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1S.Ireland to 1714

1S.Ireland to 1714



Ireland History 1690-2011

Ireland History 1690-2011
Osher Institute of Lifelong Learning at the University of Delaware in Wilmington
Spring 2011



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  • Also the equivalentof what Handel is to England
  • Carrowkeel
  • DiarmaitMcMurrough, king of Leinster, asdepicted in the margins of GiraldusCambrensis'sExpugnatioHibernica.Ancestor of George Washington
  • Painting of marriage of Strongbow w Aoiffe (daughter of MacMurrow). David Maclise, 1853. Ireland in Poetry pairs this with the 17-18th century poem orig. in Irish
  • Followed by erosion of area that still had continual contact and control by English
  • Sir Edward Poynings KG (1459–1521) was Lord Deputy to King Henry VII of England. [1]The working of Poynings’ Law took place in several steps. The first step was for the lieutenant governor and the Irish council (or Irish executive) to decide that a parliament was needed, usually for the purpose of raising funds. At this point the council and lieutenant would write drafts of legislation to be proposed to the king and his council. After this had been completed, the lieutenant and council, according to the act, were required to certify the request for parliament “under the great seal of that land [Ireland],”[2] and then forward it to England for approval. Once the request arrived in England, it was reviewed by the King and his council, and a formal licence, approving the request for parliament and the draft bills were returned to Ireland.[3] Once the licence was received in Ireland, the governor would summon parliament, and the bills passed. It is important to note that “government was not in the modern sense representative, and there was no sustained opposition. Parliament’s consent was necessary for some purposes, and it frequently offered advice, but the decisions were made by the English and Irish councils”.[4] This is an important fact to consider when examining exactly who the law was aimed to suppress. As the point above demonstrates, parliament was virtually a rubber stamp, and it was the Irish executive who made the actual decisions in proposing policy.The two important aspects of the procedure presented by Poynings’ Law are transmission and certification. Both of these requirements placed limits on various parties within the law making process in Ireland. The combination of these processes created a situation where bills could be sent, along with the request for parliament, and the king could amend and remove such bills as he wished, however he could not add new bills himself. This is a result of the certification process which requires the submission to be made by the Irish council “under the great seal of that land [Ireland]”.[5] The original intention of the certification process was to remove the capacity of initiating legislation from the parliament, and place it with the Irish council and governor.[6] But as a result of the way it was framed in the act, it also removed that capacity from the English parliament and administration as well because legislation could only be submitted for approval by the Irish executive.Furthermore, the two processes made it impossible for the Irish to add more bills or amendments to a request, after the initial licence request had been granted.[7] This meant that any additional bills or amendments that they wished to pass in parliament would have to be re-sent along with an entirely new request for parliament. Clearly this created severe inefficiencies in the legislative process, and thus gave the executive in Ireland as well as the crown an interest in relaxing procedure. As early as 1496 “the rigid procedure laid down by Poynings’ Law was not being adhered to”[8] and additional bills were commonly sent to England after the original request, and were returned to Ireland before the meeting of a new parliament. The example from 1496 was the separate request for parliamentary licence and sending of bills in the reappointment of the earl of Kildare. At this time, because the rigid procedure of Poynings’ Law was not in the interest of any of the parties involved, especially the crown and Irish executive, Quinn argues that “no hesitation was felt about transmitting additional bills” after the licence had been grantedPoynings had to leave England very quickly after taking part in a failed revolt against Richard III in 1483. Escaping to Brittany, he became associated with the future Henry VII while in exile there. He was later rewarded for his services through his appointment as Lord Deputy of Ireland, where he made the Irish Parliament subordinate to the English Parliament in order to reduce Yorkist influences. Upon his return to England in 1496 he enjoyed other military and civil posts.The general intention of the act was to provide aconstitutional check on the action of Irish-born viceroys, such asthe 'great earl' of Kildare, who had recently caused the Irishparliament to ratify the enthronement of a pretender to HenryVII's crown--Lambert Simnel. That parliament was little morethan a registration court for viceregal decrees, and cannot haveregarded Poynings' Law as a restriction of its powers in the fieldof public legislation.4
  • Mountjoy smashed the O'Neill’s inauguration stone at Tullaghogue, symbolically destroying the O'Neill clan. Famine soon hit Ulster as a result of the English scorched earth strategy. O'Neill’s uirithe or sub-lords (O’Hagan, O’Quinn, MacCann) began to surrender and Rory O'Donnell, Hugh Roe's brother and successor, surrendered on terms at the end of 1602. However, with a secure base in the large and dense forests of TirEoghain, O'Neill held out until 30 March 1603, when he surrendered on good terms to Mountjoy at Mellifont. Elizabeth I had died on the 24th of March.
