From Roman Britain to Scotland
Roman Scotland• Tribal  – Lowland tribes make treaties with Rome    Votadini (east coast), Selgovae (Tweed),    Novantae (...
Roman Scotland• Antonine wall between Firth of Forth and Clyde effective  boundary   – Picts north of the wall   – Conques...
Sub-Roman Scotland• British kingdoms  – Rheged includes Cumbria  – Strathclyde - Dumbarton  – Bernicia (later merged with ...
Dalriada• 500 Fergus mac  Eirc, founder• Religious centers  responsible for spread  of Gaelic culture• Simultaneous kings ...
6
Portmahomack               7
Early Christian Scotland                           8
British Areas• c. 590 Saxons defeat Gododdin at Catterick• 603 Dalriada loses battle of Degastan• 642 Domnall Brece, king ...
Dunadd         10
Dunadd         11
Dunnad         12
„Irish‟ Round Towers                                          BreclunAbernethy, Perth                                     ...
British Kingdom - Weakened• 870 Olaf the White and Ivar the Boneless from  Norwegian Dublin successfully siege Dumbarton  ...
Dumbarton            15
Strathclyde              16
Pictland•   Origin of the Picts?•   Matrilineal succession•   Pictish symbols•   Reuse of pre-Roman centers as royal cente...
Important CentersScots, Picts, Britons                Edinburgh                            18
Symbol stones          19
PictishCross          20
Pictish SymbolsOgham Inscription                    21
Drosten Stone                22
Hilton of Cadboll Stone[Replica on site]                          23
Dupplin Cross at   Forteviot                   24
Scotland   9 th   C.                       25
Anglo-Saxons in Scotland• Bernicia extended to Tay• 668 Southern Pictland taken over• 685 Ecgfrith defeated by Bridei king...
Aberlemno symbol stoneNechtansmere                         27
One Nation Under Scots• Interconnected royal dynasties-tanistry• Viking challenge   – Devastation of coastal Dalriada• 842...
MacAlpin Dynasty843 Kenneth I accepted as King of weakened Picts         954 Indulf captures Edinburgh  927973 Kenneth II ...
Scotland 875               30
Scone        31
Scotland•   Sutherland – southern part of Viking area•   Caithness – Norse•   Galloway – Norse/Gaelic•   Strathclyde – Bri...
Scottish Church• Constantine II  reorganized Pictish  church as a Celtic  church• Religious center St.  Andrews           ...
Viking Challenges• 904 Constantine defeats Viking army at  Strathcarron• Norwegian populations in isles and extreme  north...
Viking Challenges• Equilibrium with Caithness in 11th C.  – Sigurd of Orkney marries daughter of Malcolm    II  – Duncan I...
Unification of Strathclyde with Scotland• 945 Edmund defeats Strathclyde and gives it to  Malcolm I of Scotland• Separate ...
Bubble, Bubble…Duncan        MacBeth                        37
MacAlpines and Atholls1018 Malcolm II wins Battle of Carham, secures Lothian     ?                              Sigurd    ...
Macbeth and the Kings                        39
Macbeth of Moray• Son of Findleach (Finlay)• 1020 “Finnlaech son of Ruaidrí, king of  Alba, was killed by his own people.”...
Macbeth of Moray• 1032 Returns after “Gilla Comgán  [Gillacomgain] son of Mael Brigte, earl of  Moray, was burned together...
Duncan I• 1018 At age 17 given subordinate Kingdom of  Strathclyde• 1034 Becomes King of Alba on death of his  grandfather...
Moray                                     in the Highlands                                             Caithness1040 Dunca...
Perth1045 Duncan’s father, Crinan killed in “abattle between the Scots themselves"                                        ...
King Macbeth• Reign a fertile period• 1050 Pilgrimage to Rome where he bestows  much largesse• Malcolm III allies with Siw...
Dunsinane?Aerial View of DunsinnanHill                           46
Birnam Wood to Dunsinane                           47
Death of Macbeth• 1057 Finally loses to Malcolm at Dundee and  killed at Lumphanan                                        ...
After Macbeth• MacBeth’s stepson has short reign• 1070 Malcolm III m. Margaret   – Invites in Norman advisors• Royal Scotl...
The English Connection                         50
After Macbeth (cont.)Malcolm                     Margaret               17    15             James I Elizabeth I          ...
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11. F2012 From Roman Britain to Scotland

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The conflicts among the Britons, Scotti, Picts and Anglo-Saxons. Unification of Picts and Scots. Succession by assassination and Macbeth

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  • National Museum of Scotland
  • The Drosten Stone is a carved Pictish stone of the 9th century at St Vigeans, near Arbroath, Scotland. In academic contexts it is sometimes called St Vigeans 1. The Drosten Stone is a Class 2 cross-slab: a flat rectangular stone with a cross carved on one side and symbols on the other. The stone is unusual in having a non-ogham inscription.
