DiarmaitMcMurrough, king of Leinster, asdepicted in the margins of GiraldusCambrensis'sExpugnatioHibernica.Ancestor of George Washington
Painting of marriage of Strongbow w Aoiffe (daughter of MacMurrow). David Maclise, 1853. Ireland in Poetry pairs this with the 17-18th century poem orig. in Irish
Followed by erosion of area that still had continual contact and control by English
Sir Edward Poynings KG (1459–1521) was Lord Deputy to King Henry VII of England. The working of Poynings’ Law took place in several steps. The first step was for the lieutenant governor and the Irish council (or Irish executive) to decide that a parliament was needed, usually for the purpose of raising funds. At this point the council and lieutenant would write drafts of legislation to be proposed to the king and his council. After this had been completed, the lieutenant and council, according to the act, were required to certify the request for parliament “under the great seal of that land [Ireland],” and then forward it to England for approval. Once the request arrived in England, it was reviewed by the King and his council, and a formal licence, approving the request for parliament and the draft bills were returned to Ireland. Once the licence was received in Ireland, the governor would summon parliament, and the bills passed. It is important to note that “government was not in the modern sense representative, and there was no sustained opposition. Parliament’s consent was necessary for some purposes, and it frequently offered advice, but the decisions were made by the English and Irish councils”. This is an important fact to consider when examining exactly who the law was aimed to suppress. As the point above demonstrates, parliament was virtually a rubber stamp, and it was the Irish executive who made the actual decisions in proposing policy.The two important aspects of the procedure presented by Poynings’ Law are transmission and certification. Both of these requirements placed limits on various parties within the law making process in Ireland. The combination of these processes created a situation where bills could be sent, along with the request for parliament, and the king could amend and remove such bills as he wished, however he could not add new bills himself. This is a result of the certification process which requires the submission to be made by the Irish council “under the great seal of that land [Ireland]”. The original intention of the certification process was to remove the capacity of initiating legislation from the parliament, and place it with the Irish council and governor. But as a result of the way it was framed in the act, it also removed that capacity from the English parliament and administration as well because legislation could only be submitted for approval by the Irish executive.Furthermore, the two processes made it impossible for the Irish to add more bills or amendments to a request, after the initial licence request had been granted. This meant that any additional bills or amendments that they wished to pass in parliament would have to be re-sent along with an entirely new request for parliament. Clearly this created severe inefficiencies in the legislative process, and thus gave the executive in Ireland as well as the crown an interest in relaxing procedure. As early as 1496 “the rigid procedure laid down by Poynings’ Law was not being adhered to” and additional bills were commonly sent to England after the original request, and were returned to Ireland before the meeting of a new parliament. The example from 1496 was the separate request for parliamentary licence and sending of bills in the reappointment of the earl of Kildare. At this time, because the rigid procedure of Poynings’ Law was not in the interest of any of the parties involved, especially the crown and Irish executive, Quinn argues that “no hesitation was felt about transmitting additional bills” after the licence had been grantedPoynings had to leave England very quickly after taking part in a failed revolt against Richard III in 1483. Escaping to Brittany, he became associated with the future Henry VII while in exile there. He was later rewarded for his services through his appointment as Lord Deputy of Ireland, where he made the Irish Parliament subordinate to the English Parliament in order to reduce Yorkist influences. Upon his return to England in 1496 he enjoyed other military and civil posts.The general intention of the act was to provide aconstitutional check on the action of Irish-born viceroys, such asthe 'great earl' of Kildare, who had recently caused the Irishparliament to ratify the enthronement of a pretender to HenryVII's crown--Lambert Simnel. That parliament was little morethan a registration court for viceregal decrees, and cannot haveregarded Poynings' Law as a restriction of its powers in the fieldof public legislation.4
Mountjoy smashed the O'Neill’s inauguration stone at Tullaghogue, symbolically destroying the O'Neill clan. Famine soon hit Ulster as a result of the English scorched earth strategy. O'Neill’s uirithe or sub-lords (O’Hagan, O’Quinn, MacCann) began to surrender and Rory O'Donnell, Hugh Roe's brother and successor, surrendered on terms at the end of 1602. However, with a secure base in the large and dense forests of TirEoghain, O'Neill held out until 30 March 1603, when he surrendered on good terms to Mountjoy at Mellifont. Elizabeth I had died on the 24th of March.
