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12. S Northern ireland troubles to 2011Presentation Transcript
TheTroublesNorthernIreland(1968-?) The unemployment in our bones Erupting in our hands like stones; The thought of violence a relief The act of violence a grief; Our bitterness and love Hand in glove “Derry” Seamus Deane
Northern Ireland - Before “The Nationalist majority . . . stands at 3,684. We must ultimately reduce and liquidate that majority. . . This county is . . . a Unionist county.” E.C. Ferguson, Unionist MP, Femanagh, 1948
Alleged liquidation campaign Make new housing available primarily to Protestants Make employment scarce for Catholics
Reaction 1963 Homeless Citizens, League, Dungannon 1964 Fermanagh Civil Rights Association Dr. Conn and Mrs. Patricia McCluskey 1965 Campaign For Social Justice In Northern Ireland
Activities Presentations, pamphlets, pickets Occupied pre-fab bungalows due for demolition First protest march of the civil rights movement in Dungannon in June 1963.
Background - Derry February 1967 Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association formed Derry City Council dominated by Unionists despite majority Catholic population High unemployment in area (~20%) Caledon squatting Council houses generally denied to Catholics Catholic squatters evicted; House given to a 19-year old Protestant woman with connections Aug. 24, 1968 Local march wo incident
Voting – Northern Ireland Parliament 1921, 1925 - Proportional representation 1929 Eliminate proportional representation 1973 Single transferable vote Local elections (1960s) ~1.5% have more than one vote 25% have no vote (lodgers, grown children at home)
Disproportionate Representation Derry (1957) Nationalists 61.6 % of parliamentary electors 54.7 % of local government electors Belfast (1967) Nationalists 49 % of local government electors 62 % of non-electors
Derry: Voters and Representatives
Grievances Franchise Gerrymandering, Allocation of houses and jobs by local councils Discrimination by private firms Lack of economic aid leading to high rates of unemployment in Catholic areas.
Civil Rights - Oct. 5,1968 Derry Housing Action Committee and Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association plan march in Derry along traditional Protestant route Home minister bans march
Derry March March held anyway Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) baton marchers including two MPs Stones and placards thrown at police Batons and water wagons used against marchers
Apprentice Boys March
Apprentice BoysMarch Route
Bogside BBC Battle of the Bogside
1972 Protestant Riots
More Protests and Response More rallies, marches, and counter demonstrations Newry riot Nov. 22 Reforms Package announced byTerence O'Neill, NI Prime Minister Omsbudsman; Derry Housing Council to allocate on need; Abolish special powers of police when safe Cameron report
1969 Cameron report The police handling of the demonstration in Londonderry ... was in certain material respects ill co-ordinated and inept. There was use of unnecessary and ill controlled force in the dispersal of the demonstrators, only a minority of whom acted in a disorderly and violent manner. There are at work within Northern Ireland persons whose immediate and deliberate intention is to prepare, plan and provoke violence, reckless of the consequences to persons or property. ... From the aimless and vicious hooligans of the streets and alleys to the extremists of right or left, of whatever creed, Catholic or Protestant, all would appear to bear a share of blame for the tragic events which have occurred.
Bloody Sunday Before
Arrests during lull
“Interrogation in Depth” wall-standing: forcing the detainees to remain for periods of some hours in a "stress position", hooding: putting a dark bag over detainees' heads subjection to noise deprivation of sleep deprivation of food and drink Compton report: the techniques constituted physical ill-treatment but not physical brutality PM Heath: “Government, having reviewed the whole matter with great care and with reference to any future operations, have decided that the techniques ... will not be used in future as an aid to interrogation."
