15th Century
Reading, Writing
Publication
Education: Path to the Top
1387 William Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester
– Winchester College (open 1394)
– New College, Oxfo...
Winchester College
Winchester College Chapel
Path to the Top
• Henry VI
– 1440 Eton College (The King's College of Our Lady
of Eton besides Wyndsor)
– education to 70 ...
Eton College Chapel
Wall Paintings, Eton College Chapel
(1479-87; whitewashed 1560; restored 1923)
Writers
Followers of Chaucer
• John Gower (1330-1408)
• Thomas Hoccleve (1368-1426)
• John Lydgate of Bury (c. 1370 – c. 1...
Gower — Poetry
Mirroir de l'Omme (French)
Vox Clamantis (Latin)
– State of England
Confessio Amantis (English)
– Morality ...
Hoccleve — Poems
• Moral and religious poetry
• Regiment of Princes or De
Regimine Principum
– Written for Henry V
Lydgate — Poems
1412 The Troy Book for
Prince Henry
~1420 Siege of Thebes
Translations from French for
Warwick, Salisbury ...
Writers
Translators
• William Caxton
Adaptation of French Tales
• Thomas Malory
Drama
• Mystery plays (York), morality pla...
Sir Thomas Malory
Le Morte Darthur,
composed in Newgate
Prison, London between
March 1469 and March
1470, perhaps suspecte...
Libraries: Oxford
1320’s Beginning of Bishop Cobham Library
1444 Begin library to house ~280 books from
Humphrey of Glouce...
Libraries: Oxford
1379 New College (William of Wyckham): 246
volumes
1439 All Souls College (Henry Chichele,
Archbishop of...
Libraries: Cambridge
1440: 122 volumes, only one by a Roman, Lucan
1473: 330 volumes including Ovid, the younger
Seneca, C...
Chained Libraries
• Bequests specify
books be chained
• 1412 Oxford forbids
talking in the library
Hereford
1439 Oxford Library - Fines
“for the better custody of the said books every
of them shall be priced appreciably beyond the...
Pecia system
Originally devised at the University of Bologna
• Master edits, corrects, and submits text to a
stationer
• S...
Pecia system features in Paris
• Text is written in double columns and is also
heavily abbreviated
• Little decoration: ch...
Manuscript with pecia mark
Publication Industry
• Parchment makers: Guild at York
• Scribes
• Illuminators and rubricators
• Binders (and repairers)
...
Money and Books
• Used as security for loans
• Typical payments
Scribe: 1s/3000 words ~3000 words/day
Illumination/rubri...
Media
• Switch from wool to linen underwear
• Waste from linen production
• Rag paper
(Spain  Italy  France)
• 1490 Firs...
Book Ownership
This boke is myne, Eleanor
Worcester
An I yt lose, and yow yt fynd
I pray yow hartely to be so kynd
That yo...
John Paston’s Books
Often several works bound together
King Arthur
Translation of Christine de Pizan’s Othea (stories
b...
Women and Books
• Because of their exclusion from scholarship and
clerical life, women had an even greater need for
the me...
Gutenberg
Type Letter carved into hard metal punch.
Pressed into copper and a mold made.
Type cast in lead
Ink lamp black ...
Spread of Printing
1455 J. Gutenberg , 42-line Bible, Mainz.
c.1460
J. Mentelin, started printing in
Strassburg.
c.1465 Pr...
William Caxton (1416-91)
~ 1430 Apprenticed to Mercers’ Company
• Involved with the Merchant Adventurers'
Company, an asso...
William Caxton
Merchant, Translator, Publisher, Printer
Caxton
• Translation of Recuyell of the
Historyes of Troye from
French to English
• Association with Burgundian
court for ...
Margaret of York
Duchess of Burgundy
“ordered him to finish
the translation and to
improve his style,”
Print Shop
From the Danse macabre [Lyons: Mathias Huss], 18 Feb. 1499 [/1500?]. The
British Library IB.41735
Caxton presents a book
to Margaret of Burgundy
Preface, Recuyell of the
Historyes of Troye
Caxton Publications in Bruges
1473 Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye
1474 The Game and Playe of the Chesse
Publications i...
1478 Game of Chess 1483
1475 Caxton in England
• Westminster The Canterbury Tales
• 1477 Dictes or Sayengis of the Philosophres, first
dated book
...
