12. f2013 England in the Age of Chaucer and Europe   Heirs of Edward iii
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12. f2013 England in the Age of Chaucer and Europe Heirs of Edward iii

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The heirs of Edward III and the royal houses of the continent. Foreign contacts of England and the role of Chaucer.

The heirs of Edward III and the royal houses of the continent. Foreign contacts of England and the role of Chaucer.

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  • Great Divergence coined by Huntington of Clash of Civilizaitons fame
  • The rise in livestock production was land using and labor-saving. In particular, it economized on the factor of production that had become particularly expensive after 1349—male labor. Women could perform many of the tasks in animal husbandry. Because of the year-round labor requirements in pastoral farming, employing servants on year-long or multiyear contracts was convenient. Servants overwhelmingly lived in the households of large landowners, and were obliged to remain unmarried. Thus, the positive demand shock for pastoral products after the Black Death laid the foundations for the emergence of European Marriage pattern (EMP)
  • Edward III had evidently decided that the Essex lands of the Bohun family should pass to Thomas, but Eleanor's younger sister, Mary, was entitled to half the inheritance, and was thus an attractive marriage prospect. At Edward's death in 1377, however, Mary was still unmarried, and in May 1380, when the inheritance was formally partitioned and Thomas and Eleanor given livery of her share, Thomas was also granted custody of Mary's purparty. Froissart suggests that Thomas was responsible for bringing Mary up, and that he hoped to persuade her to become a member of the order of Poor Clares so that the whole Bohun inheritance would devolve upon him and Eleanor, but, while Thomas was on campaign in France in 1380, his elder brother John of Gaunt in effect abducted Mary from Pleshey, and married her to his son Henry, earl of Derby (the future Henry IV). Henry's marriage to Mary undoubtedly took place in 1380, though how much more of Froissart's story is true cannot be determined with any certainty. Mary and Henry were given livery of her share of the inheritance on 22 December 1384, and Thomas thus had to relinquish control of the estates assigned to her, including Brecon and Hay. Mary's marriage had serious long-term consequences for Thomas. It left him ‘dependent on Crown grants rather than on inherited resources’ for the rest of his life
  • From his earliest years, the young earl of Richmond's marriage had been the subject of diplomatic exchanges but, despite suggestions that he should marry a daughter of Alfonso IV of Portugal (in 1345) or Marguerite, daughter and sole heir of Louis, count of Flanders (in 1351), it was to an English noblewoman, Blanche of Lancaster (1346?–1368), younger daughter and coheir of the king's most trusted captain, Henry, first duke of Lancaster, and his wife, Isabella Beaumont, that John of Gaunt was eventually betrothed. The marriage took place amid great festivity at Reading in May 1359 and the considerable financial prospects it opened up were realized within two years, following Henry of Lancaster's death in March 1361
  • Pedro cruel to family abandons wife; abandons later mistressEsteemed by his first msitress. Considered just in treatment of JewsThis area is now largely clear of large bands of routiers as is much of northern France as they have joined the army of Henry of Trastámara, or been cleared out by the crown. Henry had assembled a large army, with both French and Aragonese components and English mercenaries, at Montpellier to invade Castile to regain his throne from Pedro the Just the king of Castile and León [from 1350],with the support of the kings of France and Aragon (Charles V and Peter IV respectively). The army entered Castile in January thus continuing the war between Argon and Castile which has been going on for some years.