  • Why the earls fled in such hurried circumstances is addressed in alternative explanations. Alleged to have become involved in a new plot against the crown, they are portrayed by government officials at the time as fleeing because they feared that their treasonable activities were about to be exposed. For others, by contrast, the sudden nature of the flight is viewed as resulting from a campaign of harassment by crown officials who were bitter that O’Neill and O’Donnell had been pardoned at the end of the Nine Years War. According to this school of thought, the earls fled to the continent fearing that they were on the verge of being arrested, framed for treason and executed. If the debate about the causes of the flight will continue to rage, there is little disagreement about the enormous consequences of the event, paving the way, as it did, for the Plantation of Ulster.The tragic grandeur of the Flight of the Earls was, after all, an accident of history. Those who left in September 1607 did not see themselves as participating in a moment of epic finality. They intended to return to continue the fight for their own lands and for the Catholic counter-reformation against Protestantism. Young Hugh O'Neill's gravestone records that his death "shattered the hopes of many . . . that he would one day restore the Catholic faith in its full splendour" in Ireland.Nor were the chieftains who left Ireland in 1607 popular heroes in any simple sense. Much of the minor Gaelic aristocracy saw Hugh O'Neill in particular as a self-aggrandising threat to their own power and was not at all displeased at his departure. Niall Garbh O'Donnell had fought with the English against his dynastic rival, Red Hugh O'Donnell, as did Tyrone's son-in-law DonalO'Cahan. The redivision of land in Ulster that followed the Flight of the Earls initially favoured some of the minor branches of the O'Neill and Maguire dynasties as well as old Gaelic families like the O'Boyles, MacSweeneys, and O'Hanlons. The feelings of the majority of Irish people, the so-called "churls", are not recorded, but Donegal folklore long recorded an enthusiastic welcome for the Flight. The rebel armies had been largely manned by mercenaries and there was little evidence of popular resistance to the spread of English rule after the defeat of the Gaelic lords in the Nine Years War. Historian Marianne Elliott has even noted that "The 'churls' may well have fared a good deal better under the new dispensation than under the Gaelic land system." It is not even true that, as is often claimed, the Flight of the Earls marked the death of Gaelic Ireland. There was certainly a profound cultural disruption. The poet Daibhi O Bruadair, born in 1625, referred to his time as that of "briseadh an tseanghnathaimh" - the breaking of the old customs. For his class - the traditional poets and scholars who had enjoyed privilege and patronage under the old Gaelic order - the period after the Flight was disastrous. The schools in which the complex forms and oral traditions of the old bards had been preserved went into sharp decline. THE KEYNOTES IN Gaelic culture became nostalgia for a lost golden age and dreams of a saviour arriving from abroad to restore it. At first, there was mourning for the lost chiefs, like Eochaidh O hEodhasa's ode to his patron Hugh Maguire, killed in a skirmish near Cork in 1600. Then there were evocations of a land bereft of its true inhabitants, like Aindrias Mac Marcais's The Deserted Land: "Tonight Ireland is lonely . . . There is no laughter at a child's deeds, music ceases, Gaelic is imprisoned . . . No praise poem is recited, no bedtime story told, no desire to see a book, no giving ear to the family pedigrees . . ." Then there were denunciations of the new English masters as a "blind ignorant crew" for their lack of appreciation of the great Gaelic poets. Then there were increasingly dreamy evocations of the Stuarts, the dethroned British royal family who gradually replaced the O'Neills and the Spanish as wished-for saviours from beyond the water. Yet the cataclysm for the old Gaelic order also produced, paradoxically, a flourishing of Gaelic literature. Where the old bards had passed on their knowledge through oral transmission in