Cabbage leeks, parsley, Herbs – yarrow, tansey, skulcap, summer savory, comfrey, bog rosemary, angelicaIntroduced but not kept – carrot, lettuce, cucumber
Common plum prunusdomesticaWalnutsApplesIntroduced but not kept - mulberry, grape
Originally ten months plus winter. Add January and February Changed month 5 (Quintillis) to Julius and six (Sextilis) to Augustus
SunMoonTiwgod of combatWodan,Thor,god of thunderFrigaSaturn
14. F2011 End of Roman Governance
Religious ControversyPelagius Augustine• Moral perfection is • Perfection is attainable in this life impossible without without the divine grace divine grace through human free will, – We are born sinners – Not all humanity was guilty (original sin) in Adams sin, – Adam had condemned humankind through bad example, – Christ’s good example offered a path to salvation,
Continued Religious Controversy• Missions from Continent to remnants of Christianity in Britain – More concern for deviation than paganism
Military decline• Legion strength reduced to 10% of former level• Limitanei less well trained• Units of federates?
Revolt in the Provinces• Military revolts elevate Marcus, Gratian (407), Constantine III(407)• Withdrawal of troops
Revolt in Provinces• Rejection of central authority – No taxation without protection? – Allegiance to Honorius not Constantine III?• Reaction of Honorius – Inability to provide protection – No protection wo taxation?
The ties are broken• 406 Effective end of diocesan control• 409 Britain expels Roman officials• 410 Defense of Britain left to civitates• Reassertion by elite Celts who occupy hill- towns and forts in outlying areas.• End of Pax Romana• Migrations to Ireland, Brittany, Gaul
Breakdown of Urban Britain• No new coins after 402 (?)• Abandoned homes• New homes built in rubble• Layers of black dirt – weeds or agricultural use• Burial within walls
Climate Change• Glacial advance c. 400• Increased rainfall c. 400• Cooling after 350• Sea level rise 120-400• Rhine freezes in 406 allowing barbarians to cross
Impacts on Agriculture• Marginal boundary drops in altitude• Increased rainfall-increased erosion• Impact of military demand• Disruption of traditional agriculture in border regions• Changes in labor supply• Famine-reported by Gildas
Example: Upper Thames• Spelt wheat disappears but flax and barley continue• Cattle decrease while sheep increase• Exotics disappear• Reduced population, changed social structure or climate change?
Agriculture and Influences• Reforestation at end of Roman period• Loss of military market• Loss of urban markets• Loss of labor
Consequences• Coinage disappears• Loss of skilled masons and engineers – Timber buildings• Loss of industry – Hand molded pottery• Exceptions – continuity of use at some level
Continuity at VindolandaLatin inscription – Christian symbolBritish name
The end of Roman Britain: what ended, when and why?Video Lecture Dr Andrew Gardner (UCL Institute of Archaeology) Originally given Tuesday 9 March 2010http://www.ucl.ac.uk/lhl/lhlpub_spring10/13_090310• Also at iTunes University and YouTube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FlwwLrA35YI .
Legacy•What role did Roman culture playin Britain after the army left?•What were the effects of 400+years of contact and occupation?
Legacy of Rome - Food• Introduced crops that remain during Anglo- Saxon period• Introduced crops that disappear at end of Roman administration• Introduced animals that remain after Roman administration ends
Legacy of RomeLanguage• Latin enters English through Anglo-Saxon• Latin enters English through Old English• Latin enters English through Norman French• Latin enters English through Welsh?
Legacy of RomePolitical-Economic Structures• Written law• Cash economy - denarius• Fixed hierarchy• City
Legacy of RomeTechnology• Roads• Military – obsolete• Stone buildings – stone is recycled• City – Walls are later used
Legacy of Rome (and Greece) - Time• Seven day week – Etruscans and early Romans used 8-day market week – Days named for gods• Lunar calendar aligned with solar year
WeekGreek Helios Selenes Ares Hermes Dios Aphrodie KronosLatin Sol Luna Mars Mercury Jove Venus SaturnOld Sunnandæg Mōnan- Tīwes- Wōdnes- Þures- Frīgedæg Sæternes-English
Legacy of RomeReligion - Christianity• Remnant• Reintroduced from continent• Reintroduced from Ireland
Legacy of Rome`By letting the vanquished become partners in your own law, you have made a single city out of what was once a world. Rutilius Namatianus c. 410
The Centurion’s SongLEGATE, I had the news last night - my cohort ordered home By ships to Portus Itius and thence by road to Rome. Ive marched the companies aboard, the arms are stowed below: Now let another take my sword. Command me not to go! Ive served in Britain forty years, from Vectis to the Wall, I have none other home than this, nor any life at all. Last night I did not understand, but, now the hour draws near That calls me to my native land, I feel that land is here.
The Centurion’s SongLegate, I come to you in tears - My cohort ordered home! Ive served in Britain forty years. What should I do in Rome? Here is my heart, my soul, my mind - the only life I know. I cannot leave it all behind. Command me not to go! Rudyard Kipling
Roman Britain to Norman England Planned for Fall 2012 Based in part on: Great Courses The Story of Medieval England