  • Burgundy will figure in the 15th century narrative
  • Three days after their arrival, came the archbishop of Braganza and sir Joao Rudriguez de Sa, who entered the town of Saint Jago with two hundred horse, where they were all lodged, everything having been prepared for them.When the archbishop, with the knights and lords in his company, had refreshed themselves, they waited on the duke and duchess of Lancaster in grand array, who received them most graciously. They then declared the motive of the embassy, which the duke heard with pleasure; for he was rejoiced at the exaltation of his daughter, and the connexion with the king of Portugal, which was very opportune, if he persevered in his intention of conquering Castille. The archbishop explained, to the satisfaction of the duke and his council, that by power of the king's procuration, he was authorised to espouse personally the lady Philippa of Lancaster, in the name of don John, king of Portugal. During the residence of these ambassadors at Saint Jago, the ceremony was performed by virtue of the above-mentioned procuration; and the archbishop of Braganza and the lady Philippa were courteously laid beside each other, on a bed, as married persons should be. This being done, on the morrow the lady and her attendants were ready to depart; and, having bidden adieu to her father and mother, she mounted her palfrey, as did her damsels, and her bastard sister, the wife of the marshal, who accompanied her to Portugal. Sir John Holland, sir Thomas Percy, and sir John d'Ambreticourt, were ordered to escort her with one hundred spears and two hundred archers. They followed the road to Oporto, and, when near, were met by the king and his court, with all the prelates at that time in Oporto, to do her honour; such as the bishops of Lisbon, Evora, Coimbra, and Oporto: among the barons were, the counts d'Angouse, de Novaire, de l'Escalle, Guadalupe Ferrant Pacheco, Vasco Martin de Merlo, with upwards of forty knights, and great crowds of ladies and other persons, and the whole of the clergy in their holiday dresses. Thus was the lady Philippa conducted to the king's palace at Oporto, where she dismounted. The king took her by the hand and kissed her, performing the same ceremony to all the ladies who had accompanied her, and then led her to her apartments, where he took leave of her and her companions.The English lords and their men were lodged in the town, which is of considerable size; and this night they kept the vigil of the feast by carolling, dancing, and other amusements, until the morrow's dawn. On Tuesday morning, the king of Portugal, the prelates and lords of his country, were dressed by eight o'clock, and, mounting their horses at the palace gate, rode to the cathedral called St. Mary's church, where they waited for the queen. She followed shortly after, attended by her ladies and damsels; and, though the ambassadors had before espoused her in the king's name, the ceremony was again performed; which done, they returned to the palace, where were grand and solemn feastings. In the afternoon were tilts and tournaments before the king and queen; and in the evening the prizes were distributed. Sir John Holland gained the one destined for strangers; and that for the natives was won by a knight attached to the king, sir John Testad'oro. The day and night passed thus jovially in various amusements. That night the king lay with the queen; and it was reported by those who were near his person, that he had hitherto been perfectly chaste, and had never known woman.
  • like Alexander the Great, Alfonso is represented as being called to hisdestiny. When he hears of a threat to his realm, he turns from white to red androars like a wild lion. And like Alexander’s tutor Aristotle, Alfonso’s tutor is atfi rst disturbed by the young man’s passion, but then pronounces him as havingcome of age when the pupil expresses his devotion to his country.the choice of the fi gure of Merlin as a prominent conduit for suchprophetic knowledge is both unusual and strategic
  • The Black Prince's Ruby enters the "stage of history" in middle of the 14th century as the possession of AbūSa'īd, the Moorish Prince of Granada. At that time, the rule of Castile was being centralized to Seville and the Moorish Kingdom of Granada was being systematically attacked and reverted to Castilian rule as a part of the Christian Reconquest of the Iberian peninsula. AbūSa'īd in particular was confronted by the belligerency of nascent Castile under the rule of Peter of Castile, also known to history as Don Pedro the Cruel. According to historical accounts, AbūSa'īd wished to surrender to Don Pedro, but the conditions he offered were unclear. What is clear is that Don Pedro welcomed his coming to Seville. It is recorded that he greatly desired AbūSa'īd's wealth. When AbūSa'īd met with Don Pedro, the don had AbūSaī'd's servants killed and may have personally stabbed Said to death himself. Upon searching Said's corpse, the spinel was found and added to Don Pedro's possessions.In 1366, Don Pedro's illegitimate brother, Henry of Trastámara, led a revolt against Don Pedro. Lacking the power to put down the revolt unaided, Don Pedro made an alliance with the Black Prince, the son of Edward III of England. The revolt was successfully put down and the Black Prince demanded the ruby in exchange for the services he had rendered. While historians speculate that this was contrary to Don Pedro's desires, he had just suffered a costly civil war and was in no position to decline. It can be assumed that The Black Prince took the Ruby back to England, although it is absent from historical records until 1415.size and weight of 170 carats make it one of the largest uncut spinels in the world. Also, a tiny part of it is actual ruby material: - See more at: http://www.royalcentral.co.uk/blogs/the-dark-history-of-the-black-princes-ruby-6687#sthash.8cVQXWBJ.dpuf
  • 1369 to 1389 the Castilian king Enrique 11is deeply involved in theHundred Years' War against England
  • Enrique’s deciding victorywas achieved not through battle but through treachery: two Gascon knights(both of whom were known to Chaucer) lured Pedro into his brother’s tentunder the pretense of discussing a truce; Enrique subsequently leapt out frombehind and ran him through with a sword.But Chaucer was not necessarily groping for a distant memory when herecalled the establishment of the Trastamaran dynasty “by subtiltee” ( MkT ,VII 2379): the culture and politics of Iberia were present in the London ofthe 1370s and 80s thanks to Gaunt’s 1371 marriage to Pedro’s oldest legitimatechild, Constanza. Pedro’s murder inspired a new and altogether diff erent typeof English desire for Castile, as Gaunt lobbied strenuously for the recognitionof his own claims to the throne through Constanza.
