Patrick Hogan, minister for agriculture, 1922-32.Patrick Hogan (1891-1936), served as minister for agriculture under the CumannnanGaedhael government, 1922-32. He was first elected to DáilÉireann in 1921, as a Sinn Féin candidate in the Galway constituency. A prudently conservative but talented minister in cabinet, he opposed protectionism, and promoted a policy of minimal taxation. He introduced regulation which aimed to maintain high standards of Irish produce and put through the last of the Land Acts in 1923. He was prematurely killed in a car accident in July 1936
2004 restrict to children where at least one parent is Irish.Kunqian Catherine Zhu, also known as Catherine Chen, was born on 16 September 2000 in Belfast to Chinese parents who were living in Wales and working for a Chinese firm in Britain. The child's mother, Mrs Chen, had deliberately selected Northern Ireland as a birthplace for her second child, whose birth in China would have contravened China's One Child Policy, and by being born on the island of Ireland would be entitled an Irish passport. As Catherine's parents were only temporary migrants, she was not eligible for British citizenship simply by virtue of birth in the United Kingdom.However, by being born in Belfast, Catherine was entitled to Irish citizenship, and Mrs Chen obtained a passport and hence Irish citizenship for her, with the intention of using the child's status as a European Union national to move the family permanently to Cardiff, Wales. However, British authorities rejected the Chens' applications for permits to reside permanently in Britain. On appeal, the Immigration Appellate Authority referred the decision to the European Court of Justice, which ruled that, as a citizen of the European Union, Catherine Chen had a right under Article 18 of the EC Treaty to reside anywhere in the EU, and that denying residency to her parent(s) at a time when she is unable to look after herself would conflict with this basic rightThe British Nationality Act 1981, in force from 1 January 1983:retained the facility for those born in the Republic of Ireland before 1949 to register as British subjects (section 31)provided that Irish citizens, in common with those from the Commonwealth, would be required to apply for naturalisation as British citizens rather than registration after five years residence in the UK (or three years if married to a British citizen).British subjects retained the right to apply for registration as a British citizen after 5 years residence in the UK.
During the period of 1936 to 1949 it was unclear whether or not the Irish state was a republic or a form of constitutional monarchy and (from 1937) whether its head of state was the President of Ireland or the King of Ireland, George VI. The exact constitutional status of the state during this period has been a matter of scholarly and political dispute.Question about whther Ireland was a republic before 1948 act ttok effect in 1949
A survey of the style and substance of Margaret Clarke’s oeuvre attests to her training at the Dublin Metropolitan School of Art and places her in the realm of the Irish academic tradition. In addition to portraits, landscapes, still-lives and genre scenes she produced several paintings on religious and literary themes, ‘history’ paintings in the tradition of the academic hierarchy of genres, among them Columbine Rests [c1923-4, location unknown], Miserere [1926, priv. coll.], Strindbergian[1927, Ulster Museum] and Mary Magdalene [1927, priv. coll.]. The majority of these works date to 1920s, a decade of upheaval and change in Ireland, politically, socially, artistically. The 1920s was also a period of significant demand in her private and professional life. In the midst of family life, three young children and the progressive ill-health of her husband, Clarke determined to pursue her professional career organizing in 1924 the first of two solo exhibitions, exhibiting at the Royal Hibernian Academy, at the AonachTailteannExhibition of Irish Art in 1924, 1928 and 1932, and at exhibitions in London, Brussels, Paris, New York and Boston. Furthermore, in 1927, she was elected to full academic status of the RHA making her only the second female artist, after Sarah Purser, to be thus honoured since the Academy’s foundation.