  • .The symbols at the top of this slab are found on many other carved stones from eastern and northern Scotland. The Hilton of Cadboll slab features some of the most elaborate and intricately decorated examples of these symbols.Pictish symbols are unique to Early Historic Scotland and their meaning is the source of much speculation. If they were part of a language like Egyptian hieroglyphs, they remain indecipherable.Pictish symbols are also found on stones that do not feature any Christian imagery, on high status jewellery, and on smaller stone and bone objects. Examples of these symbols can be seen in the ‘Glimpses of the Sacred’ section of the Early People gallery.The middle panel can be interpreted as an aristocratic hunting scene. At the bottom of the panel, a deer is being chased by two large dogs and two armed horsemen. Above this a person is shown sitting sideways on a horse, with glimpses of a second rider behind them. To the right are two trumpeters blowing long horns.The central character has been interpreted as an important woman, perhaps someone that people would have recognised when the stone was carved. The mirror and comb in the top left hand corner are Pictish symbols traditionally associated with women.Special care has been taken to add detail to the carving of this person’s robes and hair. She also wears a large brooch: surviving examples such as the Hunterston brooch emphasise how elaborate and prestigious these objects could be.This hunting scene may illustrate the leisurely lifestyle of the elite members of society who commissioned the carving of this stone. However, in Christian art the hunt could also represent religious conversion and the salvation of the soul, and so a double meaning of this scene is possible.The main rider is shown sitting sideways on a horse. Important people are sometimes shown facing towards the viewer, but in Christian art the Virgin Mary and Jesus are both depicted riding in this unusual way. The Hilton of Cadboll stone might be drawing on this important Christian imagery.he Hilton of Cadboll Stone is a Class II Pictish stone discovered at Hilton of Cadboll, on the Tarbat Peninsula in Easter Ross, Scotland. The stone was formerly on in the vicinity of a chapel just north of the village. It was removed to Invergordon Castle in the 19th century, before being donated to the British Museum. The latter move was not popular with the Scottish public, and so it was moved once more, to the Museum of Scotland,[2] where it remains today. A replica designed and carved by Barry Grove was recently erected on the site.In 2001 the missing lower portion of the cross-slab, along with several thousand carved fragments, was recovered by Glasgow University Archaeological Research Division (GUARD) during an excavation funded by Historic Scotland. Following some controversy around where this section of the monument should be curated it was finally put on display Hilton of Cadboll village hall rather than joining the upper portion at the Museum of Scotland.
  • The Aberlemno 2, class II Pictish symbol stone.A battle scene on the opposite face is believed to depict the Battle of Dunnichen, also called the Battle of Nechtansmere in 685 A.D. King Bridei III was leader of the Pictish army.The helmeted soldiers are believed to be the Anglo Saxons from Northumbria who were defeated outright and lost their lands north of Northumbria such as Fife.A raven is drawn feeding on a dead Anglo Saxon. The Anglo Saxon King Edwin of Deira may be depicted in this battle scene on horseback or the dead warrior on the ground. Two Anglo Saxons are shown having lost their shields.The Picts appear to have no helmets. The Pictish horsemen appear to have stirrups so that they can hold a spear and a shield unlike the Anglo Saxons.The Pictishstategy appears to be three ranks. The first soldier has a sword for close combat, protected with a spear carried by the soldier behind. A third spearman is in reserve.The stone slab is believed to have been produced two to three centuries after the battle.
  • 11. F2012 From Roman Britain to Scotland

    1. 1. From Roman Britain to Scotland
    2. 2. Roman Scotland• Tribal – Lowland tribes make treaties with Rome Votadini (east coast), Selgovae (Tweed), Novantae (SW), Damnonii (Clyde) – Highland tribes involved in periodic contention (Caledonians, Picts) 2
    3. 3. Roman Scotland• Antonine wall between Firth of Forth and Clyde effective boundary – Picts north of the wall – Conquests of east coast but no permanent presence• Transparent borders with Ireland in the West – Later invasions of Scotti on southwest coast and Wales 3
    4. 4. Sub-Roman Scotland• British kingdoms – Rheged includes Cumbria – Strathclyde - Dumbarton – Bernicia (later merged with Deira s. of Hadrian’s wall) – Gododdin – south of Edinburgh - Votadini• Pictish kingdoms 4