  • By 1365 Katherine was in the service of Blanche, duchess of Lancaster, and soon afterwards she married Sir Hugh Swynford of Coleby and Kettlethorpe, Lincolnshire, a tenant of John of Gaunt who served abroad with him on the campaigns of 1366 and 1370. Katherine became governess to the duke's children after the death of Blanche of Lancaster in 1368 and, following the death overseas of her own husband in November 1371, she was soon openly acknowledged as the duke's mistress. A precise date for the start of the liaison is, in the nature of things, hard to establish, though there was a significant increase in Katherine's status and rewards within the Lancastrian household in the spring of 1372;
  • Isabella seems to hav e found him boring. A more spirited woman than hersister Constanza, she became the subject of v arious scandals at court. She issaid to hav e had an affair with Richard II's half-brother John Holland, earl ofHuntingdon (d. 1 400), and Walsingham described her as a worldly and sensualwoman, although he goes on to say that she repented and reformed before herdeath, which took place on 23 December 1 392 when she was only thirty -sev en.She was buried in the church of the Friars Preachers at Kings Langley inHertfordshire. In her will she made no legacy to her husband; apart from a fewbequests of jewellery , the residue of her estate was left to Richard II in the hopethat he would grant her y ounger son Richard, earl of Cambridge (d. 1 41 5), whowas the king's godson, an annuity of 500 marks for life. The king later issuedletters patent giving effect to her wishes. In v iew of her reputation another ofher bequests is not without irony : she left a book of v ices and v irtues to one ofher ex ecutors, Sir Lewis Clifford.
  • The Scots being forewarned had carried out a scorched earth policy and food was difficult to obtain. The main body of the English army continued along the coast towards Edinburgh, while a foraging force of around 1000 set off for Lanarkshire. In 1384 Buckingham and Lancaster had raided Lanarkshire but had been very badly mauled. as the foraging forces the Muir of MacMorran they were engaged in battle by Allan Steuart, a vassal of the Black Douglas, and married to one of his daughters, leading a mounted troop of around 600 men, from his lands of Allanton and Daldowie.The English party were driven off with heavy loss and retreated back towards Biggar. Allan Steuart who was then 63 years of age at the battle was slain in the battle. He was buried in the chapel of Beuskaig of Beuskaig. His son, also called Allan, then collected what was left of the troop and went on to join Robert II army which was raiding and looting the west coast of northern England. He was knighted under the King's banner for his exploit. The French party, who were with the Scots army were not pleased at this method of waging war but when some were taken to see the size of the English army they realised that the Scottish tactics were the only suitable ones, because the Scots did not have the resources to hold back, let alone defeat the English army.But where arms were not sufficient Alan Steuart's defeat of the foraging party, caused the English army, after having sacked Edinburgh, to retreat back to England. Despite John of Gaunt's wish to go on and attack Fife, Richard II ordered a retreat because he could not bear to watch his army starving.
  • Isabella seems to hav e found him boring. A more spirited woman than hersister Constanza, she became the subject of v arious scandals at court. She issaid to hav e had an affair with Richard II's half-brother John Holland, earl ofHuntingdon (d. 1 400), and Walsingham described her as a worldly and sensualwoman, although he goes on to say that she repented and reformed before herdeath, which took place on 23 December 1 392 when she was only thirty -sev en.She was buried in the church of the Friars Preachers at Kings Langley inHertfordshire. In her will she made no legacy to her husband; apart from a fewbequests of jewellery , the residue of her estate was left to Richard II in the hopethat he would grant her y ounger son Richard, earl of Cambridge (d. 1 41 5), whowas the king's godson, an annuity of 500 marks for life. The king later issuedletters patent giving effect to her wishes. In v iew of her reputation another ofher bequests is not without irony : she left a book of v ices and v irtues to one ofher ex ecutors, Sir Lewis Clifford.