1st edition, Chaucer’s
The Canterbury Tales.
William Caxton ~1377
British Library
Clerk
The Canterbury Tales
1483, 2nd edition
Caxton 1485
Malory Morte Darthur
Smudge of a mirrored I from Caxton’s
page with wet ink
Dictes or Sayengis of the Philosophres
“Anthony Rivers presenting his own
book to Edward IV”
Chronicles of England
• Smaller type
• Straight line endings
• Printed in
signatures
• Rubrications hand-
done to aid read...
Lyme Missal
1487
Guillaume Maynyal
Printed for Caxton
Caxton’s Publications
• 68% English
– No competition
• 28% Latin (~1/3 are single sheet)
– Competition from books printed ...
Changing Language
• Caxton noted that some had complained he:
“could not be understood by the common
people, and they wish...
Language
“Loo what should a man in these days now write
[...] certainly it is hard to please every man
because of diversit...
Caxton Patronage - York
Dedicate History of Jason to Edward, Prince of
Wales, briefly Edward V)
1483 Part of the edition o...
Caxton Patronage - Tudor
1489 Translate & print a romance Blanchardyn
and Eglantine for Margaret of Beaufort
1489 Christin...
Blank indulgence filled in: Simon Mountford & wife, 1480
Punctuation
Inconsistently used
Paragraph mark (¶)
Punctus (.) long pause
Virgile (/) short pause
Colon (:) syntactic pause
Other Publishers
• John Lettou (fl. 1475-83, Lithuania?)
• William de Machlinia, (fl. 1482-90, Brabant)
• Richard Pynson (...
Wynken de Worde
1490s Reprints of Caxton
1496 First use of English paper
Treatise of Love, translation of French devotiona...
Malory Le Morte d’Arthur, Wynken de Worde, 1498
Pynson
1495 Hecra Terence
1506 King’s printer
1518 First copyright
1521 Assertio septem sacramentorum,
opposition to Marti...
English Publishing Status in the 15th Century
English Language Books
Book Production – Manuscripts and Printed
[Printed Books 1501-50 ~2.8 million]
Buringh, Eltjo, and Jan Luiten Van Zanden. ...
Per capita annual manuscript production
(per million) (15th century)
British Isles 485
France 920
Italy 1675
Netherlands 2...
Per capita consumption of printed books
(per million) (1454-1500)
British Isles 485
France 920
Italy 1675
Netherlands 2150...
Books and Education
• John Stanbridge Parvula
– grammar for 1st and 2nd forms
~26 printings from 1496-1539
• Stanbridge Vu...
Peruula John Stanhope How to Learn Latin
The Fox and the Grapes The Fox and the Cat
Caxton, The Fables of Aesop, 1484
Instruction outside of school for boys and girls
Touch not with meat salt in the cellar,
Lest folk appoint you with uncunn...
Books that parents are warned about
(“open mans slaughter and bold bawdry”)
Pynson Guy of Warwick
– An adventure tale
~1500
Meeting a Need of Readers: Spectaculum
Vlissengen, Netherlands
London
Consequences of the early press
• Foster a national identity as more people
became aware of foreign ideas in translated
wo...
Consequences - Language
• Spelling was loose but became more and
more fixed in printing while spoken English
changed more ...
Political/Economic Consequences
• Statutes available in full and abridged forms
• European cities with printing presses by...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

10. S2014 Books and Literature

277

Published on

From manuscript to print and the impact of the print revolution. What was being published included many translations for an expanded English reading audience.

Published in: Education, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
277
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • In an age when literacy, learning and government were the province of the Church, Wykeham wished to see the central government served by a well educated clergy. Placed as he was at the top of the tree, enjoying contacts with the throne and the Holy See, he was ideally situated to see to the meeting of this need. And his personal revenues lay ready to hand.
  • Not initially connected but in 1443. Scholarships at Kings restricted to Etonians.
  • Presenting to Henry V
  • kynge Arthur and his courte and to helpehym in hyswarrys.In Caxton print shop
  • Boniface VIII (b. 1235, d. 1303), glossed by Johannes Andreae (b. c. 1270, d. 1348)Title Glossed Liber SextusDecretaliumOrigin ItalyDate 1st half of the 14th centuryLanguage LatinScript GothicCopied and corrected from a pecia manuscript: with marginal annotation e.g. 'finitv.pec. cor.' (f. 12v). 'finit(ur) xiiijpecia cor.' (f. 36v).
