13.  S2013 Edward i
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13. S2013 Edward i



Edward I and his legal reforms. Edward I and his conquest of Wales and attempted conquest of Scotland. Changes in military technology.

Edward I and his legal reforms. Edward I and his conquest of Wales and attempted conquest of Scotland. Changes in military technology.



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  • Royal 14 B vi Genealogical Chronicle of the English KingsEngland (East Anglia?), c. 1300–07Chronicles in the form of genealogical diagrams featuring kings in order of succession became a popular way of telling English history. Forty such roll chronicles survive from the period between Edward I’s accession to the throne (1272) and the death of Henry V (1422). The vast majority of extant copies contain variants of the same anonymous Anglo-Norman text, which is displayed in short captions and provides a commentary on the royal portraits in the interconnected roundels.The Royal roll dates from the reign of Edward I and represents the most common variant of the genealogical chronicle. Its historical narrative begins with a large round diagram known as the Heptarchy that shows the seven Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. The royal line starts below with Ecgberht, the king of Wessex who united the Anglo-Saxons, and continues down to Edward I, with two further generations of kings added in pencil.The roll chronicle's contents was fashioned to shape the past of the English monarchy and promote the image of the dynastic identity of the Plantagenets as descendants of both Anglo-Saxon kings and the dukes of Normandy.15The original patron of this lavish chronicle is not known, but the roll can be almost certainly identified with the Role des roysd’Angleterre that was listed amongst the books kept at Richmond Palace in 1535.
  • According to J. Cannon and R. Griffiths, The Oxford Illustrated History of the British Monarchy (Oxford, 1988), p. 193, the image depicts Edward I presiding over parliament in c.1278. Edward is flanked by Alexander III of Scotland and Llywelyn the Last of Wales, although they probably did not attend any of Edward's parliaments. The closed crown indicates that this is not a contemporary illustration, and indeed it can be found in the Garter Book written and illustrated for Sir Thomas Wriothesley in c.1524. The lords spiritual are seated to the king's right, the lords temporal to his left, and in the centre sit the justices and law officers. No commons are present at this session.
  • We come with the power and the mission (granted by the king) that allChristians be liberated from servitude and from tribute, from taxes and all things similar; that they be honoured and respected and that nobody lay hands on their property; that the churches that were destroyed be rebuilt, thatthe bells sound, and that no-one dare prevent them [the Christians] frompraying for our kingdom with a tranquil and joyful heart.2
  • Edward I 19’ 30” – endEdward II 18’ – 20’ 40”
  • Rithlan pronunciation (th as in this)
  • Yew imported from Itlay
  • Tests suggest that at maximum strength could penetrate iron plates but not steel plates.Modern bows of 75 lb force. Mary Rose ~150 lb. Mary Rose archers were 6ft 2in or 6ft 3in,
  • Lenham, Kent

