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Finaldefense April2010v10 Web
 

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CSU Fresno Final Defense Presentation

CSU Fresno Final Defense Presentation

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    Finaldefense April2010v10 Web Finaldefense April2010v10 Web Presentation Transcript

    • Final Dissertation Defense
      A Comparative Study Between Online Charter High Schools and Traditional High Schoolsin California
      Rob Darrow
      April 7, 2010
      California State University, Fresno
      Rob’s Wiki: http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com
    • Welcome, Thank You and Presentation Schedule
      20 Min: Rob’s Presentation
      10 Min: Committee Questions
      10 Min: Other Questions
      End of Presentation
      5-10 Min: Committee Confers
      Rob’s Wiki: http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com
    • My Dissertation Committee
      Dr. Ken Magdaleno (Chair)
      Dept. of Educational Research and Administration
      Former teacher and middle school principal
      Interests: Latino and Latina mentoring, leadership, issues of equity
      Dr. David Tanner
      Dept. of Curriculum and Instruction
      Interests: statistics and measurement, educational research, quantitative and qualitative evaluation
    • My Dissertation Committee (cont’d)
      Dr. Ginny Boris
      Dept. of Educational Research and Administration
      Co-Director Central Valley Educational Leadership Institute (CVELI)
      Interests: Curriculum/Instruction, Admin. Leadership
      Dr. Brent Auernheimer
      Dept. of Computer Science
      Director of CSU Fresno Digital Campus
      Interests: web based instruction, human computer interaction, software engineering
    • Background – National Trends
      Two educational trends challenging traditional education:
      ** Charter Schools ** Enrollment increases 11% - 20% per year
      ** Online Schools ** Enrollment increases 30% per year
    • One Other National Trend:Static Dropout Rates
    • Research Focus
      Full Time Online Charter School Students
      Traditional School Students
      At-Risk Students
      In California
      Measured By:
      Achievement Test Scores
      Dropout Rates
    • Research Questions
      1. Are there a disproportionate number of at-risk students attending online charter high schools as compared to traditional high schools in California?
      2. Are at-risk students more successful in online charter high schools than in traditional high schools in California?
    • Definitions
      Traditional High School
      attend courses daily in face-to-face setting
      Online High School
      attend courses online where 80% instruction is online
      Charter School
      independently operated public schools of choice, free from many regulations but accountable for standardized test results as determined by state laws
      At-Risk
      any student not making progress towards graduation
      Success
      proficient on California Standards Test/English-Language Arts (CST ELA)
      lower number of student dropouts
    • Definitions: Counting Dropouts
      One student counts as a dropout if either:
      A. Leaves a school and does NOT register at another school
      OR
      B. Leaves school and does NOT have a high school diploma
      Standards set by US Department of Education (reported by states)
      Counted in Grades 7-12 in California
    • Definitions: Online School Enrollment
      • Part-time Online Students
      • Take one or two online courses in addition to attending traditional school
      • One student in one course per semester counts one
      • Full Time Online Students
      • One student attending the school counts one
      Watson, Gemin, Ryan & Wicks (2009). Keeping pace with K-12 online learning.
    • Definitions: Counting Online School EnrollmentNo Standards
      Part-time online students not officially counted, except as an estimate in response to a researcher’s survey
      Full time online students counted if they attend an online charter school
      In California, public school students, including charters, are counted each October via California Basic Educational Data System (CBEDS)
    • Literature Review
      Three parts:
      1. Student Dropouts / At-risk Students
      2. Charter School Students
      3. Online School Students
    • Literature Review: Glass half full or half empty?
      Dropouts
      Graduates
    • Literature Review: Data used to determine dropouts or graduates
      Longitudinal Data
      Collected by National Center for Educational Statistics (1980, 1988, 1997, 2002)
      Common Core of Data (CCD)
      Reported by states to Dept. of ED/NCES (yearly)
      Current Population Survey Data (CPS)
      Monthly survey of households conducted by the Bureau of Census for the Bureau of Labor Statistics
      National Census Report Data
      Every 10 years
    • Literature Review: Counting High School Dropouts - NCESKetaldi, Laird & KewalJemani (2009)
      Event Dropout Rate (one school year to next)
      Downward trendbetween 1972 and 2007
      6.1% to 3.5%
      Status Dropout Rate (one point in time)
      Downward trendbetween 1972 and 2007
      14.6% to 8.7%
      Status Completion Rate (diploma or GED)
      Increased completion ratefrom 1980-2007
      83.9% to 89%
    • Literature Review: Counting High School Dropouts - NCESKetaldi, Laird & KewalJemani (2009)
      Averaged Freshman Graduation Rate - AFGR
      percentage of students who graduated on time within four years
      Increased graduation ratefrom class of 2002 to class of 2006
      72.6% to 73.2%
    • Literature Review: Research and Dropouts
      “Lack of school success is probably the greatest single cause which impels pupils to drop out of school.”