Why the earls fled in such hurried circumstances is addressed in alternative explanations. Alleged to have become involved in a new plot against the crown, they are portrayed by government officials at the time as fleeing because they feared that their treasonable activities were about to be exposed. For others, by contrast, the sudden nature of the flight is viewed as resulting from a campaign of harassment by crown officials who were bitter that O’Neill and O’Donnell had been pardoned at the end of the Nine Years War. According to this school of thought, the earls fled to the continent fearing that they were on the verge of being arrested, framed for treason and executed. If the debate about the causes of the flight will continue to rage, there is little disagreement about the enormous consequences of the event, paving the way, as it did, for the Plantation of Ulster.The tragic grandeur of the Flight of the Earls was, after all, an accident of history. Those who left in September 1607 did not see themselves as participating in a moment of epic finality. They intended to return to continue the fight for their own lands and for the Catholic counter-reformation against Protestantism. Young Hugh O'Neill's gravestone records that his death "shattered the hopes of many . . . that he would one day restore the Catholic faith in its full splendour" in Ireland.Nor were the chieftains who left Ireland in 1607 popular heroes in any simple sense. Much of the minor Gaelic aristocracy saw Hugh O'Neill in particular as a self-aggrandising threat to their own power and was not at all displeased at his departure. Niall Garbh O'Donnell had fought with the English against his dynastic rival, Red Hugh O'Donnell, as did Tyrone's son-in-law DonalO'Cahan. The redivision of land in Ulster that followed the Flight of the Earls initially favoured some of the minor branches of the O'Neill and Maguire dynasties as well as old Gaelic families like the O'Boyles, MacSweeneys, and O'Hanlons. The feelings of the majority of Irish people, the so-called "churls", are not recorded, but Donegal folklore long recorded an enthusiastic welcome for the Flight. The rebel armies had been largely manned by mercenaries and there was little evidence of popular resistance to the spread of English rule after the defeat of the Gaelic lords in the Nine Years War. Historian Marianne Elliott has even noted that "The 'churls' may well have fared a good deal better under the new dispensation than under the Gaelic land system." It is not even true that, as is often claimed, the Flight of the Earls marked the death of Gaelic Ireland. There was certainly a profound cultural disruption. The poet Daibhi O Bruadair, born in 1625, referred to his time as that of "briseadh an tseanghnathaimh" - the breaking of the old customs. For his class - the traditional poets and scholars who had enjoyed privilege and patronage under the old Gaelic order - the period after the Flight was disastrous. The schools in which the complex forms and oral traditions of the old bards had been preserved went into sharp decline. THE KEYNOTES IN Gaelic culture became nostalgia for a lost golden age and dreams of a saviour arriving from abroad to restore it. At first, there was mourning for the lost chiefs, like Eochaidh O hEodhasa's ode to his patron Hugh Maguire, killed in a skirmish near Cork in 1600. Then there were evocations of a land bereft of its true inhabitants, like Aindrias Mac Marcais's The Deserted Land: "Tonight Ireland is lonely . . . There is no laughter at a child's deeds, music ceases, Gaelic is imprisoned . . . No praise poem is recited, no bedtime story told, no desire to see a book, no giving ear to the family pedigrees . . ." Then there were denunciations of the new English masters as a "blind ignorant crew" for their lack of appreciation of the great Gaelic poets. Then there were increasingly dreamy evocations of the Stuarts, the dethroned British royal family who gradually replaced the O'Neills and the Spanish as wished-for saviours from beyond the water. Yet the cataclysm for the old Gaelic order also produced, paradoxically, a flourishing of Gaelic literature. Where the old bards had passed on their knowledge through oral