closed schools, the break-up of the schools made it necessary to write things down. They had to be written, too, in a language that was more accessible to the ordinary people. New forms of Gaelic literature emerged. Geoffrey Keating (SeathrunCeitinn) wrote his ForasFeasaarEirinn (A Primer of Knowledge on Ireland) to refute the calumnies on the Irish in previous works by English authors. Micheal O Cleirigh and his three assistants returned from the Catholic seminary at Louvain in the 1620s to collect old manuscripts and compiled the Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland, an indispensable source for early Irish history. Poets began to adopt the song metres of the ordinary people and to write in a more immediate and personal way. This in turn may have given a new stimulus to the Gaelic oral tradition, with a huge body of stories, songs, rhymes and prayers emerging after 1600. Arguably, Gaelic poetry's two great masterpieces, Brian Merriman's The Midnight Court and EibhlinDubh Ni Chonaill's Lament for Art O'Leary, date from the late 18th century. If the Flight of the Earls was not in any simple sense a national tragedy, and if it did not mark the death of Gaelic Ireland, why is it worth remembering ? In part, the answer lies precisely in the way the complex history of the times became a romantic story. The narrative that was forged by Irish priests and writers from their continental exile in the decades after the Flight may have been, as Brian Friel explored in his play Making History, a sanitised tale of saintly Catholics fighting a noble but doomed struggle against Protestant heresy. But it was a great story and the Flight gave it an almost artistic conclusion that enhanced its power. In a culture that would be characterised by emigration, the moment of departure and the deaths in exile resonated with ordinary experience and made complex, haughty men like O'Neill into mythic figures who could embody a defeated nation.That story helped to shape the self-image of Irish Catholics, especially in Ulster. The Flight, along with the confiscation of Catholic church property, opened the way to the Plantation of Ulster in which Gaelic tribal lands were progressively occupied by English and Scottish landlords and tenants. By 1732, Ulster had become a predominantly Protestant province, with 313,000 Protestants and 192,000 Catholics. A sense of possession and dispossession solidified itself along sectarian lines
  • 1633 St Columb's Cathedral in the walled city of Derry, Northern Ireland is the mother church of the Church of Ireland Diocese of Derry and Raphoe and the parish church of Templemore. First protestant cthedral.
  • Plains are exposed land where they can be more easily watched.
  • Lords weighed by the 19 bishops with only 5 Protestants out of 25 Lords Secular.
  • The word derives from the Middle Irish word tóraidhe; modern Irish tóraí: outlaw, robber or brigand, from the Irish word tóir, meaning "pursuit", since outlaws were "pursued men".[1][2] It was originally used to refer to an Irish outlaw and later applied to Confederates or Royalists in arms.[3] The term was thus originally a term of abuse, "an Irish rebel", before being adopted as a political label in the same way as WhigCatholic proprietors were still in the country and regarded themselves as the rightful owners of lands which they had lostthrough violated treaties. Naturally enough, they were not inclined to make things pleasant for the new owners. The IrishParliament, however, took steps to deal with them. The StatuteBook contains Act after Act directed against so-called rappareesthese rapparees being in many cases the late proprietorswho had taken themselves to the mountains and other strongholds from thence to harass their evictors. An Act of 17071directs " that all vagrants pretending to be Irish gentlemen whocoshered about from house to house should, after presentmentbefore grand juries, be transported to the colonies, or sent onboard the fleet."
  • Many soldiers receive so little land that they sell to officersMost Irish are not removed.
  • Oath of Supremacy provided for any person taking public or church office in England to swear allegiance to the monarch as Supreme Governor of the Church of England.