      Ayres (1909). Laggards in our schools.
    • Literature Review: Indicators Leading to Student Dropouts
      Individual factors
      Family factors
      School factors
      • Balfanz et al. (2009), Hammond (2007), Wehlage et al. (1989)
      School factors contribute to the
      majority of student dropouts
      • Schussler (2002), Natriello, McDill and Pallas (1990), Rumberger (1987), Wehlageand Rutter (1986)
    • Literature Review: Research and Graduation Rates
      Graduation rates have stayed the same…75% for the past 40 years
      Wehlage et al. (1989)
      Graduation rates have decreased, among Latinos and African Americans
      Swanson (2005), Balfanz & Legters (2004), Orfield (2004)
      Graduation rates have increased with the overall graduation rate at 82%.
      Mishel (2006)
    • Literature Review: Dropout Research Shows
      More males drop out than females
      Dalton, Glennie & Ingels (2009)
      More students living in urban areas drop out
      Swanson (2008)
      More African Americans and Hispanics drop out than Anglos and Asians
      Levin et al. (2007)
      More students of poverty drop out
      Dalton, Glennie & Ingels (2009)
    • Literature Review: Dropout Research and What Makes a Difference?
      Mentor programs or the presence of a significant caring adult can cause at-risk students to remain in school
      Camak (2007), Rysewyk (2008), Noddings (2005), Outlaw (2004).
    • Literature Review: Charter School History and Policy
      1991 – Minnesota: first charter school law
      1992 - California passed charter school law
      1997-2009 – Every president supports charter school direction. Obama vows to “expand our commitment to charter schools and invest in innovation.”
      2009 – 40 stateshave passed charter school laws; 5,042 schoolsserving over 1.5 million students(Allen & Consoletti, 2010)
    • Literature Review: Charter School Development
      Charter schools have the potential to transform American public education and provide choice to families that did not exist prior to charter schools.
      Finn, Manno & Vanourek (2000), Nathan (1996)
    • Literature Review: Types of Charter Schools
      Carpenter (2006). Playing to type? Mapping the charter school landscape.
    • Literature Review: Charter Schools and Student Achievement
      Some charter schools performing better than traditional public schools, and some performing worse
      Betts and Yang (2008)
      Charter schools do not do well in their first year of operation but subsequently improve
      Zimmer et al. (2009). Rand Report.
    • Literature Review: Charter Schools
      “I speculate that charter school reform is a late-20th – century reform that will die of its own weight some time early
      in the 21st century.”
      • Wells (2002)
      Charter schools doing no better than traditional public schools with student achievement and are not serving minorities or poor students
      UCLA Charter School Study (1998) examined charter schools in California
      Wells (2002)
    • Literature Review: Online School History and Policy
      1994 – 1997 - First K-12 online schools:
      Utah Electronic School
      Virtual High School – Massachusetts
      Florida Virtual School
      2007 – Number of states with online programs / online legislation: 42
      2007 – Number of online charter schools:
      173 in 18 states
      92,235 students (Center for Ed Reform, 2008)
      2008 – Online course enrollments grew by 65% from
      2002-03 to 2004-05 (Means, 2009)
      2009 – More than a million K-12 online school students(Picciano and Seaman, 2009)
    • Literature Review: Types of Online Schools
      A. National Companies– individual online charter schools in different states (K-12, Inc. Connections Academy, Insight, Kaplan)
      Primarily charter schools
      B. Statewide– run by state agencies
      Some charters, some not
      C. District / County– run by school districts or county educational offices
      Some charters, some not
      Watson, Gemin, Ryan & Wicks (2009). Keeping pace with K-12 online learning. http://www.kpk12.com/
    • Literature Review: Online Learning andStudent Achievement
      Meta-analysis have found that overall, student achievement in online schools is the same or better when compared with traditional schools
      Means et al. (2009), Cavanaugh et al. (2004)
      Emerging Research
      Student success / student attrition in online courses (Porta-Merida, 2009; Roblyer, 2008)
      Student and parent satisfaction in online courses (Butz, 2004)
    • Methodology: Focus
      In California
      13% of the total U.S. K-12 public school student enrollment
      20% of the U.S. public charter school enrollment
      Top rated state regarding charter school law and policy
      National Alliance for Public Charter Schools (2010)
    • Methodology: Comparison Study
      Online charter high school students
      14 existed in California – 2006-2009
      Traditional high school students
      Comparisons in:
      Growth Rates
      Achievement Rates
      Dropout Rates
    • Methodology: The Subjects
      Online Charter School Students