transmission in closed schools, the break-up of the schools made it necessary to write things down. They had to be written, too, in a language that was more accessible to the ordinary people. New forms of Gaelic literature emerged. Geoffrey Keating (SeathrunCeitinn) wrote his ForasFeasaarEirinn (A Primer of Knowledge on Ireland) to refute the calumnies on the Irish in previous works by English authors. Micheal O Cleirigh and his three assistants returned from the Catholic seminary at Louvain in the 1620s to collect old manuscripts and compiled the Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland, an indispensable source for early Irish history. Poets began to adopt the song metres of the ordinary people and to write in a more immediate and personal way. This in turn may have given a new stimulus to the Gaelic oral tradition, with a huge body of stories, songs, rhymes and prayers emerging after 1600. Arguably, Gaelic poetry's two great masterpieces, Brian Merriman's The Midnight Court and EibhlinDubh Ni Chonaill's Lament for Art O'Leary, date from the late 18th century. If the Flight of the Earls was not in any simple sense a national tragedy, and if it did not mark the death of Gaelic Ireland, why is it worth remembering ? In part, the answer lies precisely in the way the complex history of the times became a romantic story. The narrative that was forged by Irish priests and writers from their continental exile in the decades after the Flight may have been, as Brian Friel explored in his play Making History, a sanitised tale of saintly Catholics fighting a noble but doomed struggle against Protestant heresy. But it was a great story and the Flight gave it an almost artistic conclusion that enhanced its power. In a culture that would be characterised by emigration, the moment of departure and the deaths in exile resonated with ordinary experience and made complex, haughty men like O'Neill into mythic figures who could embody a defeated nation.That story helped to shape the self-image of Irish Catholics, especially in Ulster. The Flight, along with the confiscation of Catholic church property, opened the way to the Plantation of Ulster in which Gaelic tribal lands were progressively occupied by English and Scottish landlords and tenants. By 1732, Ulster had become a predominantly Protestant province, with 313,000 Protestants and 192,000 Catholics. A sense of possession and dispossession solidified itself along sectarian lines
1633 St Columb's Cathedral in the walled city of Derry, Northern Ireland is the mother church of the Church of Ireland Diocese of Derry and Raphoe and the parish church of Templemore. First protestant cthedral.
Plains are exposed land where they can be more easily watched.
Lords weighed by the 19 bishops with only 5 Protestants out of 25 Lords Secular.
The word derives from the Middle Irish word tóraidhe; modern Irish tóraí: outlaw, robber or brigand, from the Irish word tóir, meaning "pursuit", since outlaws were "pursued men". It was originally used to refer to an Irish outlaw and later applied to Confederates or Royalists in arms. The term was thus originally a term of abuse, "an Irish rebel", before being adopted as a political label in the same way as WhigCatholic proprietors were still in the country and regarded themselves as the rightful owners of lands which they had lostthrough violated treaties. Naturally enough, they were not inclined to make things pleasant for the new owners. The IrishParliament, however, took steps to deal with them. The StatuteBook contains Act after Act directed against so-called rappareesthese rapparees being in many cases the late proprietorswho had taken themselves to the mountains and other strongholds from thence to harass their evictors. An Act of 17071directs " that all vagrants pretending to be Irish gentlemen whocoshered about from house to house should, after presentmentbefore grand juries, be transported to the colonies, or sent onboard the fleet."
Many soldiers receive so little land that they sell to officersMost Irish are not removed.
Oath of Supremacy provided for any person taking public or church office in England to swear allegiance to the monarch as Supreme Governor of the Church of England.