  • Addition of escutcheon of Nassau
  • Defense by Presbyterians
  • The Treaty of Limerick ended the Williamite war in Ireland between the Jacobites and the supporters of William of Orange. It concluded the Siege of Limerick. The treaty was signed on October 3, 1691 by Patrick Sarsfield (for King James II) and Lords Justice for William III. Reputedly it was signed on the Treaty Stone, an irregular block of limestone which once served as a mounting block for horses. This stone is now displayed on a pedestal in Limerick city. Because of the treaty, Limerick is sometimes known as the Treaty City. (Wikipedia)One of the effects of this treaty and its eventual reputure was the departure of thousands of irish to fight in the continental wars (mostly on the French side).The mystery surrounding the Treaty of Limerick is still valid today as it was when it was first signed: 1. Why did the Catholic forces defending Limerick sign a Treaty that gave them none of the seven proposals that they asked for? This question was made very clear by Ginkle, when he rejected all the Catholic's proposals for a fair settlement and peace. 2. The Catholic forces defending Limerick far outnumbered William's army under Ginkle, that was besieging Limerick. 3. Ginkle's forces were unable to stop food supplies coming into Limerick for the sustenance of the Catholic troops within the walls of Limerick. Most of these supplies came from County Clare, from people that had sons defending the city. 4. It was late in the year, and winter was almost upon them. Any commander of an army that was well seasoned in warfare in the northern hemisphere, would have known that it would be suicidal to keep troops at full military alert, ready to attack a defending army at a moments notice, in a swampy terrain such as the Shannon estuary. 5. From a military point of view, Limerick was unassailable from an attacking army such as William's forces. To be successful, it would have to be assailed from all four sides at the same time. Surely the commanders within the walls knew that, and they would almost certainly know the strength of the opposing forces outside the walls. The Catholics within the walls of Limerick were in a very strong position to defend their city from William's army. They could have spent the winter months gathering their strength for a spring offensive, or to use the cold months to try and broker a better settlement than what was on offer from Ginkle. Many years after the signing of the treaty, Berwick thought that the reasons for the capitulation of Limerick were the following: 1. The Irish Military leaders at the time were very ambitious. They saw no future in fighting Irish wars. All the great generals at the time were making a name for themselves in the numerous wars that were fought on the continent. There was also rich pickings from these battles as the generals were allowed to keep any booty that they could capture. 2. To be a successful general, especially in France at the time, one would have to command sizable regiments of soldiers that were totally loyal and dependable in battle, such as the Irish troops, which had a reputation for being very brave. 3. The Catholic forces defending Limerick included a number of French troops. These French troops were already showing signs of homesickness even at the Battle of Aughrim. They didn't have any heart in the fighting. Why should they lose their lives fighting a foreign war in a backward country such as they perceived Ireland at the time ?. They had no love for the native Irish, and saw them as backward people, similar to other nationalities that were not French. They could not discourse with the natives, as the latter only spoke Gaelic.
  • Abjuration – fealty to monarch and not James or his descendants
  • Protestant converts who educate their children as Catholics are considered Catholics.
  • Under Anne new bishops were appointed but they functioned clandestinely. One was too poor to buy a horse or keep a servant.
  • n the case of mixed marriages between Catholic and Protestants often an agreement was reached to raise the female offspring in the faith of the mother and the male offspring in the faith of the father. Apparently, this was a common occurrence in mixed marriages of the time under a benevolent convention known as the Palantine Pact [Francis X McCorry: ‘Parish registers – Historical Treasures in Manuscript’, Lurgan, 2004, p.17]. Such marriages were looked on with disfavour by the Catholic Church but they were admitted to be canonically valid. If a mixed marriage had taken place in a Protestant church it was to be followed by a Roman Catholic ceremony [and where this had not occurred the Catholic party was to be excluded from the sacraments], and this remained the discipline until the middle of the nineteenth century.
  • Many marriages not registered in the absence of property considerations. Performed in the house.
  • Exclusive right of Church to conduct marriages.Intervention by Penn. Papist may not own horses worth more than 5 pounds and any one can offer 5 pounds 5 for a horse and take psosession. Officers take his horses under the act declaring Quakers to be papists because they refuse the oath. Penn uses his influence in England to not only get the horses restored but the officers jailed.Quaker lobbying was more effective than Presbyterian because it was organized and because they were less of a threat to the established chrurch. In at least one case Quaker records not a small payment to a Secretary to the Privy Council and a satirical pampletalleeges a payment to the wife of a bishop on the Council.