Sitting on the Sand DunesArtists Sister
Bas-reliefs (1942) on the facade of Department of Industry and Commerce, Kildare Street, Dublin
(1914 - 1991)
In the late 1930s, transatlantic air traffic was dominated by flying boats, and a flying boat terminal was located at Foynes on the south side of the Shannon Estuary. However, it was realised that changing technology would require a runway and airport.In 1936 the Government of Ireland confirmed that it would develop a 3.1 km2 (1.2 sq mi) site at Rineanna for the country's first transatlantic airport. The land on which the airport was to be built was boggy, and on 8 October 1936 work began to drain the land. By 1942 a serviceable airport had been established and was named Shannon Airport. By 1945 the existing runways at Shannon were extended to allow transatlantic flights to land.When World War II ended, the airport was ready to be used by the many new post-war commercial airlines of Europe and North America. On 16 September 1945 the first transatlantic proving flight, a Pan Am DC-4, landed at Shannon from New York City. On 24 October, the first scheduled commercial flight, an American Overseas Airlines DC-4, passed through Shannon Airport.Pan Am initially used Sikorsky S-40 flying boats, but in 1936 Pan Am asked the Boeing Company to design the first commercial Atlantic aircraft--the Boeing B314, of which Pan Am had six, allowing them to have a regular weekly transatlantic passenger and air mail service over the Atlantic with a single fare costing $375.
In an interview at the New York head-quarters of AFIN, he was asked about possible invaders and replied that the enemy of your enemy is your friend. Nazi Germany and Southern Ireland might be co-belligerents. He also complained that England was not giving Ireland 'a fair share of goods from overseas'.Irish-Americans regarded the administration's refusal to grant Aiken unconditional aid as a racial insult. It is unlikely that the experience made Aiken less hostile to the English or less sympathetic to the Axis. It is likely that it helped make him anti-American.98 His failure to obtain unconditional aid probably fed growing official anti-American as well as anti-Gray (US ambassador in Ireland) feeling. De Valera him-self believed Gray had done all he could to sabotage Aiken's mission.'" Aiken reportedly assured de Valera that not one in ten Americans would back Roosevelt in war."' America would remain neutral
Bombed houses at Sunningdale Park, north Belfast, April 1941.These houses were close to the Cavehill Waterworks, which German bombers appear to have mistaken for the docks and Harbour Estate. High Street after the German raid of 4-5 May 1941.
Prior to his appointment, the Irish External Affairs ministry had specified that they did not want a Nazi party member as ambassador; the solution to this requirement appears to have been that at the time he took up his position he was not a member of the party, but joined the following year, his NSDAP card being dated 1 July 1938.
At the end of December 1944, figures for the three services were provided which concluded that 37,440 men and 4,510 women born in the Twenty-Six Counties were in the armed forces, the figures for Northern Ireland were 37, 579 and 3,081 respectively.A major flaw in the official figures is the failure to record volunteers from the South recruited in Northern Ireland. Even on a conservative estimate, a further 20,000 might be added to the official figures, taking this factor into account.
RAF Sunderland flying boats in 1945 over Beleek, on the Fermanagh/Donegal border, the last to avail of a flight corridor over Southern airspace under a secret 1941 agreement. (Ulster Aviation Society)
a group representing the Three Fates inside the Leeson Street gate (a gift from the German people in thanks for Irish help to refugees after World War II)
It does seem, however, that social life on the island carried on, particularly in the south, and in June 1942 the situation for young women in Northern Ireland livened up considerably with the arrival of some 3,900 American troops. Peaking at 37,000, this new transient population would inevitably have a major impact on local social and economic life. Dancehalls, cinemas and hotels competed for the custom of these relatively well off, dancing, smoking, poker-playing young men, while for many local women the war was transformed by the appearance of the ‘Yanks’. One commentator noted an influx of women from the south anxious to secure new nylon stockings, and romance—with passions intensified by war-time tensions—blossomed. When the war ended the American government initially stated they would not finance the journey to the U.S. of the new brides of servicemen. However, they relented in 1946 and sent a converted troop ship to bring 445 brides to a new life in the U.S., to be shortly followed by a further 219— another strand in the long history of Irish-American relationships.