Addition of escutcheon of Nassau
Defense by Presbyterians
The Treaty of Limerick ended the Williamite war in Ireland between the Jacobites and the supporters of William of Orange. It concluded the Siege of Limerick. The treaty was signed on October 3, 1691 by Patrick Sarsfield (for King James II) and Lords Justice for William III. Reputedly it was signed on the Treaty Stone, an irregular block of limestone which once served as a mounting block for horses. This stone is now displayed on a pedestal in Limerick city. Because of the treaty, Limerick is sometimes known as the Treaty City. (Wikipedia)One of the effects of this treaty and its eventual reputure was the departure of thousands of irish to fight in the continental wars (mostly on the French side).The mystery surrounding the Treaty of Limerick is still valid today as it was when it was first signed: 1. Why did the Catholic forces defending Limerick sign a Treaty that gave them none of the seven proposals that they asked for? This question was made very clear by Ginkle, when he rejected all the Catholic's proposals for a fair settlement and peace. 2. The Catholic forces defending Limerick far outnumbered William's army under Ginkle, that was besieging Limerick. 3. Ginkle's forces were unable to stop food supplies coming into Limerick for the sustenance of the Catholic troops within the walls of Limerick. Most of these supplies came from County Clare, from people that had sons defending the city. 4. It was late in the year, and winter was almost upon them. Any commander of an army that was well seasoned in warfare in the northern hemisphere, would have known that it would be suicidal to keep troops at full military alert, ready to attack a defending army at a moments notice, in a swampy terrain such as the Shannon estuary. 5. From a military point of view, Limerick was unassailable from an attacking army such as William's forces. To be successful, it would have to be assailed from all four sides at the same time. Surely the commanders within the walls knew that, and they would almost certainly know the strength of the opposing forces outside the walls. The Catholics within the walls of Limerick were in a very strong position to defend their city from William's army. They could have spent the winter months gathering their strength for a spring offensive, or to use the cold months to try and broker a better settlement than what was on offer from Ginkle. Many years after the signing of the treaty, Berwick thought that the reasons for the capitulation of Limerick were the following: 1. The Irish Military leaders at the time were very ambitious. They saw no future in fighting Irish wars. All the great generals at the time were making a name for themselves in the numerous wars that were fought on the continent. There was also rich pickings from these battles as the generals were allowed to keep any booty that they could capture. 2. To be a successful general, especially in France at the time, one would have to command sizable regiments of soldiers that were totally loyal and dependable in battle, such as the Irish troops, which had a reputation for being very brave. 3. The Catholic forces defending Limerick included a number of French troops. These French troops were already showing signs of homesickness even at the Battle of Aughrim. They didn't have any heart in the fighting. Why should they lose their lives fighting a foreign war in a backward country such as they perceived Ireland at the time ?. They had no love for the native Irish, and saw them as backward people, similar to other nationalities that were not French. They could not discourse with the natives, as the latter only spoke Gaelic.
Abjuration – fealty to monarch and not James or his descendants
Protestant converts who educate their children as Catholics are considered Catholics.
Under Anne new bishops were appointed but they functioned clandestinely. One was too poor to buy a horse or keep a servant.
n the case of mixed marriages between Catholic and Protestants often an agreement was reached to raise the female offspring in the faith of the mother and the male offspring in the faith of the father. Apparently, this was a common occurrence in mixed marriages of the time under a benevolent convention known as the Palantine Pact [Francis X McCorry: ‘Parish registers – Historical Treasures in Manuscript’, Lurgan, 2004, p.17]. Such marriages were looked on with disfavour by the Catholic Church but they were admitted to be canonically valid. If a mixed marriage had taken place in a Protestant church it was to be followed by a Roman Catholic ceremony [and where this had not occurred the Catholic party was to be excluded from the sacraments], and this remained the discipline until the middle of the nineteenth century.
Many marriages not registered in the absence of property considerations. Performed in the house.
Exclusive right of Church to conduct marriages.Intervention by Penn. Papist may not own horses worth more than 5 pounds and any one can offer 5 pounds 5 for a horse and take psosession. Officers take his horses under the act declaring Quakers to be papists because they refuse the oath. Penn uses his influence in England to not only get the horses restored but the officers jailed.Quaker lobbying was more effective than Presbyterian because it was organized and because they were less of a threat to the established chrurch. In at least one case Quaker records not a small payment to a Secretary to the Privy Council and a satirical pampletalleeges a payment to the wife of a bishop on the Council.
