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14. Last Days of Richard ii and Chaucer Art and Jewels of England

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The deposition of Richard Ii in pictures. The art of England in the 14th century with emphasis on the influences of the so-called International Gothic and Giottoesque. The extravagance of Richard the …

The deposition of Richard Ii in pictures. The art of England in the 14th century with emphasis on the influences of the so-called International Gothic and Giottoesque. The extravagance of Richard the II and his jewels.

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  • Enamel on a gold base. It was excavated in 1965 on the site of Dunstable Friary, and is presumed to have been intended as a livery badge given by an important figure to his supporters; the most likely candidate is probably the future Henry V of England, who was Prince of Wales from 1399.The swan with the crown and chain is especially associated with Lancastrian use; it echoes the crown and chain of Richard II's white hart,[21] which he began to use as a livery badge from 1390. As well as several of his own white hart badges, Richard's treasure roll of 1397 also includes a swan badge with a gold chain, perhaps presented by one of his enemies mentioned above: "Item, a gold swan enamelled white with a little gold chain hanging around the neck, weighing 2 oz., value, 46s. 8d".[22] He declared to Parliament that he had exchanged liveries with his uncles as a sign of amity at various moments of reconciliation.The swan badge described in Richard II's treasure roll seems to have resembled closely the Dunstable Swan Jewel in the British Museum. Like the white hart of Richard II, the swan was almost certainly a livery badge. Such badges were given out and worn to express allegiance to a king or great noble. A gold badge would have belonged to an important person, although less expensive versions would also have been distributed. Several noble families liked to trace their descent from the legendary swan knight, who arrived in a swan-drawn boat to rescue a lady. Among these noble families were the descendants of the de Bohun earls of Hereford. The last heirs were two sisters, Eleanor (c. 1365-99), who married Thomas of Woodstock, duke of Gloucester (1355-97), youngest son of Edward III, and Mary (d. 1394), wife of the future Henry IV. Among the precious possessions Eleanor left in her will was a book containing a swan romance bequeathed to her son, Humphrey, and on her memorial brass in Westminster Abbey can be seen a little swan. One of the books seized from Thomas of Woodstock in 1397 had swans embroidered on the covers. Many objects recorded in the inventory among Richard II's treasure were seized from Thomas of Woodstock when he was declared a traitor and murdered in 1397 (see Lords Appellant). This is one possible origin both of the swan badge documented in the inventory and of the surviving object.
  • Trecento artists enabled, for the first time, the individual viewer's empirical experience of reality to be acknowledged and made part of thedescription of religious truths in pictures.11 The principal device of thetrecento that made painting correspond more closely with empirical experience was the development of linear perspective. It was Brunelleschi,early in the fifteenth century, who established the more precise geometrical foundations that are necessary for achieving the effect of perspective in two dimensional art.12 However, it was the trecento artists whodeveloped and utilized some of the key principles of perspective in a lessrefined form who made Brunelleschi's invention possible.13 These
  • International GothicA style manifested in the painting, sculpture, and DECORATIVE ARTS of western Europe between c.1375 and c.1425. International Gothic was distinguished by its elegance and fascination with delicate, naturalistic detail. Its origins lay in the courtly style developed in France in the middle of the 13th century with its predilection for elongated and supple form and a new appreciation of sensuous qualities. This style was fused to the Italian interest in naturalism by the Sienese painter Simone Martini (c.1285–1344) who went to Avignon c.1340–41 to work for the papal court there. International Gothic first fully established itself in Franco-Flemish Burgundy with artists such as André de Beauneveu, Melchior Broederlam, and the Limburg brothers. From there it spread to northern Italy where it attracted artists such as Gentile de Fabriano and reached its most ornate achievement in the art of PisanelloThe characteristics of International Gothic have been variously described as a stylized elegance of form, refinement, prettiness, restrained vitality, decorative fantasy, and sumptuous colour. Others have identified an interest in nature in the form of plants and landscape, and a penchant for secular themes from aristocratic life. It is often claimed that this somewhat disparate and intangible style represented a fusion between Italian naturalism, Flemish realism, and French courtly art.