    5. 5. Dalriada• 500 Fergus mac Eirc, founder• Religious centers responsible for spread of Gaelic culture• Simultaneous kings of Dalriada and Picts 5
    6. 6. 6
    7. 7. Portmahomack 7
    8. 8. Early Christian Scotland 8
    9. 9. British Areas• c. 590 Saxons defeat Gododdin at Catterick• 603 Dalriada loses battle of Degastan• 642 Domnall Brece, king of Dalriada killed by Strathclyde Britons• Cumbria remains Celtic but under Anglo-Saxon rule• 744 Angus of Pictland wins battle with Strathclyde• 750, 756 stalemate with Picts 9
    10. 10. Dunadd 10
    11. 11. Dunadd 11
    12. 12. Dunnad 12
    13. 13. „Irish‟ Round Towers BreclunAbernethy, Perth Angus shire 13
    14. 14. British Kingdom - Weakened• 870 Olaf the White and Ivar the Boneless from Norwegian Dublin successfully siege Dumbarton CastleCentermoves toGlasgow 14
    15. 15. Dumbarton 15
    16. 16. Strathclyde 16
    17. 17. Pictland• Origin of the Picts?• Matrilineal succession• Pictish symbols• Reuse of pre-Roman centers as royal centers• Marriage relationships with Strathclyde and Northumbria 17
    18. 18. Important CentersScots, Picts, Britons Edinburgh 18
    19. 19. Symbol stones 19
    20. 20. PictishCross 20
    21. 21. Pictish SymbolsOgham Inscription 21
    22. 22. Drosten Stone 22
    23. 23. Hilton of Cadboll Stone[Replica on site] 23
    24. 24. Dupplin Cross at Forteviot 24
    25. 25. Scotland 9 th C. 25
    26. 26. Anglo-Saxons in Scotland• Bernicia extended to Tay• 668 Southern Pictland taken over• 685 Ecgfrith defeated by Bridei king of Picts at Nechtansmere• 927 Constantine and Athelstan settle frontier 26
    27. 27. Aberlemno symbol stoneNechtansmere 27
    28. 28. One Nation Under Scots• Interconnected royal dynasties-tanistry• Viking challenge – Devastation of coastal Dalriada• 842 Kenneth mac Alpin, King of Pictland – Extends rule to Lothian• 900 Donald II termed ‘Ri Alban’ (king of Alban) 28
    29. 29. MacAlpin Dynasty843 Kenneth I accepted as King of weakened Picts 954 Indulf captures Edinburgh 927973 Kenneth II pays homage to Edgar Accord between Constantine and Athelstan 29
    30. 30. Scotland 875 30
    31. 31. Scone 31
    32. 32. Scotland• Sutherland – southern part of Viking area• Caithness – Norse• Galloway – Norse/Gaelic• Strathclyde – Britons w. Norse/Gaelic settlements 32
    33. 33. Scottish Church• Constantine II reorganized Pictish church as a Celtic church• Religious center St. Andrews 33
    34. 34. Viking Challenges• 904 Constantine defeats Viking army at Strathcarron• Norwegian populations in isles and extreme north• Northern centers may have been used as bases for raids• Uncle of Rollo based in Orkneys 34
    35. 35. Viking Challenges• Equilibrium with Caithness in 11th C. – Sigurd of Orkney marries daughter of Malcolm II – Duncan I unsuccessfully tried to recover area from his son, Thorfinn• Norse jarls in Orkney to 1231 35
    36. 36. Unification of Strathclyde with Scotland• 945 Edmund defeats Strathclyde and gives it to Malcolm I of Scotland• Separate kingdoms of Cumbria and Strathclyde• 1018 Duncan, son of Malcolm II of Scotland, king of Strathclyde• 1034 Duncan becomes King of Scotland, Strathclyde incorporated 36
    37. 37. Bubble, Bubble…Duncan MacBeth 37
    38. 38. MacAlpines and Atholls1018 Malcolm II wins Battle of Carham, secures Lothian ? Sigurd Thorfinn 38
    39. 39. Macbeth and the Kings 39
    40. 40. Macbeth of Moray• Son of Findleach (Finlay)• 1020 “Finnlaech son of Ruaidrí, king of Alba, was killed by his own people.” [Malcolm and Gillacomgain].• Macbeth in exile 40
    41. 41. Macbeth of Moray• 1032 Returns after “Gilla Comgán [Gillacomgain] son of Mael Brigte, earl of Moray, was burned together with fifty people”• Marries Gillacomgain‟s widow, Gruoch 41
    42. 42. Duncan I• 1018 At age 17 given subordinate Kingdom of Strathclyde• 1034 Becomes King of Alba on death of his grandfather• Fails in attempts to gain Durham and other areas of Northumbria• Attacks Moray and Caithness• Macbeth and Thorfinn allied against him. 42
    43. 43. Moray in the Highlands Caithness1040 Duncan killed by Macbeth near ElginSons go into exile. Moray 43
    44. 44. Perth1045 Duncan’s father, Crinan killed in “abattle between the Scots themselves" 44
    45. 45. King Macbeth• Reign a fertile period• 1050 Pilgrimage to Rome where he bestows much largesse• Malcolm III allies with Siward of Northumbria• 1054 Macbeth survives with losses 45
    46. 46. Dunsinane?Aerial View of DunsinnanHill 46
    47. 47. Birnam Wood to Dunsinane 47
    48. 48. Death of Macbeth• 1057 Finally loses to Malcolm at Dundee and killed at Lumphanan 48
    49. 49. After Macbeth• MacBeth’s stepson has short reign• 1070 Malcolm III m. Margaret – Invites in Norman advisors• Royal Scotland now oriented to south• 1093 Malcolm III killed during invasion of England 49
    50. 50. The English Connection 50
    51. 51. After Macbeth (cont.)Malcolm Margaret 17 15 James I Elizabeth I 51

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