  • It is with John Browne III (1638-1711) that the connection with Westport House commenced. A successful lawyer, he married Maud Bourke, daughter of Viscount Mayo and great-great granddaughter of the Pirate Queen, Granuaile (Gráinne O'Malley 1530-1603). John Browne greatly increased his estate in Mayo and Galway including Cathair-na-Mart (the Fort of the Beeves) a ruinous O'Malley fortress on the shores of Clew Bay.John’s good fortune was soon swept away as Ireland was plunged into chaos in the Williamite wars. A Catholic, John supported the Jacobite cause and was a Colonel in the Jacobite army. From the iron mines on his lands near Westport, he supplied the army with cannon balls and weapons. The defeat of the Jacobite army at Aughrim and Limerick in 1691 brought financial ruin in the confiscations that followed. At his death in 1711 his estate was reduced to Cathairna Mart and a few hundred acres. The Penal Laws which followed left his grandson, John IV, with little option but to conform to the prevailing religion in the hope of surviving the confiscations and political upheaval.John gradually revived the family fortune. Young and ambitious he set about extending his estate and transforming the old O'Malley castle into modern day Westport House. He replaced the old village of Cathair-na-Mart with a new town of Westport where he established a thriving linen industry. An excellent farmer, he set about improving the fertility of his lands, which, for the most part, were of poor quality. He became the first Earl of Altamont. In 1752, his son and heir, Peter, 2nd Earl of Altamont, married the heiress, Elizabeth Kelly from Co Galway, whose estates in Jamaica further enhanced the family fortune.Thomas Browne, 6th Baronet & 4th Viscount Kenmare (April 1726 – 11 September 1795) was an Irish landowner and politician. He was probably born at Killarney, County Kerry, the second of four children of Valentine Browne, fifth Baronet, third Viscount Kenmare (1695–1736), one of the few remaining great Roman Catholic landowners in Ireland, and his first wife, Honoria Butler (?-1730). Thomas Browne's great-grandfather, Sir Valentine Browne, third Baronet, had been created first Viscount Kenmare by James II in March 1689. This was an Irish peerage created after the removal of James II from the English throne, but during the period when James was de facto king of Ireland, before the conquest of Ireland by William III. The first and second viscounts had fought for James II but seem never to have been formally attainted under William. Consequently, the peerage remained on the Irish patent roll in a constitutionally ambiguous position, but was not formally recognized by the Protestant political establishment.
  • The Case of IrelandTwo pressing constitutional issues occupied Molyneux in the last year of his life. Backed by English wool merchants, a bill to prevent the export of Irish woollens to any country other than England passed the English House of Commons on 21 February 1698. About the same time, Bishop William King of Derry was involved in litigation with the London companies that owned large estates in Ulster. King won an appeal to the Irish House of Lords, but early in 1698 the English counterpart ruled that the Irish house had no jurisdiction and reversed the verdict. Molyneux was personally involved in helping the bishop with legal precedents for his appeal. Against this background he wrote his celebrated work The Case of Ireland's being Bound by Acts of Parliament in England, Stated early in 1698.

1S.Ireland to 1714 1S.Ireland to 1714 Presentation Transcript

  • Ireland 1690-2011
    Robert Ehrlich
  • TurloughO’Carolan (1670-1738)
    Music for harp and voice
    Composed for patrons
    Viewed by contemporaries as a symbol of a dead culture; the Irish Homer
  • Arrivals - Prehistoric
    First peoples - mesolithic
    First farmers - neolithic
    First metal workers - chalcolithic
    First iron workers – Iron Age
  • Mesolithic Fishing
    Near Tara
  • Neolithic
  • Bronze Age – Beaker Culture
  • Celtic Culture – Iron Age
  • Arrivals - Historic
    First Christians
    First city dwellers – Vikings
    First protestants – Henry VIII
    First planters (colonists)
  • Romans - Christians
  • Viking Age
    795 to 1171/2.
  • Phases
    Raids and seasonal settlements (longphorts)
  • Impact
    Destruction of monasteries
    Foundation of ports and their hinterlands
    Intermarriage and/or eventual defeat by native Irish
  • DiarmaitMacMurchada (MacMurrow)
    1152-3 Conflict w. King of Leinster over abduction, elopement or hostage taking of his wife
    Exiled in 1166
    Returns w. Cambro-Norman aid
    1171 Invasion by Henry II Lordship
  • Hope
    Life has conquered, the wind has blown away
    Alexander, Caesar and all their power and sway
    Tara and Troy have made no longer stay −
    Maybe the English too will have their day.
  • Norman Lands
  • Ireland before the Tudors
  • Irish Law and English Law1494 Poynings’ Law
    Suppression of brehon law
    Poynings, Lord deputy to Ireland 1494-96
    Require permission of King for Parliament to meet
    All proposed laws must be first be sent to King and Council for certification
  • Surrender and Regrant
    Trade clan leadership for English land title and English titles
    Operate under English law
    Renounce papal authority
  • PlantationsProtestants
    James I
  • Nine Years War(1594-1603)Hugh O’Neill2nd earl of Tyrone
  • O’Neill’s 22 Articles
    Restoration of Church of Ireland to Pope and reinstatement of clergy
    No English clergy
    State supported University (Roman Catholic)
    Right to pursue education and occupations
    Governor be at least an earl
    Principal officials be Irish as well as half the military
    Equal rights to trade
    Children not responsible for wrongs of their ancestors
  • End of the War
    1601 battle of Kinsale
    Symbolic destruction of inauguration stone
    Scorched earth policy
    Surrender of allies
    Surrender of Hugh O’Neill to Mountjoy 30 March 1603
    [Elizabeth died 24 March]
  • 1607 Flight of the Earls
    Harassment by Crown officials
    Justifiable fear of being framed and executed
  • Allotments - Londonderry
  • Grantees
    Servitors –veterans
    Favored natives
    Church, Trinity College
  • Conditions for successful applicants
    Undertakers –English, Scottish Protestants. 