In principle, the IRA wished to overthrow both "partitionist" states in Ireland, both Northern Ireland and the government in Dublin, both of which it deemed to be illegitimate entities, imposed by Britain at the time of the Anglo-Irish Treaty in 1922. However, in 1948 a General Army Convention issued General Order No. 8 prohibiting "any armed action whatsoever" against the forces of the Republic of Ireland. This amounted to a de facto recognition of the Southern Irish state. Under the new policy, IRA volunteers who were caught with arms in the Republic of Ireland were ordered to dump or destroy them and not to take defensive action.Involve active units of ~200; about 400 detainees.
Discrimination is decreasing, although it still exists. We hear of the local authorities who show discrimination in the allocation of houses, but there are quite a number who are not guilty of this practice, about whom we hear nothing. Discrimination in industry varies enormously. Some of the new English and American industries permit no discrimination whatsoever; in some cases they have been suborned by local pressure. In the case of the older industries, a few are absolutely fair and square in their attitude. Others employ numbers according to the population in the district to make sure that no Catholic men ever become foremen. In fairness to managements in some industries, it would be the men themselves who would create the trouble and who exercise pressure through the shop stewards regardless of what the managers think.20 Childers report to Lemassthe Irish state's republican past. This was the explanation provided by the previous Secretary of State for Northern Ireland during the Oxford Union debate in 1959, when he led the opposition to the motion. Patrick Mayhew acknowledged that from a British point of view Lemass was a considerable improvement on the man he had succeeded, but nevertheless added that ... to some extent he is a prisoner of the past, the price of the glory that he won at the age of 15 in the GPO in 1916 is that he is saddled for good with some ideas that were even out of date then.
Ireland was wholly dependent on the British market with 81% of her exports going there in 1956. [That figure had dropped to 66% in 1969.] The country's dismal economic record stands in contrast to the relative prosperity in neighbouring Britain, in Scandinavia and in the countries of the SixMore experienced observers of EEC politics might not have reacted negatively to that proposal. But so concerned had Lemass become at the reports from Irish embassies about the `special problems' of the Irish case that he had sent Whitaker and Cremin on a tour of the capitals between 5 and 13 September 1961. Although they were very well received they concluded that the political dimension of the Irish application was a source of much speculation.32 Would Ireland play her role in a future political community and in a defence community if and when it came into existence? Here was the negative legacy of the policy of neutrality. Even more alarmingly both men also gathered from a senior official in the Foreign Ministry in Bonn that the most Dublin could hope for was associate membershipDe Agulle dies in 1967 Pompidou succeeds
The Common Agricultural Policy began operating in 1962, with the Community intervening to buy farm output when the market price fell below an agreed target level.
1957 worst year -54,000Irish Migration DynamicsIrish emigration declined steadily until the beginning of the 1970s: the net migration rate wasnegative 12.7 per thousand over the period 1871–81 and declined to negative 6.3 per thousandover the period 1936–46; it increased for the last time to negative 14.0 per thousand during1951–61, reached negative 4.0 per thousand in 1961–71, and became positive in the subsequentdecade. In addition to this reversal of Ireland’s net migration balance, the composition of Irishemigration changed in favor of higher skilled and educated workers.In the late 1960s and the 1970s, the average education level increased in Ireland, and in the 1980sthe workers that emigrated to the United Kingdom (44 percent), to the other EU countries (14 percent)and to the United States (14 percent, with 27 percent to the rest of the world) were bettereducated. As ÓGráda and Walsh (1994) show, the proportion of emigrants among the Irish witheducation at the tertiary level and above was between 18 and 30 percent, while those with secondarylevel educations composed less than 10 percent. This was not only due to an increase inaverage education in Ireland, but also resulted from a more selective emigration strategy. Migrationamong the lower educated may have yielded returns too low to make it worthwhile, while itwas still rewarding for the higher-educated as a general career strategy (Barrett 1999; Breen1984). Thus, on the one hand, welfare discouraged emigration by the poor, while on the other,high taxes encouraged emigration by the better educated (Callan and Sutherland 1997).As a result of trade liberalization during the 1990s and the attractiveness of foreign direct investment,the Irish economy underwent rapid growth, which induced many high-skilled emigrantsto return (mainly from non-UK destinations, where the cost of migration was probablyhigher because of differences in culture and language). Owing to their experience abroad, returnmigrants were able to earn on average 10 percent more than similarly educated natives who hadnot moved (Barrett and O’Connell 2000). Furthermore, thanks to its rapid economic growth, Irelandbecame a country of immigration that attracted high-skilled EU workers and that sought toattract high-skilled ECA workers as well.