  • A system of loans, authorized by the universities, came into existence with the establishment of chests by various benefactors; a scholar borrowing money from one of these chests had to deposit a security which it was the stationary's duty to value. Up to the year 1500 books were the most common pledges of this sort, and a note of their value, or what they ' lay for ', is often in- scribed on the fly-leaf.An interesting fact is the number of books out of college libraries which were pledged. In theconstantly practised and as constantly reprobated ; but at Oxford and Cambridge it seems to have been recognized and tolerated. This was due to the theory that lay behind the allo- cation of any volume to a particular scholar—' While it was 'in his possession', says Professor Powicke, 'he could do with ' it what he wished, just as a parson has the free disposal of themonasteries this pawning of the property of the house was 4' proceeds of his living. The college would even take its own 5' book as surety for a loan granted by itself
  • On her seal a woman kneels, surrounded by flowers and foliage. To herright a lion rampant holds a standard bearing the arms of her late husband,while to her left a grillin displays those of her father. A new indistinct scrollencircling the kneeling figure seems to have borne Margarct’s motto,‘Mynetrouth assured’; and her head is bowed as she looks down at thepages of a book open upon her lap (see-plWrl).' As an image it is richlysuggestive, if ambiguous. What is it intended to convey to those whoencountered it as a public statement? What is the attitude of the womantowards the book — reverential, or proprietorial? What kind of text is itmeant to contain, and in what language?The posture of the woman recalls contemporary Continental representa-tions of the Virgin of Humility, in which Mary sits or kneels in a garden,surrounded by flowers symbolising her various attributes.’ The presence ofthe book is reminiscent of Annunciation scenes in which the Virgin isshown at her devotions, although by the fifteenth century other femalesaints, such as Mary Magdalene and Barbara, could be depicted in similarpositions of humility, again holding, or reading, an open book.‘ is theimage of the woman on Margaret Hungerford’s seal intended, then, to
  • The mercers dealt in haberdashery, cloth, and luxury wares like silks. As the principal guild involved in trade with the Low Countries, the mercers formed the backbone of the Merchant Adventurers' Company, that loose association of merchants involved in the import–export trade.The mercers provided finance for the government and the merchant adventurers were involved in politics concerning England, France, and Flanders (then part of the duchy of Burgundy). The dukes of Burgundy were among the richest and most fashionable aristocrats of the time; the source of their wealth and the centre of their operations lay increasingly in the Low Countries, where the cloth trade was fundamental to their financial well-being.1465 he was governor of the English nation in Bruges. All merchants in the Low Countries were organized into national fraternities under a governor who disciplined the members, negotiated with the local authorities on their behalf, and acted as the agent for their own government when required.Presumably he gave up the governorship in that year, for in 1471 he went to Cologne. He remained a mercer and merchant adventurer, but he had decided to extend his business by dealing in printed books. He may already have traded in manuscripts, for English merchants shipped many manuscripts to London from Flanders, an important centre for the production of luxury manuscripts. It was this business which might have encouraged him to go into printed books.