It is with John Browne III (1638-1711) that the connection with Westport House commenced. A successful lawyer, he married Maud Bourke, daughter of Viscount Mayo and great-great granddaughter of the Pirate Queen, Granuaile (Gráinne O'Malley 1530-1603). John Browne greatly increased his estate in Mayo and Galway including Cathair-na-Mart (the Fort of the Beeves) a ruinous O'Malley fortress on the shores of Clew Bay.John’s good fortune was soon swept away as Ireland was plunged into chaos in the Williamite wars. A Catholic, John supported the Jacobite cause and was a Colonel in the Jacobite army. From the iron mines on his lands near Westport, he supplied the army with cannon balls and weapons. The defeat of the Jacobite army at Aughrim and Limerick in 1691 brought financial ruin in the confiscations that followed. At his death in 1711 his estate was reduced to Cathairna Mart and a few hundred acres. The Penal Laws which followed left his grandson, John IV, with little option but to conform to the prevailing religion in the hope of surviving the confiscations and political upheaval.John gradually revived the family fortune. Young and ambitious he set about extending his estate and transforming the old O'Malley castle into modern day Westport House. He replaced the old village of Cathair-na-Mart with a new town of Westport where he established a thriving linen industry. An excellent farmer, he set about improving the fertility of his lands, which, for the most part, were of poor quality. He became the first Earl of Altamont. In 1752, his son and heir, Peter, 2nd Earl of Altamont, married the heiress, Elizabeth Kelly from Co Galway, whose estates in Jamaica further enhanced the family fortune.Thomas Browne, 6th Baronet & 4th Viscount Kenmare (April 1726 – 11 September 1795) was an Irish landowner and politician. He was probably born at Killarney, County Kerry, the second of four children of Valentine Browne, fifth Baronet, third Viscount Kenmare (1695–1736), one of the few remaining great Roman Catholic landowners in Ireland, and his first wife, Honoria Butler (?-1730). Thomas Browne's great-grandfather, Sir Valentine Browne, third Baronet, had been created first Viscount Kenmare by James II in March 1689. This was an Irish peerage created after the removal of James II from the English throne, but during the period when James was de facto king of Ireland, before the conquest of Ireland by William III. The first and second viscounts had fought for James II but seem never to have been formally attainted under William. Consequently, the peerage remained on the Irish patent roll in a constitutionally ambiguous position, but was not formally recognized by the Protestant political establishment.
The Case of IrelandTwo pressing constitutional issues occupied Molyneux in the last year of his life. Backed by English wool merchants, a bill to prevent the export of Irish woollens to any country other than England passed the English House of Commons on 21 February 1698. About the same time, Bishop William King of Derry was involved in litigation with the London companies that owned large estates in Ulster. King won an appeal to the Irish House of Lords, but early in 1698 the English counterpart ruled that the Irish house had no jurisdiction and reversed the verdict. Molyneux was personally involved in helping the bishop with legal precedents for his appeal. Against this background he wrote his celebrated work The Case of Ireland's being Bound by Acts of Parliament in England, Stated early in 1698.
1S.Ireland to 1714
Ireland 1690-2011<br />Robert Ehrlich<br />
TurloughO’Carolan (1670-1738)<br />Music for harp and voice<br />Composed for patrons<br />Viewed by contemporaries as a symbol of a dead culture; the Irish Homer<br />
Arrivals - Prehistoric<br />First peoples - mesolithic<br />First farmers - neolithic<br />First metal workers - chalcolithic<br />First iron workers – Iron Age<br />
Impact<br />Destruction of monasteries<br />Foundation of ports and their hinterlands<br />Intermarriage and/or eventual defeat by native Irish<br />
DiarmaitMacMurchada (MacMurrow)<br />1152-3 Conflict w. King of Leinster over abduction, elopement or hostage taking of his wife<br />Exiled in 1166<br />Returns w. Cambro-Norman aid<br />1171 Invasion by Henry II Lordship<br />
Hope<br />Life has conquered, the wind has blown away<br />Alexander, Caesar and all their power and sway<br />Tara and Troy have made no longer stay −<br />Maybe the English too will have their day.<br />
Irish Law and English Law1494 Poynings’ Law<br />Suppression of brehon law<br />Poynings, Lord deputy to Ireland 1494-96<br />Require permission of King for Parliament to meet<br />All proposed laws must be first be sent to King and Council for certification<br />