    Rent of  £5.6s.8d. per 1,000 acres. 
    No Irish tenants
    Build and defend fortified houses
    Servitors – Mainly Scots. 
    May take Irish tenants but their rent increases to £8 per 1,000 acres.
    The Meritorious Irish
    Rent of  £10.13s.4d. per 1,000 acres
    May take Irish tenants.
  • Londoners
    Need for investment
    Accept the call
    Demand more land from Donegal be added
    Ask for control over fisheries
  • Company of Salters
  • Derry
  • Natives
    Elite given land on short tenure
    English, Scots get river access
    Natives get “plains”
    Many plantations later open to natives
    Ministers required to take Irish language course ~10% fluent
  • 1613 Irish Parliament - Commons
  • Ireland: Change in Diet
    Subsistence vs. cash crops
    Land division
  • Charles I and the English Parliament
    Offer by Charles of “graces” abolishing anti-Catholic measures and restoring property
    Not accepted by English Parliament
    Irish rebel
  • Stages of Conflict
    Rebellion 1641-42
    Irish Catholics vs. Settlers and (English) Dublin Government
    Confederates' war 1642-48
    Most Irish Catholics vs. English
    Confederation vs. Parliamentary Army
    Confederate-Royalist coalition vs. Parliamentary Army
    Cromwellian War 1649-1653
  • Attack on Parliamentary army
    Siege of Parliamentary forces at Londonderry, Dundalk and Dublin
    O'Neill refuses to join the Royalist-Confederate coalition because Ormond (c)would not commit to the restoration of lands in Ulster
    Gives aid to Parliamentary forces
    Comes around too late
  • England – Financing the War
    1642 Act for Adventurers
    Allocate 2.5 million acres (1/8 of Ireland)
    Subscribers pay £200 for an eventual 1,000 acres
    1643 Doubling Ordinance gives 2x the land for an increase of 25% in investment
  • Cromwell
  • Cromwell
    1652 Act for Settlement
    Ten named royalists who would lose land and life
    Pardons for
    Soldiers in Confederate Army
    Leaders of the Irish army lose two-thirds of their estates
    Catholic residents lose 1/3 but could exchange for land in Connaught or Clare
    No pardon for priests
  • 1652 Act for Settlement
    Protestant Royalists who had surrendered by May 1650 and had paid fines to the Parliamentarian government could avoid land confiscation .
    Many pre-war Irish Protestants increased their own holdings by buying land from Adventurers.
    Smaller grants of land were given to 12,000 veterans of the New Model Army (often sold).
  • Transplantation
    Proprietors - Land of same quality they forfeited
    Tenants - Become tenants of the state
    Landless - Use state-owned land more than ten miles from the Shannon or:
    Stay as ‘hewers of wood and drawers of water’
    Ploughmen and skilled labor exempt
    Political enemies transported to West Indies (Barbadosed)
  • Guerillas or Bandits
    16th century – wood kerne
    Cromwell – Tories
    Late 18th century on - Rapparees (Jacobites and highwaymen)
  • A Ballad
    Now Sassenach and Cromweller, take heed of what I say,
    Keep down your black and angry looks that scorn us night and day;
    For there's a just and wrathful Judge that every action sees,
    And He'll make strong, to right our wrong, the faithful Rapparees.