  • The Scots being forewarned had carried out a scorched earth policy and food was difficult to obtain. The main body of the English army continued along the coast towards Edinburgh, while a foraging force of around 1000 set off for Lanarkshire. In 1384 Buckingham and Lancaster had raided Lanarkshire but had been very badly mauled. as the foraging forces the Muir of MacMorran they were engaged in battle by Allan Steuart, a vassal of the Black Douglas, and married to one of his daughters, leading a mounted troop of around 600 men, from his lands of Allanton and Daldowie.The English party were driven off with heavy loss and retreated back towards Biggar. Allan Steuart who was then 63 years of age at the battle was slain in the battle. He was buried in the chapel of Beuskaig of Beuskaig. His son, also called Allan, then collected what was left of the troop and went on to join Robert II army which was raiding and looting the west coast of northern England. He was knighted under the King's banner for his exploit. The French party, who were with the Scots army were not pleased at this method of waging war but when some were taken to see the size of the English army they realised that the Scottish tactics were the only suitable ones, because the Scots did not have the resources to hold back, let alone defeat the English army.But where arms were not sufficient Alan Steuart's defeat of the foraging party, caused the English army, after having sacked Edinburgh, to retreat back to England. Despite John of Gaunt's wish to go on and attack Fife, Richard II ordered a retreat because he could not bear to watch his army starving.
  • Edward III had evidently decided that the Essex lands of the Bohun family should pass to Thomas, but Eleanor's younger sister, Mary, was entitled to half the inheritance, and was thus an attractive marriage prospect. At Edward's death in 1377, however, Mary was still unmarried, and in May 1380, when the inheritance was formally partitioned and Thomas and Eleanor given livery of her share, Thomas was also granted custody of Mary's purparty. Froissart suggests that Thomas was responsible for bringing Mary up, and that he hoped to persuade her to become a member of the order of Poor Clares so that the whole Bohun inheritance would devolve upon him and Eleanor, but, while Thomas was on campaign in France in 1380, his elder brother John of Gaunt in effect abducted Mary from Pleshey, and married her to his son Henry, earl of Derby (the future Henry IV). Henry's marriage to Mary undoubtedly took place in 1380, though how much more of Froissart's story is true cannot be determined with any certainty. Mary and Henry were given livery of her share of the inheritance on 22 December 1384, and Thomas thus had to relinquish control of the estates assigned to her, including Brecon and Hay. Mary's marriage had serious long-term consequences for Thomas. It left him ‘dependent on Crown grants rather than on inherited resources’ for the rest of his life
  • The Psalter of Mary de Bohun and Henry BolingbrokeEngland, London or Pleshey Castle, Essex, c.1380-1385This Psalter is one of the eleven books made for the Bohun family between 1350 and 1394. It was produced around 1380 to celebrate the marriage of Mary (d. 1394), daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Essex, to Henry Bolingbroke, the future Henry IV (1399-1413). It is illustrated with thirty-five scenes from the life of David, including the episodes with Abigail shown here. If the courtly refinement of architectural details and fashionable costumes was conditioned by the dynastic preoccupations of the Bohun family, the rich biblical narrative was the work of their learned artists, John de Teye (documented 1361-1384) and the other Augustinian friars who were ‘seconded’ to work on the Bohun manuscripts at Pleshey Castle.