Surrender and Regrant<br />Trade clan leadership for English land title and English titles<br />Operate under English law<br />Renounce papal authority<br />
Nine Years War(1594-1603)Hugh O’Neill2nd earl of Tyrone<br />
O’Neill’s 22 Articles<br />Restoration of Church of Ireland to Pope and reinstatement of clergy<br />No English clergy<br />State supported University (Roman Catholic)<br />Right to pursue education and occupations<br />Governor be at least an earl<br />Principal officials be Irish as well as half the military<br />Equal rights to trade<br />Children not responsible for wrongs of their ancestors<br />
End of the War<br />1601 battle of Kinsale<br />Symbolic destruction of inauguration stone<br />Scorched earth policy<br />Surrender of allies<br />Surrender of Hugh O’Neill to Mountjoy 30 March 1603<br />[Elizabeth died 24 March]<br />
1607 Flight of the Earls<br />Harassment by Crown officials<br />Justifiable fear of being framed and executed<br />
Conditions for successful applicants<br />Undertakers –English, Scottish Protestants. <br />Rent of £5.6s.8d. per 1,000 acres. <br />No Irish tenants<br />Build and defend fortified houses<br />Servitors – Mainly Scots. <br />May take Irish tenants but their rent increases to £8 per 1,000 acres.<br />The Meritorious Irish <br />Rent of £10.13s.4d. per 1,000 acres <br />May take Irish tenants. <br />
Londoners<br />Need for investment<br />Accept the call<br />Demand more land from Donegal be added<br />Ask for control over fisheries<br />
Natives<br />Elite given land on short tenure<br />English, Scots get river access<br />Natives get “plains”<br />Many plantations later open to natives<br />Ministers required to take Irish language course ~10% fluent<br />
Ireland: Change in Diet<br />Subsistence vs. cash crops<br />Land division<br />
Charles I and the English Parliament<br />Offer by Charles of “graces” abolishing anti-Catholic measures and restoring property <br />Not accepted by English Parliament<br />Irish rebel<br />
Stages of Conflict<br />Rebellion 1641-42<br />Irish Catholics vs. Settlers and (English) Dublin Government<br />Confederates' war 1642-48<br />Most Irish Catholics vs. English<br />Confederation vs. Parliamentary Army<br />Confederate-Royalist coalition vs. Parliamentary Army<br />Cromwellian War 1649-1653<br />
Attack on Parliamentary army<br />Siege of Parliamentary forces at Londonderry, Dundalk and Dublin<br />O'Neill refuses to join the Royalist-Confederate coalition because Ormond (c)would not commit to the restoration of lands in Ulster<br />Gives aid to Parliamentary forces<br />Comes around too late<br />
England – Financing the War<br />1642 Act for Adventurers<br />Allocate 2.5 million acres (1/8 of Ireland)<br /> Subscribers pay £200 for an eventual 1,000 acres <br />1643 Doubling Ordinance gives 2x the land for an increase of 25% in investment<br />
Cromwell<br />1652 Act for Settlement<br />Ten named royalists who would lose land and life<br />Pardons for<br />Soldiers in Confederate Army<br />Leaders of the Irish army lose two-thirds of their estates<br />Catholic residents lose 1/3 but could exchange for land in Connaught or Clare<br />No pardon for priests<br />
1652 Act for Settlement<br />Protestant Royalists who had surrendered by May 1650 and had paid fines to the Parliamentarian government could avoid land confiscation . <br />Many pre-war Irish Protestants increased their own holdings by buying land from Adventurers. <br />Smaller grants of land were given to 12,000 veterans of the New Model Army (often sold).<br />
Transplantation<br />Proprietors - Land of same quality they forfeited<br />Tenants - Become tenants of the state<br />Landless - Use state-owned land more than ten miles from the Shannon or:<br />Stay as ‘hewers of wood and drawers of water’<br />Ploughmen and skilled labor exempt<br />Political enemies transported to West Indies (Barbadosed)<br />
Guerillas or Bandits<br />16th century – wood kerne<br />Cromwell – Tories <br />Late 18th century on - Rapparees (Jacobites and highwaymen) <br />
A Ballad<br />Now Sassenach and Cromweller, take heed of what I say,<br />Keep down your black and angry looks that scorn us night and day;<br />For there's a just and wrathful Judge that every action sees,<br />And He'll make strong, to right our wrong, the faithful Rapparees.<br />
Restoration of Charles II<br />Only partial return of land to those dispossessed by Cromwell<br />