  • Trial By Fire (Red is used to emphasize things in the foreground and blue to intimate the distance behind the immediate action. In St. Francis Receiving the Stigmata (Plate 2), however, we find a less real istic representation of space, sSanctioning Of The Rule o vanishing point in the painting is located at a point somewhere behind the heads of the kneeling brothers. This tends to draw our attention away from the Pope and towards them. The architectural enclosure that sur rounds these figures functions to contain them as solid bodies in real space once again. The
  • 2I f the miniaturewith the Crucifixion in the Robertd e LisleP salter borrowsit s decorativesystemfromstained-glass design,t he Crucifixion of the Gorleston Psalter has to be regarded as an attempt to imitate the effect of a framed panel picture
  • Last Judgment in the St. Omer Psalter (P1. I4d).4 The whole pictorial idea is clearly based on the gradual penetration of the spectator's eye into the imaginary depth behind the page-surface. Along this line a strange vision unfolds itself: rows of gravesrecedingu p to the horizon,and in this vast churchyard, the host of dead rising suddenly from their tombs, in answer to the trumpet's call. As our eye proceeds into the depth we see the various stages and episodes of the Resurrection in close succession: in the first row appears a head; in the second a torso, further back a whole body has emerged and one corpse has decided on coming out legs foremost. They all move with the greatest agility, fleshless figures, apparently unbound by earthly gravity. The artist, combining all these elements, achieves an uncanny effect, well suited to this eschatological theme
  • Most of the upper chapel was completed during the reign of Edward III (1327-77). It was richly decorated to a very high standard, as these surviving fragments of wall paintings show. They depict scenes from the biblical Books of Job and Tobit, with explanations in inscriptions. They are identified as:Tobit being blinded by bird dung (Tobit 2:9-10)The blind Tobit (Tobit 2:9-10)The marriage of Tobias to Sarah (Tobit 8:19-21)The departure of the archangel Raphael (Tobit 9:5)Job addressing his sonsThe daughters of Job requesting to visit their brothersThe destruction of Job's children at a banquet (Job 2:18-19)Job learning of the destruction of his children (Job 2:20-21)Job with Zophar the Naamathite (Job 11:2-20)The rebuking of Job's comforters (Job 42: 7-10The paintings were executed in the international courtly style that was fashionable at the time, using expensive materials and drawing heavily on Italian influences. They were originally arranged in two tiers of four scenes, below the five windows of each side wall. These fragmentary remains give little impression of the grand scale of the original scheme, which might have numbered as many as 160 scenes and included topics drawn from the New Testament and the Golden Legend of Jacobus de Voragine.
  • St.Jon the Baptist, Mary and Archangel MichaelThe Bywayd Tower wall painting is located in the Byward Tower of the Tower of London. It depicts a crucifixion with flanking saints, with the fabulous figure of St Michael the Archangel being the most intact. It’s one of the most well-preserved medieval murals in the UK and the only surviving medieval painted interior at the castle.The style of the painting suggests that it dates back to the 1390s, but nobody knows who painted it or why it's there. The curators and conservators at Historic Royal Palaces - the organisation that runs the Tower of London - are in the midst of a research project to find answers to these questions and ensure that the mural is well cared for.We don’t know exactly why the painting is in this room but it must have been very important because a wall painting like thiswould have been extremely expensive. It’s literally covered in gold leaf and expensive pigments such as azurite (blue),vermillion (red) and lac (deep red).Mary is wringing her hands in despair at the death of her son, to the left of what was the Crucifixion. The artist spared no expense on Mary’s halo, which is made of real gold leaf! All around her in the background you can see a diamond-shaped pattern of birds with lilies and lion motifs in the centre. The birds are parakeets, known as ‘popinjays’. The lilies, or ‘fleurs-de-lys’ of France are combined with the Lions of England (you can see one at the very top of the painting, above St. John the Baptist). These two heraldic symbols started to appear together regularly after 1340, when Edward III adopted the fleurs-de-lys as part of the Arms of England. The green and gold background painting is based on fourteenth century Italian silk textile designs. Although the wall painting is a very expensive one, it was still cheaper than paying for real tapestries or embroideries with gold and silver thread. - See more at: http://www.hrp.org.uk/learninganddiscovery/discoverthehistoricroyalpalaces/thevirginmary#sthash.mKxnX4sB.dpuf