  • it is not right to think of Caxton as a printer. He was the publisher and entrepreneur. He provided the capital, chose the books and distributed them, leaving the printing to others”
  • Caxton's strategy involved selling printed books in English to people in England. In order to make these books attractive he would make translations of French texts which were fashionable in Flanders, and copies of many of the books he translated were found in the library of the duke of Burgundy. By issuing books in English he could achieve a monopoly of what was sold, for no one else provided this material; and by translating books popular in Flanders, he could appeal to the snobbery of English buyers who wanted to keep up with Burgundian fashion.Caxton pstscript to Troy on his work as a translator. The British Library,
  • Despite its title, Caxton’s The Game and Playe of the Chesse does not, in fact, have much to say about a game or about playing it. First printed in 1474, then reprinted in 1483 with woodcuts added, it is instead a translation of Jacobus de Cessolis’ thirteenth-century political treatise, the Liber de moribushominum et officiisnobilium ac popularium super ludoscachorum (The Book of the Morals of Men and the Duties of Nobles and Commoners, on the Game of Chess).1 Neither the Liber nor Caxton’s translation contains any diagrams of boards set up for play, nor does the text itself suggest any advice for a player’s improvement.2 Instead, the work uses the chessboard and its pieces to allegorize a political community whose citizens contribute to the common good. Readers first meet the king, queen, bishops (imagined as judges), knights, and rooks, here depicted as the king’s emissaries. They are then introduced in succession to the eight different pawns, who represent trades that range from farmers to messengers, and include innkeepers, moneychangers, doctors, notaries, blacksmiths, and several other professional artisans and tradesmen. Paired with each profession is a list of moral codes. The pawn who represents the moneychanger, for example, handles gold, silver, and valuable possessions, and thus “ought to flee avarice and covetyse, and eschewebrekyng of the dayes of payment” (3.600–601). The knights, entrusted with the safety of the realm, must be “wyse, lyberalle, trewe, strong, and ful of mercy and pyté” (2.448–49). The queen, charged with giving birth to the community’s future ruler, should take care to be “chaste, wyse, of honest lyf, welmanerd” (2.136). And so on. These pairings reinforce the idea of a kingdom organized around professional ties and associations, ties that are in turn regulated by moral law, rather than around kinship.Fleshing out what would otherwise be a dry list of moral qualities are exempla, short stories highlighting the advantages attendant on those professional workers who follow their moral law, and sententiae, maxims usually derived from classical sources. For instance, illustrating the importance of chastity among a community’s doctors is the story of the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates, whose students pay a prostitute to seduce him. The prostitute uses all her wiles, even going so far as to lie next to him all night, but he remains immune to her charms and thus retains his good name. In the chapter on the queen we find the tale of Roman noblewoman Lucretia, whose suicide provides a model for women on the importance of their chastity.3 And the rewards of integrity among moneychangers are made clear in the narrative of Albert, an honest Genoese merchant cheated out of a large sum of gold by a swindler, who invests the money, makes a fortune, and then bequeaths it to the ever-honest merchant. As the subsequent proverb states, “hit is fraude to take that thou wylt not nermayst [not] rendre and payeagayn” (3.694–95). (Although one might question the moral clarity of a story that never overtly punishes the swindler, this tale does indeed support that notion that upstanding moneylenders will be rewarded.)
  • Over a hundred editions are attributed to Caxton, and some works were probably printed which have not survived. Lists of his editions are available in many sources. The various works he issued can be divided approximately as follows: eighteen he translated, printed, and published, though three works he translated he did not print; sixty-eight he printed and published, though these often included his own prologues and epilogues, and some were edited by Caxton; ten he printed; and a few texts printed abroad were published by him. The material he translated consists almost entirely of French works which had been written or printed recently in France or Flanders, for these could be presented as new and fashionable to his English buyers. The material he printed and published consisted of poetry in the Chaucerian style (rather than that in the alliterative style) and prose which was historical, religious, or chivalric, as well as works that had been translated by noblemen such as Anthony, Earl Rivers (d. 1483), the brother-in-law of Edward IV, or by clerics like John Trevisa (d. 1402)Caxton continued to act as a merchant. He imported printed books from France and Flanders in bulk. He must have either sold these directly or passed them on to other booksellers. He had access to new foreign material from this extensive import business. As a bookseller many books and manuscripts passed through his shop. He sometimes experienced difficulty in acquiring a particular work, but probably much of what he printed came fortuitously to hand. If it was in his shop he might have chosen it to translate or print: what was important was that the text belonged to a certain type; it did not need to be a specific title. One ephemeral book could sell as well as another, provided it was new and fashionable. As a printer he accepted commissions to print documents and texts. Mostly these were small items like indulgences, though he did print works in Latin for authors like GuglielmoTraversagni or for those who wanted to use similar texts for pedagogical purposes. One or two books printed abroad were sold in England with his mark added to them, as though he had commissioned their printing.Caxton continued to undertake commissions for the king, but these became less frequent as he got older.
  • 187v, line 6Offset of letter I, Caxton's type 2: Ink smudges on the pages of the Winchester Manuscript suggest that this manuscript was kept in Caxton's workshop sometime in the years 1480 to 1483, during the time when Caxton was preparing his Le MorteDarthur. Pages fresh from his press were laid on the manuscript and the wet ink accidentally transferred reversed images of Caxton's type faces. This suggests that Caxton used the Winchester Manuscript together with another now lost manuscript.