      10 chosen with grades 9-12 for at least two years
      Free and Reduced Price Lunch (FRL) percentage (Range: 30%-50%)
      Traditional High School Students
      10 chosen
      Randomly selected by FRL (30%-50%)
      Geographically different regions
    • Methodology: Procedures
      Student test data and dropout data for selected schools from publicly accessible websites/databases maintained by theCalifornia Department of Education:
      Ed Data: www.ed-data.k12.ca.us
      Dataquest: http://data1.cde.ca.gov/dataquest
      Ed Partnership: http://edresults.org
    • Methodology: Analysis
      Descriptive Statistics
      Calculated percentage proficient on state English-Language Arts tests (CST ELA)
      Calculated dropout percentages
      Examined trends
      Significance Testing
      Chi square test of independence
    • Results: California Standards Test / English-Language Arts (CST ELA)2007-08 and 2008-09
      Taken yearly in grades 9, 10 and 11
      Selected Online Charter Schools
      Selected Traditional Schools
    • Year: 2007-2008CST ELA ComparisonsPercent Proficient and Above
      Online Charters Traditional Schools
    • Year: 2008-2009CST ELA ComparisonsPercent Proficient and Above
      Online Charters Traditional Schools
    • Chi square test of independence: Proficient on CST ELA Test
      0 = proficient; 1 = not proficient
      0 = traditional schools; 1 = online charter
      Grades 9, 10 and 11
      Selected online charter schools vs. selected traditional schools
      2007-08; 2008-09
      All statistics were significant at p = <.001
    • Results: Dropout Rates2006-07 and 2007-08
      Reported yearly in grades 9, 10, 11 and 12
      Selected Online Charter Schools
      Selected Traditional Schools
      Note: Dropout data from 2008-2009 not available
    • Year: 2006-2007Dropout Percentages by Grade
      Note: 2006-07 Online Charter School Enrollment in Grades 11 and 12 was less than 100 students per grade
      Online Charters Traditional Schools
    • Year: 2007-2008Dropout Percentages by Grade
      Online Charters Traditional Schools
    • Chi square test of independence: Dropout Rates
      0 = Not a dropout; 1 = dropout
      0 = traditional schools; 1 = online charter
      Grades 9, 10, 11, and 12
      Selected online charter schools vs. selected traditional schools
      2006-07; 2007-08
      All statistics were significant at p = <.001
    • Results: California*
      Enrollment in online charter schools has increased each year for the past three years: 80% in past two years
      Percent of students in charter high schools: 6% of total 9-12 enrollment
      Percent of students in online charter high schools: .16% of total 9-12 enrollment
      * See Handout
    • Results: Achievement and Dropouts
      Student Achievement (CST ELA)
      Greater in traditional high schools than in online charter schools
      Percentage difference ranged from 8% to 11%
      Dropout Rates
      Much greater in online charter schools than in traditional schools
      Percentage difference ranged from 22% to 55%
    • Results: Research Questions
      1. Are there a disproportionate number of at-risk students attending online charter high schools (OCS) as compared to traditional high schools (TS) in California?
      Based on percentages of Free and Reduced Lunch students, there are not.
      Similar percentages of students are classified as Free and Reduced Lunch in OCS and TS
      Based on percentages of dropouts, there are.
      There were a larger percentage of students who dropped out of OCS than TS
    • Results: Research Questions
      2. Are at-risk students more successful in online charter high schools (OCS) than in traditional high schools (TS) in California?
      Based on percentages of students who scored proficient or above on CST ELA, at-risk students are similarly successful in OCS and TS.
      Differences between the percentage of students scoring proficient or above on CST ELA at each grade level showed a difference between 8%-10%
    • Recommendations
      Need a uniform way to count online school students
      Innovation grants and research grants needed for online learning in California
      Common standards for K-12 online learning should be adopted
      Ongoing finance model for online schools needed in California; current school funding finance models don’t fit with online courses
    • Future Research
      Study achievement levels of site based and independent study charter schools compared to traditional schools
      Longitudinal qualitative study examining why students attend and/or drop out of online charter schools
      Examine why students leave traditional schools and choose to attend online charter schools
    • Final Reflection Based on My Research
      Future students will attend schools that do have online options
      Education at all levels (K-12, community college, university) should be designing and offering fully online courses now
      Online learning will growwith or without the involvement of traditional schools
    • Questions?
      Rob’s Wiki: http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com