  • CromwellSettlement
  • Restoration of Charles II
    Only partial return of land to those dispossessed by Cromwell
  • Net Effect of Settlement
    % of Land owned by Catholics
    1641 60%
    Cromwell 8-9%
    Restoration 20%
    ~2,000 families moved
    Cost of wars ₤3-3,500,000
    Revenue from land sales ₤306,708
  • % of Land Owned by Catholics In Ireland
  • Migration - 17th CenturyOne estimate
    700 per year to the continent
    200 migrants per year before 1650 to New World
    400 per year from 1650-1700
    Few Catholic migrants to mainland colonies
  • North America
    1623 and 1625 Colonies established by Calvert (Lord Baltimore) in Newfoundland
    1670 Immigrants to South Carolina from Barbados
    1682 First Irish Quaker immigrants - West Jersey
  • James II and James III
  • “Patriot Parliament”
    Act of Recognition recognized James as King of Ireland
    Declaratory Act affirmed that the Kingdom of Ireland was "distinct" from England
    No Act of the English Parliament was binding on Ireland unless passed by the Irish Parliament
  • “Patriot Parliament”
    Liberty of Conscience gave full freedom of worship and civic and political equality for Roman Catholics and Protestant Dissenters
    Repeal Oath of Supremacy
    Repeal Cromwellian land settlement and provide for return of lands
    Overturned by English Parliament
  • James II to William and Mary
    A Not So Glorious Revolution
  • Flight and Return
    William invited to England
    James II flees to France
    Return through Ireland
  • Jacobites – Tyrconnell & Sarsfeld
  • Landing at Kinsale
  • Siege of Derry
  • Battle of the Boyne
  • Annesbrook
    Remembering the Battle of the Boyne
  • Flight of James
  • Treaty of Limerick
  • Military Treaty
    Jacobite soldiers in regiments have the option to leave with their arms and flags to serve under James II’s Irish Brigade in France ~14,000
    Jacobite soldiers have the option of joining the Williamite army ~1,000 soldiers
    Option to return home ~2,000 soldiers.
  • Civil Treaty
    Jacobite landed gentry who chose to remain in Ireland (mostly Catholics) may keep their property if they swear allegiance to William and Mary
    Catholic noblemen may continue to bear arms
  • Irish Parliament of 1692
    Attempt to reject Treaty of Limerick
    1691 English Parliament prevents Catholics from being elected
    Penal Laws
  • Irish House of Lords
    Majority English - supported administration
    Majority “Old Protestant” [from Tudor or early Stuart periods] – supported administration
    “Old English” - More sympathetic to Catholic causes
    Few Catholics
  • Foreign Affairs
    1688-1707 England, Holland, HRE, Spain vs. France
    Fear of Irish collaboration
    Collaboration with HRE inhibits William from supporting anti-Catholic measures
    Treaty of Ryswick – Louis IV recognizes William
  • Penal Laws
    Against “papists”
    Requiring an oath of “supremacy,” “abjuration” or against transubstantiation
    Preventing “the further Growth of Popery”
  • Penal Laws
    Restrict occupations: lawyers, doctors, teachers, civil or military officeholders
    Restrict education in Ireland or abroad
    Restrict leases; land sales; inheritance
  • 1703Catholic Land
    Reduced to ~14%
  • 1697 Banish Bishops, etc.
    Three leave voluntarily
    One transported
    Two acquitted
    Two pass as parish priests
    424 monastics transported
  • Test Act - Marriages
    Only Church of England marriages valid
    Catholic parish registers often not kept
    Mixed marriages
    Daughters in mother’s faith
    Sons in father’s faith
  • Test Act - Marriages
    Presbyterian marriages clandestine
    1737 Bill of Indemnity’ exempts Presbyterian marriage contracts from prosecution
    1782 Presbyterian ministers allowed to marry Presbyterians
    1845 Marriages of Presbyterians and others legalized
  • Quaker Influence
    English Parliament exercised right to return bills to Dublin
    Quaker concerns about forced tithes
    Quaker concerns about marriage restrictions
    Quaker concerns about oaths
  • Land and Catholics
    Leases less than 31 years
    Rent not less than two thirds of the improved yearly value
    No Catholics in Limerick, Galway or their suburbs except sailors, fishermen or day laborers
  • Exceptions
    Brownes of Westport
    Brownes of Kenmare
  • Penal Laws – Consequences?
    Balance of payments
    Failure to improve property
    Conversion of tilled land to pasture
  • William Molyneux
    1698 The Case of Ireland's being Bound by Acts of Parliament in England, Stated 
  • The Case for Ireland
    England and Ireland were separate Kingdoms, i.e. Ireland is not a colony
    The happiness of a constitution, depended on a proper balance between the king's and the people's rights. 
    “All men are by nature in a state of equity” and have the right of “being free from all subjection to positive laws till by their own consent they give up their freedom by entering into civil societies.”
  • Coming Up
    Succession to Anne
    Return of the Stuarts?
    Famine and emigration
    Relaxation of the penal laws
    Ireland and the American Revolution