  • In the first edition of The Chronicles of England Caxton materialized an important typographical change designed to include larger portions of text in each sheet of paper. He first employed what scholars designate as "type 4," a reduced version of a previous "type 2", which, in turn, is a free interpretation of several Flemish hands of that period (Painter, 1977: 101); BMC, 2007: 336). As with the three previous types, it is very likely that Caxton commissioned type 4 from the well-known German printer and punchcutter Johan Veldener. Other remarkable features of this first edition of the Chronicles are the straightening of the line-endings and the introduction of signatures (Painter, 1977: 101; BMC, 2007: 117). The hand-made rublication in this copy is not merely ornamental but is meant to guide the readers through the text.
  • It was published in 1487 by England's first printer, William Caxton. He sub-contracted the work out to a Parisian printer and it is the only surviving copy of the first edition of the Sarum Missal, the standard service book used in English churches before the Reformation.The Missal belonged to the Leghs of Lyme from at least 1507. It is covered in annotations which tell their own story. For instance, prayers for the Pope have been crossed out in accordance with Henry VIII's instructions.
  • In his prefaces Caxton often wrote about his use of English, especially in his own translations. In his first translation, the Recuyell of the Histories of Troy, he mentioned the simplicity of his English, based on his ‘broad and rude’ Kentish dialect. He told how his patron, Margaret of York, corrected his English. This expression of a conventional modesty was based on a perception that it was more refined to use words derived from French or Latin than native English words
  • William FitzAlan, Earl of Arundel, promised to buy part of the edition of the Legendaaurea of 1483 and also to give Caxton ‘a yearly fee, that is to wit a buck in summer and a doe in winter with which fee I hold me well content ’.
  • Indulgence for the benefit of the Knights of Rhodes. Singular issue. [Westminster: William Caxton], 1480 [before 31 Mar.] On vellum. The British Library. IA.55024. The spaces are filled in for ‘SymoniMountfort et Emmeuxorieius’, Simon Mountford and Emma his wife, with the date 31 March
  • Rylands Library's unique copy of Sir Thomas Malory, Le morted'Arthur (Westminster: Wynkyn de Worde, 1498
  • Carolingian Renaissance; Viking depradation; Black death15th century 485 manuscripts/per capita per year compared with 1674 in Italy, 2150 in the Netherlands and 5720 in Belgium
  • The first English commercial arithmetic was printed in 1537 but an Italian example dates to 1376.
  • I shall tell to you an example of the fate of women that eat the good morsels behind their husbands’ [backs]. There was a damsel that had a Pye in a cage which spake and said all that she saw. And it happed [chanced] that the lord of the house made to keep a great Eele in a trunk in a pond. And he kept it much dearworthly [preciously, carefully] for to give it to some good lord of his, or to some friend, if they came to see him. And it happed that the lady said to the Chamberer, that it were good to eat the great Eele, and they thought that they would say to their lord that thieves had eaten him. And when the lord came home, the Pye began to tell and say to him, ‘My lady hath eaten the Eele.’ And when the lord heard this, he went to his pond and found not his Eele, and came home to his wife and demanded her what was befallen of his Eele? And she attempted to make excuses. And he said to her that he was certain thereof, and that the Pye had told him. And in the house therefore was great sorrow and noise. But when the lord was gone out, the lady and the Chamberer came to the Pye and plucked off all the feathers of his head, saying ‘Thou hast discovered us of the eele [told on us about the eel]’, and thus was the poor Pye plucked and lost the feathers of his head. But from then forth on, if any man came into that house that was bald, or shaved [like a monk] or had a high forehead, the Pye would say to them, ‘ye have told my lord of the Eele’. And therefore this is a good example, that no good woman should eat for licorousness [greed] sweet or dainty morsels without the knowledge of her husband. This damsel was after much scorned and mocked for that Eele, by cause of the Pye that so oft remembered it to such as came thither bald or shaven.
