lions of England quartered with Fleur de lys of France). The top is stamped with an official stamp of a crowned Lombardic E. This weight was used for weighing wool.This forms part of the Winchester Weights and Measures collection.Height 160mm. Base diameter 180mm. Suspension ring diameter 126mm.A bronze Edward III standard weight of 91lb with a ring on top. The sides are marked with six roundels carrying the arms of Edward III (Lions of England quartered with Fleur-de- lys of France) and an official stamp of a crown over a Lombardic E. This weight was used for weighing wool.This forms part of the Winchester Weights and Measures collection.Height 190mm. Base diameter 210mm. Suspension ring diameter 160mm.On display at Westgate Museum.
  • Embargo against Brabant quickly lifted
  • Edward III negotiated a contract with a companyof English merchants on 26 July, 1337, by whichthey were to have the exclusive right to buy and shipa total of 30,000 sacks of wool to the continent.4 Thewool was to be taken to Dordrecht in Holland and sold,profits of the sale to be shared equally by the kingand the merchants. However, this contract did notsurvive the shipment of the first consignment of 10,000sacks, since a disagreement arose between the king andthe contractors. Edward seized the 10,000 sacks andhad them sold by his own agents. The king paid no cash to theowners; he merely gave them promissory notes whichwere not easily redeemable. The bulk of these noteswere still unpaid by July of 1343.Hence merchants did not respond in subsequent years and inadequate suppies and revenues were obtained requiring the abandonment of the land operations which depended on paying local troops.

2. F2013 Edward III: Hundred Years War, Wine and Wool 2. F2013 Edward III: Hundred Years War, Wine and Wool Presentation Transcript

  • War, Wine and Wool
  • Topics • Edward II to Edward III: Review • Wine, Vintners and Chaucer Origins • Hundred Years War • Financing the War: Wool and the Merchant • Medieval Warfare
  • Edward II, Strike 1: Gaveston • Gascon • Appointment to a position with control of patronage and hence an object of resentment • Ordinances formalize role and meeting of parliament; banish Gaveston • His return is marked by a trial and execution
  • Edward II, Strike 2: Scotland 1314 Defeat at Bannockburn
  • Edward II, Strike 3: The Despensers Isabella and Mortimer • Power given to the Despenser family – Corruption – Rebellion joined by Mortimers • Queen Isabella and her lover, Mortimer – Invasion – Execution of Despenser (Froissart)
  • Out • Abdication of Edward II in favor of his young son, Edward III • Murder of Edward II at Berkeley Castle
  • Wheel of Fortune Holkham Bible 1320-1330 I rule I have ruled I am without a kingdom I shall rule
  • Vintners Taverners unto them told the same tale: `White wine of Alsace and (red) wine of Gascony, Wine of the Rhine, of Rochelle to help settle your roast!' Langland: Vision of Piers Plowman, prologue
  • Wine - Vintners tun = 256 gallons
  • Wines • Sweet wine – Spain • Caprike – Cyprus or Capri • Fortified - Portugal • White – Chablis • Bitter (vinegar) • Bordelaise and Haut Pays
  • Wine Producers • Gascony switches to grapes and wine production • Importer of grain from/through England
  • Wine Gascon Wine Production 13th C Bordelaise and Haut-Pays
  • Wine Trade • Gascon Charter (1302) – Safe conduct – Free trade in exchange for a fixed duty • Carta Mercatoria (1303) – Extended to all merchants – Revoked by Edward II • Increasing importance of English importers
  • Wine Consumers • Royal and noble households – Imported through royal butler – Best wine reserved for royal table – More than a million bottles for the wedding of Edward II – Wine as gifts and for troops • Lesser households – Problems of adulteration and substitution • Taverns • Maximum prices set
  • Chaucer Family
  • Vintner’s Company • People of the same trade – Live in the same area – Attend the same church – Organize into livery companies • 1363 Charter gives it a monopoly on the wine trade with Gascony – Retained in City until 2006 – Right of Swan Upping
  • Vintner’s Company Feast of Five Kings