  • The Westminster PortraitRichard II portrait in Westminster AbbeyThe Westminster Portrait (London, Westminster Abbey)Larger image (50KB)The over life-size portrait which now hangs in the nave of Westminster Abbey depicts Richard as a fully mature man with a small forked beard. The anonymous portrait is painted in a linseed oil medium on panel. It probably dates from the 1390s, but was heavily restored in 1732 and again in 1866, making it hard to judge its qualities. Besides much overpainting, the background of stamped and gilded gesso was also removed during the 1866 restoration, apart from the small area to the right of the king's head. This is now thought to have been original. Infra-red photography has revealed the monumental qualities of the underdrawing. The throne has been much altered, but the head is probably substantially intact.Portraits dating from the fourteenth century are exceptionally rare north of the Alps and this full-length image has no parallels. It may always have been in the Abbey church and may perhaps have been part of a rigid structure such as a pew. The first mention of it is in 1611, when it was in the choir. The frame decorated with Richard II's arms and badges was designed in 1866 by Sir Gilbert Scott.This majestic portrait has sometimes been connected with a hostile passage suggestive of Richard's tyranny by the Eulogium writer (probably a Franciscan friar of Canterbury writing in the early fifteenth century), see C. Given-Wilson (ed. and transl.), Chronicles of the revolution, 1397- 1400. The king is described as sitting enthroned, requiring his courtiers to kneel whenever his gaze fell upon them:'After this on solemn festivals when by custom [Richard II] performed kingly rituals, he would order a throne to be prepared for him in his chamber on which he liked to sit ostentatiously from after dinner until vespers, talking to noone but watching everyone; and when his eye fell on anyone, regardless of rank, that person had to bend his knee towards the king ...'(ContinuatioEulogii, pp. 371-9)
  • Richard’s robes are of cloth of gold and red, patterned with white harts and branches of rosemary, emblem of his first wife, Anne of Bohemia (d. 1394), encircled by broomcods and interspersed with eagles, emblems of Bohemia. Round his neck is a collar of broomcods, the livery of the King of France, Charles VI, whose daughter became his second wife in 1396.4
  • a green island with a white castlen which has two turrets and six black sky; below is a brown boat in full sail with black masts sailing in a sea made of silverl eaf,8n owtarnishedt o brown.T he boat is clearly there to indicate that the green land is an island 'set in the silver sea'. inferred that the map in the Wilton lliptych is intended to epresent the island of Britain, and refers to the dowry of the Virgin.England as the dowry of the Virgin was common parlance.Since the reign of Edward II the English Kings had been thought to be under the special protection of the Virgin, anointed with a special oil she had given to St Thomas a Becket,25 and Richard sought to have himself reanointed with that oil in 1399.26 Richard's de-votiontoJohn the Baptist, his patron saint, as well as to Edward the Confessor is well documented.27 His devotion to the Virgin has been less studied but is mentioned in contemporary sources. According to Froissart, Richard dedicated himself to a statue of the Virgin in a small chapel in Westminster before riding out to Smithfield in 1381;28 Froissart could have been referring either the Chapel of St Mary de La Pew in Westminster Abbey or to the chapel with the same name in Westminster Palace. Other chronicles say that Richard visited the shrine of St Edward be-fore this ride, but without any mention of a visit to the chapel. This is explicitly stated in a mandate sent at the king's desire byThomas Arundel to the Bishop of London on 10th February1400.22 It may have been taken up by Henry IV, who assumedmany of the emblems and cults of Richard, in order to establishthe legitimacy of his own claim to the throne.