  • Note that many early books did not have a title page
  • 15th century bone spectacles, London.English friar Roger Bacon made the earliest reference to using a lens to enhance the eyesight in 1268. The demand for reading glasses increased after the middle of the 15th century, when printed books began to appear.Earliest reference to one with two lenses is before 1326 by Bishop Walter de Stapledon.May 1391 import 3700 pairs from Italy. 15th century account s of multiple gross of spectacles and their cases. Two spectacle makers in Southwark are identified as Dutch.Daily rate for carpenter 5.25d. Cost of spectacles ~4d.Frames – Woshipful Company of Horners
  • 10. S2014 Books and Literature

    1. 1. 15th Century Reading, Writing Publication
    2. 2. Education: Path to the Top 1387 William Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester – Winchester College (open 1394) – New College, Oxford (open 1386)
    3. 3. Winchester College
    4. 4. Winchester College Chapel
    5. 5. Path to the Top • Henry VI – 1440 Eton College (The King's College of Our Lady of Eton besides Wyndsor) – education to 70 poor boys – 1441 King's College, Cambridge – Linked in 1443
    6. 6. Eton College Chapel
    7. 7. Wall Paintings, Eton College Chapel (1479-87; whitewashed 1560; restored 1923)
    8. 8. Writers Followers of Chaucer • John Gower (1330-1408) • Thomas Hoccleve (1368-1426) • John Lydgate of Bury (c. 1370 – c. 1451)
    9. 9. Gower — Poetry Mirroir de l'Omme (French) Vox Clamantis (Latin) – State of England Confessio Amantis (English) – Morality approached through tales of immorality
    10. 10. Hoccleve — Poems • Moral and religious poetry • Regiment of Princes or De Regimine Principum – Written for Henry V
    11. 11. Lydgate — Poems 1412 The Troy Book for Prince Henry ~1420 Siege of Thebes Translations from French for Warwick, Salisbury and Alice Chaucer Poems for illustrations or pageants 1431 The Fall of Princes for Duke Humphrey
    12. 12. Writers Translators • William Caxton Adaptation of French Tales • Thomas Malory Drama • Mystery plays (York), morality plays (Castle of Perseverance, Everyman) • Medwall
    13. 13. Sir Thomas Malory Le Morte Darthur, composed in Newgate Prison, London between March 1469 and March 1470, perhaps suspected of supporting Warwick against Edward IV Malory earlier charged with extortion, theft, rape, cattle rustling, robbery of the local abbey, and deer stealing and enormous damage to property The hoole booke of kyng Arthur & of his noble knyghtes of the rounde table,
    14. 14. Libraries: Oxford 1320’s Beginning of Bishop Cobham Library 1444 Begin library to house ~280 books from Humphrey of Gloucester (finish 1488) 1598 Begin Bodleian after Reformation purge
    15. 15. Libraries: Oxford 1379 New College (William of Wyckham): 246 volumes 1439 All Souls College (Henry Chichele, Archbishop of Canterbury): 370 volumes 1458 Magdalen College (William Waynflete, Bishop of Winchester): 800 volumes by 1480s 1814 Library of Congress (Jefferson): 6,487
    16. 16. Libraries: Cambridge 1440: 122 volumes, only one by a Roman, Lucan 1473: 330 volumes including Ovid, the younger Seneca, Cicero, Josephus, and Petrarch
    17. 17. Chained Libraries • Bequests specify books be chained • 1412 Oxford forbids talking in the library Hereford
    18. 18. 1439 Oxford Library - Fines “for the better custody of the said books every of them shall be priced appreciably beyond the true value, which value every one taking one of the books on loan shall, if he lose it, be bound to pay to the chest”
    19. 19. Pecia system Originally devised at the University of Bologna • Master edits, corrects, and submits text to a stationer • Stationer copies from it an exemplar in peciae (individual sections) • Submits it to the University for approval and pricing • Stationer rents peciae to students • Students make their own copies
    20. 20. Pecia system features in Paris • Text is written in double columns and is also heavily abbreviated • Little decoration: chapter headings, initials, and paragraph marks in red and blue inks; main text in black ink. • Pecia mark: letter ‘p’ or the complete word
    21. 21. Manuscript with pecia mark
    22. 22. Publication Industry • Parchment makers: Guild at York • Scribes • Illuminators and rubricators • Binders (and repairers) • Stationers – sales
    23. 23. Money and Books • Used as security for loans • Typical payments Scribe: 1s/3000 words ~3000 words/day Illumination/rubrication: from 6d for a text to over £20 for an elaborate service book Binder: 3s 3d per volume Parchment: ~ ½ the cost of the book De Civitate Dei £1 to £2
    24. 24. Media • Switch from wool to linen underwear • Waste from linen production • Rag paper (Spain  Italy  France) • 1490 First paper mill in England
    25. 25. Book Ownership This boke is myne, Eleanor Worcester An I yt lose, and yow yt fynd I pray yow hartely to be so kynd That yow wel take a letil payne To se my boke is brothe home agayne Duchess of Worcester, 1440
    26. 26. John Paston’s Books Often several works bound together King Arthur Translation of Christine de Pizan’s Othea (stories based on Greek and Roman mythology) Two copies of The Parliament of Birds Life of St. Christopher Two books of Cicero (one w. illegible print) Books on knighthood and his own arms
    27. 27. Women and Books • Because of their exclusion from scholarship and clerical life, women had an even greater need for the mental and spiritual nourishment offered by books than men did. • They were the primary teachers of the next generation. • They played an important role in development of vernacular literature because of lack of Latin.