12. f2013 England in the Age of Chaucer and Europe   Heirs of Edward iii 12. f2013 England in the Age of Chaucer and Europe Heirs of Edward iii Presentation Transcript

  • Edward III’s Heirs Chaucer, England and Europe Petrarch Dante, Bargello, 1330’s School of Giotto Boccaccio
  • The Genesis of the “Great Divergence” “Malthusian Dynamism and the Rise of Europe: Make War, not Love” American Economic Review: Papers & Proceedings 2009, 99:2, 248–254 Voigtländer, Nico, and Hans-Joachim Voth. "The three horsemen of riches: Plague, war, and urbanization in early modern Europe." The Review of Economic Studies 80.2 (2013): 774-811. Alesina, Alberto “Women, Fertility, and the Rise of Modern Capitalism” Science 342, 427 (2013);
  • ‘The Great Divergence’
  • London • Life expectancy less than countryside – Sewage – Population density – disease – High income – more animals • High income - luxuries
  • Town and Countryside • After Black Death – Switch from agriculture to pastoralism – Pastoralism requires different types of labor – Migration to cities – Women and labor • Delayed marriage – Decreased fertility
  • Edward III (1312-1377) - Children • Edward the Black Prince (1330-1376) – Richard II • Lionel of Antwerp, duke of Clarence (13381368) • John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster (1340-1399) • Edmund of Langley, duke of York (1341-1402) • Thomas of Woodstock, duke of Gloucester (1355–1397)
  • Lionel of Antwerp (1338-1368) 1340 Marries Elizabeth de Burgh, 4th Countess of Ulster (d. 1363), heiress of the 3rd Earl of Ulster (d. 1332) 1368 Daughter, Philippa, married Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March (1351–1381).
  • Lionel’s descendants Lionel of Antwerp Philippa of Clarence (1355-1378) m. Edmund Mortimer, 3rd earl of March Elizabeth m. Henry Percy Roger, 4th earl Anne m. Richard Conisburgh Philippa Mortimer Edmund Mortimer, m. Catrin (Catherine) Glyndŵr
  • John of Gaunt - Children 1359 m. Blanche of Lancaster (1346-1368) daughter of Henry Grosmont Philippa (1360-1415) John Elizabeth (1364-1426) Edward, John Henry IV (1367-1413) Isabella
  • John of Gaunt 1364 Considered as successor to childless king of Scotland 1366 Chaucer involved in negotiations in Navarre 1367 Participated with the Black Prince in the restoration of Pedro the Cruel to Castile
  • John of Gaunt m. Blanche of Lancaster (1359) Philippa of Lancaster m. John I Henry IV of Portugal (1367-1414) Edward Duarte, King of Portugal (1391-1433-1438) Alfonso (1432-1438-1481) John II (1455-1477-1495) John of Gaunt’s Descendants
  • John of Gaunt Blanche of Lancaster St. Pauls, London (destroyed)
  • Children of Philippa (1360-1415) 1387 m. Joao of Portugal Blanche, Alfonso Edward (1391-1438), King of Portugal Peter (1392-1449), duke of Coimbra Henry the Navigator (1394-1460) Isabella (1397-1472) m. Philip of Burgundy Blanche John (1400-1442) grandfather of Manuel I and Isabella of Castile Descendants Ferdinand (1402-1443)
  • Marriage of Joao and Philippa
  • Modern Tragedy – Monk’s Tale O noble, O worthy Petro, glorie of Spayne, Whom Fortune heeld so hye in magestee, Wel oghten men thy pitous deeth complayne! Out of thy land thy brother made thee flee, And after, at a seege, by subtiltee, Thou were bitraysed and lad unto his tente, Where as he with his owene hand slow thee, Succedynge in thy regne and in thy rente.
  • Chaucer’s contacts • 1366 Spain • 1378 Bernabò Visconti of Milan
  • John of Gaunt m. Constance of Castile (1371) Catherine of Lancaster, Queen of Castile (13731418) John II, King of Castile (1405-1406-1454) m. Isabella of Portugal Isabella I of Castile (1451-1474-1504) Catherine of Aragon m. Henry VIII of England Queen Mary of England Spanish Descendants
  • Spain on the international scene • 1331 to 1350 Alfonso XI, king of Castile and León advanced a specifically Castilian brand of chivalry – Public coronations and tournaments – Prophecies of Merlin – Intent to establish of Castile and León as leader of Spain – Union with England
  • Siege of Algeciras (1342–44)
  • Spanish-English ties • Pedro son of Alfonso engaged to Joan, daughter of Edward III – Joan dies in 1348 in Bordeaux on the way to Castile; one of the earliest English victims of the plague
  • Pedro the Cruel and the Black Prince Crown Jewel 1362 Pedro obtains it from Abū Sa'īd, Sultan of Granada. 1366 Pedro deposed by Henry of Trastamara Alliance with Black Prince 1367 Allies defeat Henry’s army at the Battle of Najera