  • Edward the Confessor;s arms and Richard II’s white hart badgeThe exterior of the diptych (Fig.45) is painted with heraldic emblems In the left wing is a lion standing on a cap of main-tenance and a helmet, over a shield hearing the Royal arms of England and France Ancient (leopards and lilies), impaled with the mythical arms of Edward the Confessor,,( martlets with a cross fleurie). In the right wing is a white hart lying on various plants, including branches of rosemary. Most scholars now agree on heraldic grounds that the diptych probably dates from around 1395. It was then that Richard II initiated what amounted to a campaign to adopt the arms of Edward the Confessor. It was also then that relations between France and England were at their most cordial as the marriage negotiations were underway; it is difficult to argue that Richard would have been shown wearing a broomcod collar before this date
  • The treasure rollThe treasure roll describes the jewels and plate belonging to King Richard II (reigned 1377-99), and to his two queens, Anne of Bohemia and Isabelle of France. The inventory dates from 1398 or 1399, the period of Richard's tyranny. It contains 1,206 entries, some describing dozens of pieces, and is written on forty long, narrow parchment sheets known as membranes (abbreviated as m. for one membrane, or mm. for two or more). Fully unrolled it measures more than 28 metres.A photograph of treasure roll partly rolled outThe treasure roll partly unrolled (Kew, The National Archives)The roll was rediscovered in the 1990s in the National Archives at Kew, and is a very rare survival from later medieval England. It is now catalogued among the records of the Exchequer, where it has the reference TNA: PRO, E 101/411/9 (see The National Archives website). French was still spoken and written at the English court in the late fourteenth century. Many records of this date, including the treasure roll, are written in French. Others are in Latin and a few in English.From the time of King Edward III in 1340 until the Tudor period, English kings reserved the right to keep secret the expenditure of the Chamber (their personal accounting department). The records of Parliament suggest that this roll may have come into the central records of the crown after Richard's deposition because it was needed in 1401 for a survey of his treasure under his usurper, Henry IV (1399-1413).Every object listed is of precious metal or of materials such as beryl, rock-crystal, coconut, amber, ivory and jet mounted in gold or silver. Almost all are given a weight and value. (For a guide to the weights and values used in the roll, see the weights and coinage pages.) The total adds up to the staggering sum of well over £209,000. Around 1400 the wages of a master craftsman might be 6d. per day, so that forty days work would be needed to earn the equivalent of one pound.The objects in the inventory are divided by metal type and by function. First come gold objects for secular use, then those of silver-gilt and silver. The headings for the gold objects are crowns, gold vessels (these being mainly for the table), chaplets, circlets and collars, 'ouches' meaning brooches, 'hanaps' meaning cups, some paired with ewers, and finally a section of very miscellaneous small jewels.
  • Hinged now in Munich as a result of dowry for Henry IV daughter
  • Broomcod collar and white hart badge
  • Robert Tresilian (died 1388) was a Cornish lawyer, and Chief Justice of the King's Bench between 1381 and 1387. From 15th C Froissart chronicles
  • Creton wrote the work to present to the duke of Burgundy before July 1402. In April 1399 Creton was sent by Charles VI of France (r. 1380-1422) to accompany Richard II to Ireland. Creton sailed with the earl of Salisbury to north Wales, and gave an eyewitness account of the capture of the king.
  • Agrees to give up crown or more likely some compromise
  • ‘blank charters were not blank but were couched in terms which gave the king carte blanche over the lives and possessions of his subjects.’[The Crown is independent of any person]The ‘Record and Process’ saysthat Richard willingly agreed to resign his crown, but this is scarcelycredible. It is possible, however, that he made some promise to theeffect that he would continue to reign while Henry would in practicebe allowed to rule. The comments of Usk, that Richard agreed tosurrender to Henry ‘on condition of saving his dignity’, and of theDieulacres chronicler, that Arundel and Northumberland swore tohim that he would be allowed to retain ‘his royal power anddominion’, might refer to some agreement along these lines. Creton,however, who claims to have been an eyewitness to the negotiationsbetween Northumberland and the king, was adamant that Richard The ‘Record and Process’ saysthat Richard willingly agreed to resign his crown, but this is scarcelycredible. It is possible, however, that he made some promise to theeffect that he would continue to reign while Henry would in practicebe allowed to rule. The comments of Usk, that Richard agreed tosurrender to Henry ‘on condition of