    28. 28. Gutenberg Type Letter carved into hard metal punch. Pressed into copper and a mold made. Type cast in lead Ink lamp black and linseed oil, as well as walnut oil, turpentine oil, pine resin, cinnabar and other substances. Press Based on wine or paper press
    29. 29. Spread of Printing 1455 J. Gutenberg , 42-line Bible, Mainz. c.1460 J. Mentelin, started printing in Strassburg. c.1465 Printing in Cologne. 1470 Printing in Paris. 1476 Printing in England (Westminster).
    30. 30. William Caxton (1416-91) ~ 1430 Apprenticed to Mercers’ Company • Involved with the Merchant Adventurers' Company, an association of merchants involved in the import–export trade. 1465 Governor for English in Bruges 1471 In Cologne
    31. 31. William Caxton Merchant, Translator, Publisher, Printer
    32. 32. Caxton • Translation of Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye from French to English • Association with Burgundian court for manuscripts or financial support • 1472 Co-publisher with Veldener of Bartholomaeus Anglicus's De proprietatibus rerum
    33. 33. Margaret of York Duchess of Burgundy “ordered him to finish the translation and to improve his style,”
    34. 34. Print Shop From the Danse macabre [Lyons: Mathias Huss], 18 Feb. 1499 [/1500?]. The British Library IB.41735
    35. 35. Caxton presents a book to Margaret of Burgundy Preface, Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye
    36. 36. Caxton Publications in Bruges 1473 Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye 1474 The Game and Playe of the Chesse Publications in French After 1476 Les Fais et Prouesses du noble et vaillant chevalier Jason Possibly printed by Colard Mansion
    37. 37. 1478 Game of Chess 1483
    38. 38. 1475 Caxton in England • Westminster The Canterbury Tales • 1477 Dictes or Sayengis of the Philosophres, first dated book • Published and printed 18 of his own translations from the French • Published and printed 68 works, often with prologues and epilogues • Printed 10 works • Published some works printed abroad and printed documents and indulgences
    39. 39. 1st edition, Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales. William Caxton ~1377 British Library
    40. 40. Clerk The Canterbury Tales 1483, 2nd edition
    41. 41. Caxton 1485 Malory Morte Darthur Smudge of a mirrored I from Caxton’s page with wet ink
    42. 42. Dictes or Sayengis of the Philosophres “Anthony Rivers presenting his own book to Edward IV”
    43. 43. Chronicles of England • Smaller type • Straight line endings • Printed in signatures • Rubrications hand- done to aid reader
    44. 44. Lyme Missal 1487 Guillaume Maynyal Printed for Caxton
    45. 45. Caxton’s Publications • 68% English – No competition • 28% Latin (~1/3 are single sheet) – Competition from books printed abroad • 4% French • 106 works; at least 28 his own translations • 528 extant copies; 128 fragments
    46. 46. Changing Language • Caxton noted that some had complained he: “could not be understood by the common people, and they wished me to use old and homely terms in my translations” • But “certainly the language now used is very different from that which was used and spoken when I was born.” • “therefore, as a compromise, I have translated this book into an English which is neither too coarse nor too refined, but using phrases which are understandable, God willing”
    47. 47. Language “Loo what should a man in these days now write [...] certainly it is hard to please every man because of diversity & change of language. For in these days every man that is any reputation in his country will utter his communication and matters in such manners & termes that few men shall understand then”
    48. 48. Caxton Patronage - York Dedicate History of Jason to Edward, Prince of Wales, briefly Edward V) 1483 Part of the edition of the Legenda aurea for William FitzAlan, Earl of Arundel 1484 Translation of the Ordre of Chyvalry or Knyghthode dedicated to Richard III