EU 16-27 Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia
11. S Free state to Republic to EU
Free State to Republic to EU<br />Era of De Valera<br />
1932 Election Issues<br />FiannaFáil<br />CumannnanGaedheal<br />Free IRA prisoners,<br />Abolish the Oath of allegiance<br />Reduce power of Governor-General and Senate.<br />Protectionist policies, industrial development <br />Improvements in housing and social security benefits.<br />Record of stable government<br />Allege communist nature of FiannaFáil<br />[No solution for depression]<br />
Anglo-Irish Trade War<br />Ireland refuses to make payments to UK under Land Acts<br />Asks for repayment of £400 million excess taxation during the 19th century<br />Tariffs on imports<br />Revoke Oath of Allegiance<br />Appoint Irish Governor-General<br />
Retaliation and Counter-retaliation<br />UK imposes 20% tariff on Irish agriculture<br />Ireland imposes duties on UK coal and other products<br />Irish farmers/herders refuse (are unable) to pay rates and annuities<br />Government impounds and auctions off cattle<br />
Industry<br />Control of Manufactures Act - Majority ownership of Irish companies limited to Irish citizens.<br />Flight of large companies<br />
Agriculture<br />Encouragement of tillage vs. pasturage <br />Offsets population migration to cities<br />
Settlement<br />1935 Agreement to trade cattle for coal<br />1938 Anglo-Irish Trade Agreement<br />Lift duties except on new industries<br />One time payment <br />Return ports to Irish control<br />
Irish Nationality and Citizenship Act<br />1935 Established citizenship for those born in Southern Ireland or Northern Ireland after 1922<br />UK continued to recognize Irish citizens as British subjects until the passing of the Ireland Act 1949, which acknowledged “citizens of the Republic of Ireland<br />2004 Constitutional amendment restricts rights<br />
Head of state<br />1922-1927 By the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India.<br />1927-1937 By the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India.<br />
1937 Constitution<br />Define the Ireland (Éire) as the whole island of Ireland, its islands and the territorial seas’<br />Revoked after 1998 Belfast agreement<br />Passed by plebiscite 685,105 to 526,945<br />
“Fundamental rights”<br />Prohibit abortion except in case of threat to life of the mother<br />Right to travel and right to obtain information about services available abroad<br />Prohibit divorce<br />Removed 1996<br />
Women (Article 41)<br />Subsection 1: In particular, the State recognises that by her life within the home, woman gives to the State a support without which the common good cannot be achieved.<br />Subsection 2: The State shall, therefore, endeavour to ensure that mothers shall not be obliged by economic necessity to engage in labour to the neglect of their duties in the home.<br />
1937 Religion <br />Section 2: The State recognises the special position of the Holy Catholic Apostolic and Roman Church as the guardian of the Faith professed by the great majority of the citizens.<br />Section 3: The State also recognises the Church of Ireland, the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, the Methodist Church in Ireland, the Religious Society of Friends in Ireland, as well as the Jewish Congregations and the other religious denominations existing in Ireland at the date of the coming into operation of this Constitution.<br />
Current Constitution<br />Freedom of religion<br /> Current law also forbids discrimination in employment and services on grounds of gender (& transsexuals), marital status, family status, sexual orientation, age, disability, race (& nationality) and membership of the Traveller community, as well as religion (or lack thereof).<br />
