1 F2012 After the Romans; The Saxon Advent


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The changes that occur immediately before and after the break with Rome in 410. Genetic evidence and the Saxon Advent into England.

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  • During the fifth century A.D. pressures on the frontiers began to overwhelm the authorities andsuperstructure; Imperial control was crucially weakened. Consequently, individual provincesbegan to organise their own affairs. In the east of Britain (Maxima Caesariensis and Valentia),the threat was from Germanic folk movements and in the west (Britannia Prima), it was from theIrish. Thus, when each province (and town) came under pressure, each had to find its ownsolution. Wroxeter may have employed Irish mercenaries, as evidenced by the early Christiantombstone of Cunorix with its Irish formula.96 In some respects, the east–west division withinBritain mirrored the empire-wide situation, with the Eastern Roman Empire effectivelyabandoning the West. The tombstone of Cunorix, an inhabitant of post-Roman Wroxeter, who died some time between AD 475 and 500CVNORIX MACVSMA VICOIE
  • Pieces of glass from DinasPowys (Vale of Glamorgan), a fort occupied between the 5th and 8th-centuries. These fragments come from vessels made in continental Europe. They illustrate the extent of trade between Wales and the wider-world at this time. The second key source of information about Arthur is archaeology. Archaeological evidence for contact between Wales, Cornwall and the Saxon World takes many forms - from metalwork manufactured in an Anglo-Saxon style discovered in south-east Wales, to the distribution of early medieval pottery imported from the Continent and the shores of the Mediterranean.Excavations at DinasPowys, a princely hillfort near Cardiff occupied between the 5th and 7th-centuries, has informed us about the nature of a high status site in south Wales at this time. This site is contemporary with others like South Cadbury in Somerset and Tintagel in Cornwall (both with their own Arthurian traditions).
  • 1 F2012 After the Romans; The Saxon Advent