saving his dignity’, and of theDieulacres chronicler, that Arundel and Northumberland swore tohim that he would be allowed to retain ‘his royal power anddominion’, might refer to some agreement along these lines. Creton,however, who claims to have been an eyewitness to the negotiationsbetween Northumberland and the king, was adamant that Richard The ‘Record and Process’ saysthat Richard willingly agreed to resign his crown, but this is scarcelycredible. It is possible, however, that he made some promise to theeffect that he would continue to reign while Henry would in practicebe allowed to rule. The comments of Usk, that Richard agreed tosurrender to Henry ‘on condition of saving his dignity’, and of theDieulacres chronicler, that Arundel and Northumberland swore tohim that he would be allowed to retain ‘his royal power anddominion’, might refer to some agreement along these lines. Creton,however, who claims to have been an eyewitness to the negotiationsbetween Northumberland and the king, was adamant that Richard only agreed to restore Henry to his inheritance (including thestewardship of England), and to summon a parliament at which fiveof his councillors would be put on trial; in return for this, N swore on the newly-consecrated host that he would remainking Yet according to Creton, Northumberland was lying for hehad already, on his way to Conway, laid an ambush for Richard a fewmiles down the coast, and was simply making promises in order tolure the king out of the castle. In this he was successful:
  • An astrolabe is basically a two-dimensional map of thecelestial sphere. The most important stars and the majorcircles in the sky are projected onto a metal sheet. This part ofthe astrolabe is called a rete, Latin for 'net' or 'web', since thecut-out piece at the front of the astrolabe resembles a spider'sweb. Underneath the rete are positioned a number of plates,allowing the instrument to be used in different latitudes. Rete and plates are housed in ahollowed out container, the 'mater', which carries special markings on the front and back.Attached to the back is a ruler, called the 'alidade', with two sighting vanes (small pierced metalprotrusions on the edge of the ruler).The earliest dated European astrolabeThe astrolabe is a multifunctionalinstrument which enables the user to performsuch diverse tasks as timekeeping at day and night, surveying, determininglatitude, and casting horoscopes.Geoffrey Chaucer (about 13421400),better known for his Canterbury Tales, alsowrote a treatise on the astrolabe which was widely disseminated. The type ofastrolabe he described matches the features of this instrument, with itsdistinctive Yshapedrete, a dog's head as a starpointerfor Sirius (known asthe dogstar),and other starpointersin the shape of birds. The frame aroundthe circumference has a dragon's head and tail respectively at the ends.Three of the saints mentioned in the calendrical list on the back are of particularEnglish significance, and one of the latitude plates is marked for Oxford, whilethe others are laid out for Jerusalem, 'Babilonie', Rome, Montpellier, and Paris.

Transcript

  • 1. Swan Song to the 14th Century Dunstable swan
  • 2. Wife of Bath & A Decidedly Unreligious Carol Alisoun Five husbands - Jankyn
  • 3. Kyrie Aleyson or Jolly Jankin Kyrie, so kyrie, Jankin sings merrily, with Alison. As I went on Christmas day in our procession, I knew jolly Jankin by his merry voice. Kyrie eleison.
  • 4. Jankin began the Service on Christmas day, and yet it seems to me it does me good so merrily he began to say, 'Kyrie eleison'. Jankin read the Epistle very pleasingly and well, and yet it seems to me it does me good as for ever I gain eternal reward, Kyrie eleison.
  • 5. Jankin at the Agnus carries the pax-board: he winked but said nothing, and on my foot he trod, Kyrie eleison. Let us bless the Lord, Christ shield me from shame, thanks be to God as well alas! I am with child, Kyrie eleison.
  • 6. Pax Brede (pax board)
  • 7. Art of 14th Century England International Gothic Italian Influences Portraits
  • 8. International Gothic • Disputed term • Characteristics ascribed – Stylized forms, refinement, prettiness, restrained vitality, decorative fantasy, and sumptuous color • Combines Italian naturalism, Flemish realism and French courtly art
  • 9. Giotto and Approach to Perspective • Use of color to emphasize foreground and background • Less realistic in depicting supernatural events
  • 10. Giottio St. Francis Trial by Fire, Bardi Chapel
  • 11. Giotto St. Francis Receiving the Stigmata Bardi Chapel
  • 12. Psalter of Robert de Lisle, 1310-20 Crucifixion Gorleston psalter
  • 13. St. Omer Psalter Last Judgment
  • 14. Egerton Genesis Feast of Jacob Giotto Last Supper Padua
  • 15. Egerton Genesis 3rd Q., 14th C. Babel
  • 16. Egerton Genesis Weaving
  • 17. Byward Tower, Tower of London
  • 18. Richard II • 1390s ‘he liked to sit ostentatiously from after dinner until vespers, talking to no one but watching everyone; and when his eye fell on anyone, regardless of rank, that person had to bend his knee towards the king ...'
