1 S2014 Deposition of Richard ii


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The deposition of Richard II and the reasons for the deposition Actions of Richard and his opponents in Parliament.

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1 S2014 Deposition of Richard ii

  1. 1. England in the 15th Century ‘War of the Roses’ ‘Hundred Years War’ End of the Middle Ages
  2. 2. Within the hollow crown that rounds the mortal temples of a king keeps Death Richard II
  3. 3. Today • • • • • Overview of the course Review of 14th century Questions of succession Why Richard II should be deposed? Deposition of Richard II – Dr. Jennifer Paxton – William Shakespeare
  4. 4. 14th Century 1315 ‘Great famine’ 1327 Deposition and abdication of Edward II 1338 Start of the Hundred Years War(s) 1348 Black Death 1378 Wyclif; The Western Schism 1381 Peasants’ Revolt
  5. 5. Valois and English Claims Philip III (12701283) Philip IV (12851314) Louis X (1314-16) Joan Philip V (1316-22) Charles V (1322-28) Charles of Valois (d. 1325) Isabella m. Edward II Edward III Philip VI (1328-1350)
  6. 6. 1337 Hundred Years War – Edward III 1360
  7. 7. Effects of Black Death
  8. 8. John Wyclif
  9. 9. Controversial Ideas • • • • Papal Taxation Against clerical wealth Against excess wealth of nobles Against accepted view of transubstantiation in the Eucharist
  10. 10. Property • All gifts of God are common • Private property a result of original sin • Monarch given authority over property; Church over the spiritual realm • Corruption of Church from Gift of Constantine
  11. 11. “Trial of Wyclif AD 1377” Ford Madox Brown, 1886
  12. 12. Richard II ‘he liked to sit ostentatiously from after dinner until vespers, talking to no one but watching everyone; and when his eye fell on anyone, regardless of rank, that person had to bend his knee towards the king ...'
  13. 13. 1360 Hundred Years War – Edward III 1377
  14. 14. Peasants’ Revolt 1381
  15. 15. Richard II Meets the rebels
  16. 16. Long-term Causes of Unrest • • • • • • Demographic Changes Labor laws Social mobility Distrust in lords and law Proletarianization of clergy Hundred Years War - failures
  17. 17. Impeachment of Michael de la Pole • High crimes – Dereliction of duties – Loss of Ghent Not guilty because he did not bear sole responsibility • High misdemeanors – Obtaining benefits from office – Misappropriating funds Guilty
  18. 18. Wilton Diptych 1395-99 Richard II presented to the Virgin and Child by St. John the Baptist, Saints Edward the Confessor and Edmund
  19. 19. Wilton diptych, side panels
  20. 20. Richard’s Courtiers They were "knights of Venus rather than knights of Bellona, more valiant in the bedchamber than on the field of war, armed with words instead of weapons...” Walsingham
  21. 21. On King Richard’s Ministers Ther is a busch that is forgrowe; Crop hit welle, and hold hit lowe, Or elles hit wolle be wilde.
  22. 22. Extravagances of Richard II Royal Palace at Sheen 1384 and 1388 • 2,000 painted tiles "for the King's bath," large bronze taps for hot and cold water, • Fireplaces and personal latrines in all rooms
  23. 23. Personal dress and invention of Richard II 1388 Order for [a first] “small pieces of linen made to be given to the lord king for blowing and covering his nose.” Tunic of pearls, other precious stones and gold The doublet...was embroidered with gold orange trees...and adorned with 100 oranges of silver gilt, weighing 2 1b. 1/2 oz. Troy
  24. 24. Richard II – Treasure Roll • Compiled for Henry IV to list jewels and plate of Richard and his queens • 1206 entries • 28 meters long • Includes many objects taken in 1397
  25. 25. Richard II receives Isabella of Valois
  26. 26. Accusations against Richard • Distributing possessions of the Crown to unworthy persons • Maintained a bodyguard of unruly and violent Cheshiremen and ‘surrounded the parliament with a great number of armed men and archers whom he had gathered there for the purpose of overawing the people
  27. 27. Accusations against Richard • • • • • Interference in local elections Failure to respect property rights Inconsistent behavior leading to loss of trust Seeking papal approval for his actions ‘He dissipated it [parliamentary grants normally only given in time of war] prodigiously upon the ostentation, pomp and vainglory of his own person’
  28. 28. Accusations against Richard • Allowed accusations by the ‘young, strong and healthy’ against the ‘aged, impotent, lame or infirm’ to be brought before the Court of Chivalry where the only defense was by arms
  29. 29. Video The Deposition of Richard II Professor Jennifer Paxton The people, "by ancient statute and recent precedent,” had a remedy for royal wrongs. Duke of Gloucester
  30. 30. Earl of Northumberland received by Richard at Conway
  31. 31. Northumberland swearing an oath on the sacred host that Richard would remain king
  32. 32. Richard and Henry at Flint Castle