  • Prominent Vintners - Mayors • Henry de Waleys 1273–4, 1281–4, and 1298–9 • Sir Richer Refham (son of vintner) 1310-11 • John de Gisors 1311-13, 1314-15 • Henry Picard 1357 (Feast of Five Kings) • Richard Lyons (corrupt) financier, warden of the mint
  • London 1300
  • Vintry Ward
  • Edward III and the Hundred Years War Dr. Jennifer Paxton
  • Hundred Years War • Honor of control of Gascony • Economics of control of Gascony • French support of Scotland • English refuge for a rebel against French • Availability of French navy after cancellation of Crusade – attacks on Channel ports
  • Dynastic Succession -France John 5 days Louis X (1314-1316) Philip V (1317-1322) Charles IV (1322-1328) Edward III Isabella m. Edward II Philip IV (1285-1314) Philip VI (1328-1350) Charles de Valois Philip III (1270-1285)
  • Costs of War - Manpower • Combatants 32,000 (Crécy, Calais) • Support > 10,000 • Transport ~20,000 • Producers of war materials from armor to uniforms • Occupation
  • 100 Years War to 1360
  • Battles of the Hundred Years War
  • Wool Hundred Years War – Wool Late 20th-21st Centuries – Oil
  • Wheat to Wool 11.3 M acres 12.8 M acresArable
  • Trade England Flanders Gascony Wool Cloth Wine ‘carrying wool to England’ poet of Artois
  • The Merchant on pilgrimage There was a MERCHANT with forked beard In motley gown, and high on horse he sat, Upon his head a Flemish beaver hat; 275 His boots were fastened neatly and elegantly. He spoke out his opinions very solemnly, Stressing the times when he had won, not lost. He wanted the sea were guarded at any cost Between Middleburgh and the town of Orwel. 280 He knew how to deal foreign currencies, buy and sell. This worthy man kept all his wits well set; There was no person that knew he was in debt, So well he managed all his trade affairs With bargains and with borrowings and with shares
  • Wool Staple • Designation of specific ports to receive exports • Edward I Designates favored ports • 1313 Edward II requires shipment to specified ports in Artois, Brabant and Flanders – Repealed 1328; revived 1333 and then repealed • 1338 Made permanent
  • Wool sales Often advance contracts, particularly between monasteries and Italian banker/traders • Discounts – avoid usury • Advantages – Up front payment for capital costs – Assurance of supply • Risks – Disease, deliberate default, crown seizures, taxes, bankruptcy
  • Standards: Weights and Measures Required by the Magna Carta By 1305 Gallon and bushel defined in terms of a pound (gallon of wine to weigh 8 pounds) 1305 Standard definition of yard Imperial pound (Avoirdupois) – 1340 Standards in every County – 1352 Sack of wool = 26 stones; stone = 14 lbs – 1357 Standards to every sheriff
  • 56 lbs Standard Weights 91 lbs (quarter sack) 190 mm
  • Taxation of Wool • 1275 First nationwide customs duty on wool exports • 1303 Customs applied to all exports by aliens • Custom duty of half a mark • Add subsidy of 40s • 1347 Taxation on exported cloth
  • Wool and Cloth Exports
  • Flanders and Wool English wool - mainstay of industry in Flanders, Brabant and Artois Count of Flanders, Louis of Nevers, pro-French policies lead to English embargo in August 1336 Economic disaster in Flanders; Insurrection leads to ouster 1347 Killed at Crécy
  • Wool importers
  • 1337 Jacob van Artevelde, Ghent Insurrection in Flanders  Establishes federation with Bruges and Ieper (Ypres)  Wool embargo lifted  Claims of Edward to France recognized  1345 Assassinated by mob after excommunication and suspicion of corruption and making Black Prince Count
  • Protecting the wool fleet Fighting the French Navy Naval battle between two cogs (1330 psalter)
  • Financing the Government - 1331 Feudal levies (Crown estates, sheriffs) £21,000 Incidents of Government (fines) 14,700 Taxes (Customs, Church lands) 25,800 Credit 11,100 Borrowed 15%
  • Financing the Government - 1337 Feudal levies (Crown estates, sheriffs) £10,600 Incidents of Government (loans against future revenues, fines) 32,200 Taxes (Parliamentary grants of wool, Customs, Church lands) 117,600 Credit 98,480 Borrowed 38%
  • 1337 Wool Scheme • Use ‘purveyance’ to purchase wool in England at £6 • Sell in Holland for £14 • Wool seized and sold at Dordrecht, Holland • Failure to obtain supplies
  • Next Week: Chivalry The Knight and 14th Century Warfare