    1. 1. Roman Britain to Norman England Fall 2012Migration Period; Early Middle Ages
    2. 2. Today’s Topics• Roman Britain – Fall? Dark for whom? – Fate of Roman culture – State of British (native) culture• The Saxon Advent – Models – DNA evidence
    3. 3. 1 Schematic Timeline 4 5 1 0 1 00 5 4 1 0 0 60 5 0 3 0 0 0 6 Celtic kingdoms England Roman Saxon Sub-Roman Britain Kingdoms Danelaw Wales, ScotlandQuestion: What are the natures of the transitions?
    4. 4. 410: Ties with Rome BrokenThe alarmists saw the news and bemoaned Romanthe end of the nation’s Anglo-Saxon culture,while the enthusiasts saw it and cheered the Romanend of Anglo-Saxon culture. Wilmington News-Journal May 19, 2007
    5. 5. Two Contemporary Views of Events• Byzantine writers British obliged to throw off Roman rule because of decline in Roman power to protect them• Gildas – Romans abandon Britain – Tyrants strip Britain of armies for continental adventures
    6. 6. Political Events Preceding 410• Empire and Britain face frequent incursions – Troops withdrawn from Britain to deal with these incursions• Usurpers from Britain• Withholding of taxes
    7. 7. Economic Events Preceding 410• Decline in money supply – Inflation, Hoarding, Counterfeiting and clipping – Money supply dependent on troop presence• Failure to maintain buildings• Reduction in variety and, finally, disappearance of manufactured pottery
    8. 8. Political events after 410• 410 Defense of Britain left to civitates – Hadrian’s Wall maintained• Reassertion of elite Celts who occupied hill- towns and forts in outlying areas.• End of Pax Romana• Migrations to Ireland, Brittany, Gaul
    9. 9. Our sources• Continental writers to ~470• St. Patrick (Romano-Celtic viewpoint)• Gildas ~(500-570) (Romano-British viewpoint)• Bede 730 (Anglo-Saxon viewpoint)• Chronicles – Welsh, Irish, Anglo-Saxon retrospective constructions• Archaeology
    10. 10. Britain in 407
    11. 11. Continuity• Maintenance of many urban areas• Some political contacts – Requests for aid• Continued Christianity – Worship connected with martyred saints• Continued contacts on Church level• Continued trade with Mediterranean
    12. 12. Post Roman Towns
    13. 13. Post Roman Forts – Pre-Roman Forts• Hill forts better located for defensive purposes.• Roman forts useful as quarries• Prestige associated with continued association with Roman forts
    14. 14. Post Roman Forts 615 >640 400Tintagel
    15. 15. Hill FortsCadbury Castle
    16. 16. HallsReconstruction at Cadbury Castle
    17. 17. Fate of a Roman City - Wroxeter• Public buildings in use to ~500• Defense includes mercenaries?• Part of Kingdom of Powys• Baths not maintained – Replaced by large wood mansion (Bishop’s palace?)
    18. 18. Roman Stone Construction Not Maintained City abandoned ~650
    19. 19. Cunorix475-500, Wroxeter
    20. 20. Nature of Post Roman States• Maintain some trappings from Roman system?• Led by tyrants?• Failure to maintain public works
    21. 21. Trade
    22. 22. Tintagel Project• Mid 5th-6th Century• Amphorae• Byzantine coins• Glassware characteristic of Spain• Red slipware from Turkey• Celtic name in Latin context
    23. 23. Aerial View
    24. 24. Ground View
    25. 25. Artognou Stone
    26. 26. Inscription PATER / COLI AVI FICIT / ARTOGNOV Artognou, father of a descendant of Coll, has had (this) made
    27. 27. Continued Mediterranean Trade
    28. 28. Trade – Wales – Continental Glass
    29. 29. Legacies of Rome in Britain• Cities • Reading• Civitas • Religion• Fortifications • Roads
    30. 30. The Saxon Advent
    31. 31. The Saxon Advent
    32. 32. Scenarios• Invasion and ethnic cleansing• Invasion and apartheid• Migration over a prolonged period: Pre- Roman, Roman, Sub-Roman
    33. 33. The SaxonsOne scenario• Arrive as federates• Mass migration of Germanic peoples – Existing population killed, displaced or intermarry – Christian Romans (British) displaced by pagans
    34. 34. Another Scenario• Small-scale military activity – Cultural and linguistic changes in existing population – Changes in taste under new cultural influence – Some interbreeding; invaders predominantly male
    35. 35. The invitation and its consequences449 Hengest and Horsa, invited by Wurtgern, king of theBritons to assist him455 Hengest and Horsa rebel agaist Wurtgern, Horsa killed457 Hengest and his son, Esc, defeat other Britons in Kent465, 473 Further victories by Horsa and EscFurther advent by their ‘cousins’
    36. 36. Genetic Studies• Aim is to determine whether current populations can be related to putative homelands (1) Y Chromosome Evidence for Anglo-Saxon Mass Migration Michael E. Weale*,1, Deborah A. Weiss ,1, Rolf F. Jager* , Neil Bradman* and Mark G. Thomas* Molecular Biology and Evolution 19:1008-1021 (2002) (2) A Y Chromosome Census of the British Isles Cristian Capelli1, 8, Nicola Redhead1, Julia K. Abernethy1, Fiona Gratrix1, James F. Wilson1, Torolf Moen3, Tor Hervig4, Martin Richards5, Michael P. H. Stumpf1, 9, Peter A. Underhill6, Paul Bradshaw7, Alom Shaha7, Mark G. Thomas1, 2, Neal Bradman1, 2 and David B. Goldstein1 CURRENT BIOLOGY 13: (11) 979-984 MAY 27 2003
    37. 37. Sampling(2)
    38. 38. Genetic Variations (Y)
    39. 39. Genetic Mixing (Y)
    40. 40. Authors’ Conclusions1. Central England - Little genetic differentiation2. North Welsh - Highly significant differences between two towns, both from each other and from the five Central English towns3. No significant differences between Friesland and any of the Central English towns4. “…an Anglo-Saxon immigration event affecting 50%–100% of the Central English male gene pool at that time is required… “
    41. 41. Calculated admixtures Norway 0.8 Germany 0.6PopulationAdmixture 0.4 0.2 0 England Scotland Isles Wales
    42. 42. Portion of“indigenous” DNA
    43. 43. Authors’ Conclusions1. “Limited continental input in southern England, which appears to be predominantly indigenous”2. “…the part of mainland Britain that has the most Continental input is Central England…”3. Contributions of Danish and North German can not be distinguished.4. “…the transition between England and Wales is somewhat gradual…”
    44. 44. Isotope Studies• Evidence for mobility – Sr • Dentine • Enamel • Bone – Pb (distorted by lead from objects)Inconclusive
    45. 45. Coming• Cultural changes• Religious persistence and renewal