    49. 49. Caxton Patronage - Tudor 1489 Translate & print a romance Blanchardyn and Eglantine for Margaret of Beaufort 1489 Christine de Pisan’s Faits d’armes et de chevalerie for Henry VII 1490 Printing the statutes enacted by the first three Parliaments of Henry VII (in English)
    50. 50. Blank indulgence filled in: Simon Mountford & wife, 1480
    51. 51. Punctuation Inconsistently used Paragraph mark (¶) Punctus (.) long pause Virgile (/) short pause Colon (:) syntactic pause
    52. 52. Other Publishers • John Lettou (fl. 1475-83, Lithuania?) • William de Machlinia, (fl. 1482-90, Brabant) • Richard Pynson (1449, Normandy−1529) • William Paques, appointed King’s printer, 1504 • Wynken de Worde (d. 1535), successor to Caxton
    53. 53. Wynken de Worde 1490s Reprints of Caxton 1496 First use of English paper Treatise of Love, translation of French devotional tracts; Chastising of God's Children, a guide for a woman religious by her spiritual adviser Scala perfectionis, verse in rhyme royal stanzas Moved press from Westminster to London ~1100 editions of religious, popular and educational books; English poetry
    54. 54. Malory Le Morte d’Arthur, Wynken de Worde, 1498
    55. 55. Pynson 1495 Hecra Terence 1506 King’s printer 1518 First copyright 1521 Assertio septem sacramentorum, opposition to Martin Luther omposed in part by Henry VIII • Pagination, Roman type, two colors, catchwords 18th century woodcut from unknown artist Metal block device
    56. 56. English Publishing Status in the 15th Century
    57. 57. English Language Books
    58. 58. Book Production – Manuscripts and Printed [Printed Books 1501-50 ~2.8 million] Buringh, Eltjo, and Jan Luiten Van Zanden. "Charting the “Rise of the West”: Manuscripts and Printed Books in Europe, a long-term Perspective from the Sixth through Eighteenth Centuries." The Journal of Economic History 69.02 (2009): 409-445.
    59. 59. Per capita annual manuscript production (per million) (15th century) British Isles 485 France 920 Italy 1675 Netherlands 2150 Belgium 5721
    60. 60. Per capita consumption of printed books (per million) (1454-1500) British Isles 485 France 920 Italy 1675 Netherlands 2150 Belgium 5721
    61. 61. Books and Education • John Stanbridge Parvula – grammar for 1st and 2nd forms ~26 printings from 1496-1539 • Stanbridge Vulgaria 1508+ – Latin words and phrases for ordinary life • Os, faces, mentum – Latin vocabulary: editions in Antwerp, Paris, Rouen and London • Stanbridge Sum, es, fui 1509+ – Grammar and exercises
    62. 62. Peruula John Stanhope How to Learn Latin
    63. 63. The Fox and the Grapes The Fox and the Cat Caxton, The Fables of Aesop, 1484
    64. 64. Instruction outside of school for boys and girls Touch not with meat salt in the cellar, Lest folk appoint you with uncunningness Dress it apart, upon a clean trencher Force not your mouth too full for wantonness Lean not upon the table, for that is rude And if I shall to you plainly say, Over the table you shall not spit convey Caxton - The Boke of Curtesye - 1477 Of Her that Eat the Eele and Plumed [plucked] her Pye [Magpie] I shall tell to you an example of the fate of women that eat the good morsels behind their husbands’ *back+. Caxton - The Knight in the Tower, 1483
    65. 65. Books that parents are warned about (“open mans slaughter and bold bawdry”) Pynson Guy of Warwick – An adventure tale ~1500
    66. 66. Meeting a Need of Readers: Spectaculum Vlissengen, Netherlands London
    67. 67. Consequences of the early press • Foster a national identity as more people became aware of foreign ideas in translated works • Increase in mass communications • Literacy acquires status
    68. 68. Consequences - Language • Spelling was loose but became more and more fixed in printing while spoken English changed more rapidly • Movement toward a nationwide standard based on the language of the London region
    69. 69. Political/Economic Consequences • Statutes available in full and abridged forms • European cities with printing presses by 1500 had higher growth rates from 1500-1600 – They were more likely to become Protestant
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

    ×