European Court for Human Rights holds (1978) Five techniques constituted a practice of inhuman and degrading treatment but not torture That there existed at Palace Barracks a practice of inhuman treatment That it cannot direct the respondent State to institute criminal or disciplinary proceedings against those members of the security forces who have committed the breaches...found by the Court and against those who condoned or tolerated such breaches IRELAND v. THE UNITED KINGDOM
1972- 1985 1972 UK suspends Northern Ireland government (Stormont) – Direct rule 1974 Prevention of Terror Act Hunger strikes Bombings, snipings, random acts of unkindness
Organizations - Militia Republican Official IRA, Provisional IRA(1972) Irish National Liberation Army (1974), Continuity IRA (1996), Real IRA (1997) Loyalist Ulster Volunteer Force (1966) Ulster Defence Association - Ulster Freedom Fighters (1971)
Organizations - Political Official Sinn Féin -> Sinn Féin the Workers Party -> The Workers' Party -> Workers' Party of Ireland. Sinn Féin (associated with Provisional IRA)
1981 Hunger Strikes
1981 Hunger Strikes - Funeral
Bystanders Army IRA
The Toll – One estimate9 % of those killed by the IRA are other republicans9% of those killed by UVF are other loyalists
Path to Peace 1985 Anglo-Irish Agreement “We say never, never, never” Ian Paisley "...the formal recognition of the partition of Ireland...[is] a disaster for the nationalist cause” Gerry Adams Irish opinion 59 % pro, 29% anti
Path to Peace 1993 Downing Street Declaration Informal talks 1994 Formal talks 1998 Belfast (or Good Friday) Agreement Complication - Decommissioning
Sides Gerry Adams, Sinn Fein David Ervine, Progressive Unionist Ian Paisley, Democratic Unionist Martin McGuiness, Sinn Fein, IRA
Mitchell Principles Negotiators commit to: Democratic and peaceful means of resolving political issues Total disarmament of all paramilitary organizations; Verifiable disarmament to the satisfaction of an independent commission; Renounce and oppose use of force, or threat to use force, to influence negotiations; To agree to abide by the terms of any agreement Urge that 'punishment' killings and beatings stop and take effective steps to prevent such actions.
Drumcree March, Portadown Commemorate Battle of the Boyne 1995 RUC blocks Garvagny Rd. Loyalist riots March permitted Nationalist riots Still blocked Annual protests
Blocking the Route (1998)
Ian Paisley They breed like rabbits and multiply like vermin. Ian Paisley on Catholics, to loyalist rally in 1969 I denounce you, Anti-Christ! I refuse you as Christ's enemy and Antichrist with all your false doctrine. Ian Paisley to Pope John Paul II on a visit to the European Parliament 1988
“Sitting with the devil” “I will never sit down with Gerry Adams . . . he'd sit with anyone. He'd sit down with the devil. In fact, Adams does sit down with the devil.”Ian Paisley Independent, February 13 1997 Ian Paisley and Gerry Adams, March 2007
Devolution – Excepted MattersReserved for central government the Crown Parliament international relations Defence national security immigration and nationality taxation national insurance elections currency nuclear energy space
Devolution – Reserved PowersMay be transferred at a later date navigation (including merchant shipping) civil aviation Coastline postal services import and export controls minimum wage financial services, markets intellectual property units of measurement telecommunications, broadcasting, internet National Lottery xenotransplantation surrogacy human fertilisation and embryology, human genetics consumer safety in relation to goods
Devolution – Transferred PowersCurrently controlled by North Ireland Agriculture and rural development Culture, arts, leisure Education Employment and learning Enterprise, trade and investment Environment Finance and personnel Health, social services and public safety Justice Regional development (including transport) Social development (including housing)
First Devolved Government
1968: Which of these best describes the way you think of yourself? Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey, Queen's University Belfast and University of Ulster
1991: Which of these best describes the way you think of yourself?
2009: Which of these best describes the way you think of yourself?
2009: And are you in favor of more mixing or more separation in people's marriages?
2009: If the majority of people in Northern Ireland ever voted to become part of a United Ireland do you think you …
2009: Would you say that relationships are better than they were 5 years ago, worse, or about the same?
2010- Northern Ireland Government Mrs. Robinson and First Minister Peter Robinson
2011 Gerry Adams Resigns as MP (Westminster) Resigns from NI Assembly Runs in Republic
Headlines – Belfast Times, May 4 Use your vote for peace, says family of murdered policeman Ronan Kerr Semtex found during raids Man jailed over £3.5m cocaine plot