  • Spain and Hundred Years War • Henry of Trastamara allied to French • Fought John of Gaunt and Portugal • 1372 Important in naval battle of La Rochelle
  • Battle of La Rochelle
  • John the Gaunt’s claim to Castile 1386 Invades with 8,000 men Defeated in battle and by disease Pays large sum and arranges the marriage of his daughter, Catherine (Caterina) to Henry’s son
  • Arms of John of Gaunt Arms of Castile and Leon
  • John of Gaunt m. Katherine Swynford (1396) John Beaufort (~1371-1410) James II of Scotland Henry Beaufort (1375-1447), bishop of Winchester Thomas Beaufort (1377-1426) Joan Beaufort (1379-1440) Beauforts Legitimized in 1396
  • Edmund Langley Edmund Langley 1372 Marries Isabella of Castile, sister of Constance Edward, 2nd duke (1373-1415) Constance (1374-1416) Richard of Conisburgh 3rd earl of Cambridge m. Anne Mortimer Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York
  • Kings Langley Palace
  • Scotland 1369 Fifteen year truce 1376 Infractions occur and major differences between Douglas of Scotland and Henry Percy, earl of Northumberland 1378 John of Gaunt is appointed Richard II’s lieutenant of the marches towards Scotland
  • Scotland 1381 Percy fails to give shelter to Gaunt during peasant’s revolt Attempts to exclude Percys from a role in border disputes 1384 Truce expires; hostilities resume 1385 Scottish forces with aid from France and use of scorched earth polices drive off Gaunt and Richard II
  • Edmund Langley Edmund Langley 1372 Marries Isabella of Castile, sister of Constance Edward, 2nd duke (1373-1415) Constance (1374-1416) Richard of Conisburgh 3rd earl of Cambridge m. Anne Mortimer Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York
  • Kings Langley Palace
  • Scotland 1369 Fifteen year truce 1376 Infractions occur and major differences between Douglas of Scotland and Henry Percy, earl of Northumberland 1378 John of Gaunt is appointed Richard II’s lieutenant of the marches towards Scotland
  • Scotland 1381 Percy fails to give shelter to Gaunt during peasant’s revolt Attempts to exclude Percys from a role in border disputes 1384 Truce expires; hostilities resume 1385 Scottish forces with aid from France and use of scorched earth polices drive off Gaunt and Richard II
  • Thomas of Woodstock (1355-1397) Humphrey (IX) de Bohun, earl of Hereford and Essex Eleanor (1364-1399) Mary (1368-1394) • 1374 m. Eleanor de Bohun – Appointed constable of England • Involved in intrigues of latter part of the reign of Richard II
  • Mary de Bohun, psalter
  • Italian city states in the 14th century • 30% male vernacular literacy by late 13th century in Florence – Community funded primary education – Secular – Latinate elite (grammar schools) • High numeracy – Abacus schools (also teach reading and writing) • Universities emphasize secular studies: law and medicine
  • Italian writing • Florence – business records in vernacular – Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio – Petrarch’s more serious works in Latin • Milan, Bologna, Venice – records in Latin
  • Other modern tragedies According to Chaucer • 1369 Pierre de Lusignan whoi had been entertained by Edward III in 1363 and had many English knights among his followers. He was killed by three of his own men. • 1385, Bernabò Visconti was arrested by his nephew, and subsequently poisoned in prison..
  • Italian Trade • • • • • Genoa Milan Florence Venice Danger: Neutral boats trading with Flanders seized in 1370
  • Genoa • Shipping switched to Southampton • 1371, 1372 Genoese buy safe-conducts • 1373 Chaucer goes to Genoa to negotiate on shipping; Genoese neutral in 100 Years War • 1378 Attempt to establish Genoese staple in Southampton fails • Trade increases during disruption in Flanders
  • Nautical revolution • • • • Lateen-rigged to square rigged Quarter rudders to single stern rudder Compass Astrolabe
  • Ship design Lateen-rigged 1300 Square-rigged
  • Rudders
  • Venice • About one ship a year • Luxury goods
  • Florence • Some loans to Crown • Foreign exchange for churchman going to Avignon and pilgrims going to Rome, merchants going throughout Europe • Boccaccio
  • English export = Mercenaries • The White Company and Sir John Hawkwood
  • Italian immigrants and visitors • Merchants – Provisions, spices • Doctors • Dancing-masters
  • Artistic Influences? • Chaucer • Manuscript illustration • St. Stephen’s Chapel