13.  S2013 Edward i 13. S2013 Edward i Presentation Transcript

  • Edward IEnglish JustinianConquests andAttempted Conquests
  • It’s all about M.E.Your Uplift and Input
  • Edward I (1239-1307)Assessment of the Young PrinceThe pard, a beast of many colors, is very swift, likesblood, and kills with a leap. The adulterous mating of thepard with a lion (leo) produces degenerate offspring, theleopard.Isidore of Seville
  • Some Themes of Edward’s Reign• Need for Money• Expulsion of the Jews• Conquest of Wales• Conquest of Scotland, uncompleted• Statute Law• Development of Parliament as an Institution
  • Edward IGenealogyAnglo-SaxonrootsAlexander IIINeolus, AthensScota, daughterof PharaohHeptarchy
  • Wace Roman de Brut ~1150; Layamon Brut ~1190Tracing the Britons back to Troy
  • Marriage• 1254 Eleanor of Castile (1241-1290)GlastonburyV&A
  • 1260 Statute of Arms -Tournaments• And no Knight or Esquire serving at theTournament, shall bear a sword pointed, or Daggerpointed, or Staff or Mace, but only a broad sword fortourneying.• And they who shall come to see the tournament, shallnot be armed with any manner of armor, and shallbear no sword, or dagger, or staff, or mace, or stone,• And no King at Arms or Minstrels shall bear secretarms . . .
  • The Round Table• Round Tables oftenfoci of tournaments• Participants inArthurian costume• Tree ring dating to~1290• Painted during reignof Henry VIII
  • 1274 Reforms• Replace most sheriffs• Oath to enforce debts to King– treat rich and poor alike• Local inquests with local juries• Wheels of justice grind slowly• 1275 Hundred Rolls
  • Statute Law• 1275 Statute of Westminster– Attempt to make courts more efficient– Includes Benefit of Clergy Act; Freedom ofElection Act; Prisoners and Bail Act– Robert Burnell, Chancellor• Move towards tradition of laws made by theKing in Parliament rather than by judges incourts
  • Edward I inparliament 1274(illustration from ~1524)
  • Edward on Crusade 1270-1274• Tunisia– Death of St. Louis– Philip agrees to truce• Edward to Acre– Venetians trade withenemy; Infightingamong Christians– Mission to Tabriz -Abaqa (nephew ofKublai)
  • Later Crusade Diplomacy• Arghun, son of Aqaba• 1285 Mission to Pope• 1288 Missions toPhilip and Edward• 1289 Missions toPhilip and Edward– Positive responses butno implementation• 1290 Mission to Persia
  • Edward and the Jews• 1273-74 Jews restricted to preexisting locales• 1275 Edward’s mother enters convent;demands removal of Jews from any townsfrom which she derives income• Increased taxes
  • 1275 Statute of Jewry• … all Jews shall dwell in the King’s own citiesand boroughs• …covenants before made shall be observed, …[but] usuries shall cease• … each Jew … shall wear a badge on his outergarment
  • Edward and the Jews• Strict enforcement of insignia• Arrests for non-payment of taxes• 280 Jews hung in London for coin-clipping
  • 1290 Expulsion• Changing Christian religious attitudes(Dominicans and Franciscans)• Indications of continuing usury• Failure to change occupation• Expulsion with much confiscation of propertyMundill, Robin R. Englands Jewish Solution: Experimentand Expulsion, 1262-1290 Cambridge [England ; New York:Cambridge University Press, 1998
  • Video: EdwardI, Wales, Scotland, GasconyEdward II, ScotlandDr. Jennifer Paxton
  • Wales 1267
  • Wales: Preparations for War• 228 knights, 294 sergeants plus men suppliedby barons• c. 2500 infantry to 15,000• 200,000 crossbow bolts• Large quantities of wheat and oats• Harvesters
  • Conquest of Wales• 1st campaign: 750 cavalry, 8,000 infantry• 2nd campaign: 15,000 infantry– 1010 diggers, 345 carpenters• Naval force at Anglesey• Initial defeats for English• Edward ‘walks on water’
  • Edward’s Route:First Campaign
  • 2nd Campaign
  • Occupation of Wales• 1284 Statute of Wales– provisions for King’s lands obtained fromLlywelyn– Wales annexed to England– Wales divided into shires– English law except for some civil matters
  • After the Treatyof Rhuddlan
  • 1294 Rebellion
  • Ring of Castles
  • James of St. George
  • Rhuddlan
  • Rhuddlan Plan
  • Caernafon Plan
  • Caernafon
  • ConwyBastide Town
  • Scotland
  • Man-power for Scotland• Request– 60,000 infantry and 1,000 men-at-arms• From Ireland– 1 earl, 8 bannerets, 26 knights, 26 light cavalry, 27crossbowmen, 2549 foot soldiers
  • Weaponry• Increased use of infantry• Use of archers - longbow• “Warwolf” largest medieval trebuchet(catapult)• Use of incendiaries?
  • Model of ‘Warwolf’
  • Choose Your WeaponsCross Bow (balistarii)• "cocked“ with little effort• Wait for target• Can use coverDefensive situationsSelf bow (sagitarii)• Requires considerablestrength• Mobility• Higher firing rateOffensive situations
  • Longbows and longbow debateBattles are won more bythe psychological effectsof weapons than by theirphysical impacts.But those psychologicaleffects are the directresults of the physicalones.Clifford RogersLongbows from the Mary Rose
  • Armor (mail) piercing arrowheadsM10 is the most common in military contextsOliver Jessup,Archaeologydata service
  • Obtaining Crossbows• John until 1202– Genoa– Mercenaries• John after 1202– Royal workshops• Henry III– Expansion of royal workshops– Private manufacturers in England
  • Obtaining Crossbows• Edward I– Expand royal workshops, particularly at the Towerof London– Add new workshops near centers of conflict– Install makers at Welsh castles– Imports from Gascony
  • Costs of War• 1277 Welsh war £23,000• 1282-3 Welsh war £98,000• Castles in Wales £80,000• 1294-8 (Wales, Flanders, Gascony) £750,000
  • Cost of the Scotland Campaigns• 1300 campaign £40,000 to £50,000• 1303-4 campaign £75,000 to £80,000
  • 1297 Reaffirm Magna Carta
  • Confirmatio Cartarum• An additional document in repsonse to newdemands• New taxes would require the consent of therealm and be for the benefit of the realm.• Abolish heavy tax on wool.
  • Ricciardi of Lucca• Employed to collect customs on wool exports• Borrowing for Welsh wars• Papal crusading tax• Agents for other Italian loans• Debt of Edward in 1294 £392,000(annual clerical receipts £210,000; annual wardrobereceipts £30,000- £140,000)
  • Bankruptcy• 1294 New customs duties• Riccardi fail to collect all customs due• Assets seized; bank runs in Italy; frozen assetsin France• Edward forces loans from other bankers
  • TradeEnglandFlandersGasconyWoolClothWine‘carrying wool to England’poet of Artois
  • Trade flowCredit flow
  • Domestic ViolenceTithe barn, burnt 1297; replaced late 14th C.
  • Edward and His Family• Faithful husband to two wives• Close to surviving daughters but perhaps not tohis sole surviving son
  • Death of Eleanor, 1290• 15-16 children• Death at Lincoln– Entrails• Blackfriars –heart• Westminster Abbey• Crosses at restingplaces for masses forher soul
  • 1290 Eleanor Dies
  • CharingCrossCenter of London
  • 1297 Confrontation with France
  • Causes• Homage for Gascony• Clashes at sea• French protectorate in Flanders– Wool
  • Peace• Return to pre-war status in Gascony• Marriage with Margaret of France (age 20) in1299• Arrange marriage between Edward (II) andIsabella of France