  • 19. Wilton Diptych 1395-99 Richard II presented to the Virgin and Child by St. John the Baptist, Saints Edward the Confessor and Edmund
  • 20. Orb on Banner
  • 21. Wilton diptych, side panels
  • 22. Richard II – Treasure Roll • Compiled for Henry IV to list jewels and plate of Richard and his queens • 1206 entries • 28 meters long • Includes many objects taken in 1397
  • 23. Only surviving crown of 11 listed
  • 24. Richard in Wilton Diptych
  • 25. Image of St. Michael • Painting of similar image to one given by Charles VI to Richard • Version pawned by Charles to his brother-inlaw and not returned • Disappeared in 1801 during Napoleonic occupation of Bavaria
  • 26. Richard’s Courtiers They were "knights of Venus rather than knights of Bellona, more valiant in the bedchamber than on the field of war, armed with words instead of weapons...” Walsingham
  • 27. On King Richard’s Ministers Ther is a busch that is forgrowe; Crop hit welle, and hold hit lowe, Or elles hit wolle be wilde.
  • 28. Extravagances of Richard II Royal Palace at Sheen 1384 and 1388 • 2,000 painted tiles "for the King's bath," large bronze taps for hot and cold water, • Fireplaces and personal latrines in all rooms
  • 29. Personal dress and invention of Richard II 1388 Order for [A First] “small pieces of linen made to be given to the lord king for blowing and covering his nose.” • Tunic of pearls, other precious stones and gold • "hanselyn" embroidered with leeches, water, and rocks and embellished with fifteen whelks and fifteen mussels of silver gilt, and fifteen cockles of white silver. The doublet...was embroidered with gold orange trees...and adorned with 100 oranges of silver gilt, weighing 2 1b. 1/2 oz. Troy
  • 30. Video The Deposition of Richard II Professor Jennifer Paxton The people, "by ancient statute and recent precedent,” had a remedy for royal wrongs. Duke of Gloucester
  • 31. Impeachment of Michael de la Pole • High crimes – Dereliction of duties – Loss of Ghent Not guilty because he did not bear sole responsibility • High misdemeanors – Obtaining benefits from office – Misappropriating funds Guilty
  • 32. Letters of Henry • Before capture of Richard – 21 Richard II • After capture – 1399 • After receiving the crown – 1 Henry IV
  • 33. Conviction of Household Personnel • 1388 • Appellants accuse Brembre, Pole, de Vere and Neville of treason • Brembre found not guilty but then charged with concealment • Chief Justice Tresilian dragged from Westminster Abbey and killed Froissart Chronicles
  • 34. 1387 Richard; Ten Questions Supremacy of the monarch or of the law? 9. How should the man be punished who had moved in the 1386 parliament to "send for the statute by which King Edward [II] . . . had been adjudged in parliament?" The justices answered that this man and the one "who, under pretext of this motion, had brought that statute to parliament" should be punished "as traitors and criminals."
  • 35. Answers • No minister could be impeached without the crown's agreement • It was treasonous to limit the royal power. • Only the king could choose ministers • The King called and dissolved parliament at his will and determined its business.
  • 36. Exeter and Salisbury meet Henry British Library Harley 1319
  • 37. Earl of Northumberland received by Richard at Conway
  • 38. Northumberland swearing an oath on the sacred host that Richard would remain king
  • 39. Richard II, disguised in a priest's cowl meets soldiers of the Earl of Northumberland at Conway
  • 40. Richard and Henry at Flint Castle
  • 41. Richard delivered to the citizens of London
  • 42. Henry before Parliament to claim the crown
  • 43. Accusations against Richard • Distributing possessions of the Crown to unworthy persons • Maintained a bodyguard of unruly and violent Cheshiremen and ‘surrounded the parliament with a great number of armed men and archers whom he had gathered there for the purpose of overawing the people
  • 44. Accusations against Richard • • • • • Interference in local elections Failure to respect property rights Inconsistent behavior leading to loss of trust Seeking papal approval for his actions ‘He dissipated it [parliamentary grants normally only given in time of war] prodigiously upon the ostentation, pomp and vainglory of his own person’
  • 45. Accusations against Richard • Allowed accusations by the ‘young, strong and healthy’ against the ‘aged, impotent, lame or infirm’ to be brought before the Court of Chivalry where the only defense was by arms
  • 46. ‘Chaucer’ Astrolabe