King<br />Not mentioned in 1937 Constitution<br />Head of State not mentioned<br />External Relations Act gives George VI power to:<br />Accredit ambassadors<br />Sign treaties<br />1948 Republic of Ireland Act<br />
“The Emergency”<br />Army in 1938<br />5915 Permanent Defense Forces Members; 4945 Members of the Reserve Force; 9525 Members of the Volunteer Force<br />Plans for 37,500 cut in half<br />Emergency powers – internment, censorship<br />
Ireland – US <br />Ireland impacted by naval blockades<br />1941 Aiken mission to get food and arms<br />Refuses to back UK or offer ports in return for unification<br />Lobbies Irish-American groups<br />Offered food but not weapons<br />
Northern Ireland - Blitz<br />Four separate attacks<br />1,100 deaths<br />56,000 houses damaged (53% of entire housing stock) <br />100,000 temporarily homeless <br />£20 million damage<br />
IRA Revival<br />Ultimate aim – disband separate governments of north and south<br />Immediate aim – overthrow British institutions in Northern Ireland <br />1954 raid on Gough barracks<br />1956 “Operation Harvest”<br />1956-62 Border campaign internments by governments in north and south<br />
New Directions in the Republic<br />SeánLemass, Taoiseach 1959 -1966 <br />1958 Free trade<br />Play down role of Britain in partition<br />Encourage cross-border cooperation<br />Continue rhetoric on partition <br />
Reversal of Decline<br />Marriage<br />1957 14,700; 1966 16,800; 1971 22,000<br />Age of marriage (1961-73) 30.6 to 27.2 for males, 26.9 to 24.8 for females.<br />Living standards<br />50% increase in 1960s<br />Return of educated families in 70s<br />
1987 Single European Act<br />Single market<br />Four freedoms<br />People<br />Goods<br />Services<br />Capital<br />
Effects on Ireland<br />Ireland as low-cost manufacturing base<br />Remove government subsidies for Irish Steel, Aer Lingus and Telecom Eirean<br />New competitors Ryanair and EsatTelecom<br />Establish Ireland and financial services center<br />
EU and International Trade<br />1973 55% of exports to UK<br />2008 16.5% of exports to UK<br />
Trade<br />Exports <br />Machinery and transport equipment<br />Computers<br />Chemicals<br />Agri-food, cattle, beef, dairy products.<br />Imports<br />Data processing equipment<br />Machinery<br />Chemicals<br />Petroleum and petroleum products<br />Textiles and clothing.<br />
Major Companies<br />CRH: Construction - Raw Materials<br />Ryanair Holdings: Airlines<br />Kerry Group: Food Processing<br />DargsonOil<br />Aryzta AG: Food Processing<br />Elan Corp: Biotechnology & Drugs<br />DCC: Oil & Gas Operations<br />Bank of Ireland <br />Smurfit Kappa Group Public: Containers & Packaging<br />Paddy Power: Casinos & Gaming<br />
Large Employers<br />Intel, Co. Kildare ~4,000<br />Hewlett-Packard<br />IBM ~3,000<br />DellMoved to Poland<br />GlaxoSmithKline, Cork 1,450<br />
Largest Companies - NI<br />Moy Park – food processing<br />Tesco – supermarkets<br />Bombardier Aerospace<br />Asda –supermarkets<br />Translink – public transport<br />
Euro and Ireland<br />1992 Maastricht Treaty<br />Referendum 68.7% for ratification<br />2002 Irish pound phased out<br />Facilitate trade<br />Isolate Ireland from inflation of UK pound<br />
EU and Life<br />Increased travel<br />Educational opportunities abroad<br />Improved environment<br />European Small Claims Court<br />Cheaper phone calls <br />Standardized phone chargers in 2012<br />
Changing Face of Ireland<br />What is the second language of Dublin?<br />