Net Effect of Settlement<br />% of Land owned by Catholics<br />1641 60%<br /> Cromwell 8-9%<br /> Restoration 20%<br />~2,000 families moved<br />Cost of wars ₤3-3,500,000<br />Revenue from land sales ₤306,708<br />
Migration - 17th CenturyOne estimate<br />700 per year to the continent<br />200 migrants per year before 1650 to New World<br />400 per year from 1650-1700<br />Few Catholic migrants to mainland colonies<br />
North America<br />1623 and 1625 Colonies established by Calvert (Lord Baltimore) in Newfoundland<br />1670 Immigrants to South Carolina from Barbados<br />1682 First Irish Quaker immigrants - West Jersey<br />
“Patriot Parliament”<br />Act of Recognition recognized James as King of Ireland<br />Declaratory Act affirmed that the Kingdom of Ireland was "distinct" from England<br />No Act of the English Parliament was binding on Ireland unless passed by the Irish Parliament<br />
“Patriot Parliament”<br />Liberty of Conscience gave full freedom of worship and civic and political equality for Roman Catholics and Protestant Dissenters<br />Repeal Oath of Supremacy<br />Repeal Cromwellian land settlement and provide for return of lands<br />Overturned by English Parliament<br />
James II to William and Mary<br />A Not So Glorious Revolution<br />
Flight and Return<br />William invited to England<br />James II flees to France<br />Return through Ireland<br />
Military Treaty<br />Jacobite soldiers in regiments have the option to leave with their arms and flags to serve under James II’s Irish Brigade in France ~14,000<br />Jacobite soldiers have the option of joining the Williamite army ~1,000 soldiers<br />Option to return home ~2,000 soldiers.<br />
Civil Treaty<br />Jacobite landed gentry who chose to remain in Ireland (mostly Catholics) may keep their property if they swear allegiance to William and Mary <br />Catholic noblemen may continue to bear arms<br />
Irish Parliament of 1692<br />Attempt to reject Treaty of Limerick<br />1691 English Parliament prevents Catholics from being elected<br />Penal Laws<br />
Irish House of Lords<br />Spiritual <br />Majority English - supported administration<br />Temporal <br /> Majority “Old Protestant” [from Tudor or early Stuart periods] – supported administration<br />“Old English” - More sympathetic to Catholic causes<br />Few Catholics<br />
Foreign Affairs<br />1688-1707 England, Holland, HRE, Spain vs. France<br />Fear of Irish collaboration<br />Collaboration with HRE inhibits William from supporting anti-Catholic measures<br />Treaty of Ryswick – Louis IV recognizes William<br />
Penal Laws<br />Acts<br />Against “papists”<br />Requiring an oath of “supremacy,” “abjuration” or against transubstantiation<br />Preventing “the further Growth of Popery”<br />
Penal Laws<br />Restrict occupations: lawyers, doctors, teachers, civil or military officeholders<br />Restrict education in Ireland or abroad<br />Restrict leases; land sales; inheritance<br />
Test Act - Marriages<br />Only Church of England marriages valid<br />Catholic parish registers often not kept<br />Mixed marriages<br />Daughters in mother’s faith<br />Sons in father’s faith<br />
Test Act - Marriages<br />Presbyterian marriages clandestine<br />1737 Bill of Indemnity’ exempts Presbyterian marriage contracts from prosecution <br />1782 Presbyterian ministers allowed to marry Presbyterians<br />1845 Marriages of Presbyterians and others legalized<br />
Quaker Influence<br />English Parliament exercised right to return bills to Dublin<br />Quaker concerns about forced tithes<br />Quaker concerns about marriage restrictions<br />Quaker concerns about oaths<br />
Land and Catholics<br />Leases less than 31 years<br />Rent not less than two thirds of the improved yearly value<br />No Catholics in Limerick, Galway or their suburbs except sailors, fishermen or day laborers<br />
Exceptions<br />Brownes of Westport<br />Brownes of Kenmare<br />
Penal Laws – Consequences?<br />Absenteeism<br />Balance of payments<br />Failure to improve property<br />Conversion of tilled land to pasture<br />
William Molyneux<br />1698 The Case of Ireland's being Bound by Acts of Parliament in England, Stated <br />
The Case for Ireland<br />England and Ireland were separate Kingdoms, i.e. Ireland is not a colony<br />The happiness of a constitution, depended on a proper balance between the king's and the people's rights. <br />“All men are by nature in a state of equity” and have the right of “being free from all subjection to positive laws till by their own consent they give up their freedom by entering into civil societies.”<br />
Coming Up<br />Succession to Anne<br />Return of the Stuarts?<br />Famine and emigration<br />Relaxation of the penal laws<br />Ireland and the American Revolution<br />