What is it that makes disruptive technologies or the situation go off the tipping point?Example: Increasing vulnerability of the business model. What leads to them taking off... RAND Institute chart on charter schools taking more students from private schools.Also, demand for financial aid has SKYROCKETED in last several years. Astonishing. Huge strain on business models.
From agrarian, paper based to multifaceted, digital world.
www.inacol.orgDr. Rob DarrowDirector, Member ServicesJune 2013Online and Blended Learning:Avoiding Pitfalls, Being Successful,andTransforming Your TeachingPresentation: http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com
Introductions• iNACOL, Director of Member Services– Former online charter school principal, schoollibrarian, K-8 teacher in California• You? teachers? Administrators?– More than 20 years?– Between 10 and 20 years– Between 5 and 10 years– Less than 5 years
Who is iNACOL? www.inacol.org• Educators, policy makers, researchers,non-profits, for-profits, support staff,teachers, and administrators• K-12 schools, universities, think tanks,regional service agencies, county offices,organizations, etc.
Why join iNACOL? www.inacol.org• Passion for online and blended learning• Receive daily news and research updatesabout online and blended learning• Contribute to the online and blendedlearning voice and conversation• Participate in regional and standingcommittees
Why join iNACOL? www.inacol.org• Participate in webinars and relatedactivities (access to Archives)• Reduced cost for attending yearly iNACOLSymposium (Oct. 27-30, 2013, Orlando,FL)• Membership: $60 for educators– Other memberships: School, institution,companies, etc.
We are on the same journey:to improve education forevery student in every school
Remember: Teaching and Learning• What is the studentdoing and where is thestudent? What is the teacherdoing and where is theteacher? What and where is thecontent?
Pitfalls – Planning• Not having a 3-5 year implementation plan• Not including all staff (especially teachersand counselors) in creating theimplementation plan• Not identifying success measures as partof the implementation plan• Not having an ongoing implementationadvisory committee
Pitfalls – Teachers• Not paying attention to teachers,teaching, and pedagogy (and onlyfocusing on content selection)• Not identifying ongoing professionaldevelopment for administrators andteachers
Pitfalls – Students• Not having support structuresin place for students–How to work online–Ongoing “triggers” if students are notbeing successful
Pitfalls – Words to Use• The term “Blended Learning” is morewell received than “Hybrid Learning”• “Personalized Learning” is betterunderstood than “individualized learning.”**Survey completed by iNACOL three years ago and separatelyby the Clayton Christensen Institute
What was school likefor you?Teaching ?Learning ?Curriculum ?
Dan Pink. A Whole New Mind• “change is inevitable, andwhen it happens, the wisestresponse is not to wail orwhine but to suck it up anddeal with it.”
Why change?• Enrollment is good – have waiting lists• Students being successful• Students getting into colleges• Students getting into careers andcontributing back to their schools• Excellent teachers with excellent results• Tradition of excellence for the past 50 years
Change is Hard andUncomfortable• Some teachers thrive on change (andsome administrators, too)• Some teachers never change• Some teachers think doing the same thingevery year is the best teaching (take outthe same lessons and just change thedates)
Research Teaches Us:• If you do the same thing in the sameway, you get the same results• Same lessons = same result
20 Years Ago – 1990What were you doing and whatwas happening then?
20 Years Ago – 1990What was I doing?• Teaching 5th Grade• Apple 2e with floppy disks• No Common Core Standards• No California standards• No Internet• No cell phones or handheld devices• High tech: overhead and a phone in my classroom
In 1990Personal computers are15 years oldTim Berners-Lee writes WorldWide Web programFirst graphical web interface, Mosaic, was notinvented until 1993
What’s changed in our world?• Costs to compete, improve continue to rise• Endowments, contributions fallen in many cases• Tuition continues to rise as well• New independent schools using online learning• Some at lower price point• Some fueled by global companies/visions: K12, Inc., etc.• Charters, other public schools improving withonline learning• New modular offerings that aren’t “traditional”schools• Technology continues to improve to provicemultiple ways for students to be educated
Review: Ongoing Change…• In what our students now have in the palmof their hands• In technology• In global market place• In skills students need for college andcareer
What causes Transformation?• Education• Learning• Experience• Professional Learning Network• Information sharing – magazines,online/social media, conferences, peers
Transformation and Change takes time –Just ask Everett Rogers• Studied “Diffusion of Innovations” for 40years• Innovation = anything new– Purified water– Hybrid corn seed in Iowa– Technology in a school• Why are some innovations adopted andsome are not?
Iowa Farmers and Corn• 1943 – Farmers in Iowa used regular cornseed• Iowa State researchers found that hybridcorn seed produced better results –increase in quality and production• Farmers in Iowa were resistant – Why?– Hybrid seeds could not be reproduced by thefarmer and had to be purchased fromsomeone– Current seed worked just fine
Hybrid Corn Seed –Eventually Adopted, But what happened?• Solution based on several studies by IowaState Professors, where Everett Rogersbegan his work.• What caused the change?– Mass communication of studies /advertising– Interpersonal communication channels(farmer to farmer)Note: Think about your blended or online program here.
Corn, Iowa and Everett RogersThe “back” story…• Rogers born and raised in Iowa• His father was a farmer who was resistant to usinghybrid corn seed• Rogers became a professor at Iowa State where thecorn seed and diffusion studies originated (he interactedwith the researchers)http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Communication_Theory/Diffusion_of_Innovations
Factors that cause adoption• Attributes of the Innovation/Relative Advantageof the Innovation• Individual Innovation Use Decisions (End User)• Communication Channels• Nature of Social System/Culture of Innovation• Change Agent’s (Leader) Promotion of theInnovation• Individual Characteristics of Adopters (Do theylike to change?)
Stages of Adoption• Awareness - the individual is exposed tothe innovation• Interest - the individual becomesinterested in the new idea and seeksadditional information about it• Evaluation - individual mentally appliesthe innovation to his present andanticipated future situation, and thendecides whether or not to try it• Trial - the individual makes full use of theinnovation• Adoption - the individual decides tocontinue the full use of the innovation
Change and Adoption: Where do you fit?• AdopterCategory?–Innovator–Early Adopter–Early Majority–Late Majority–Laggard• Stage ofAdoption?–Awareness–Interest–Evaluation–Trial–Adoption
Trends and Surveys• iNACOL Research (www.inacol.org)• Pew Internet Research• Project Tomorrow: Student Speak Up(http://www.tomorrow.org/SpeakUp/ )• Horizon Report(http://www.nmc.org/horizon-project/horizon-reports/horizon-report-k-12-edition )• World Future Society (http://www.wfs.org/)
iNACOL Trends: Online Learning• 2 million K-12 online course enrollments in2009-10• 27 States have state virtual schools• 4 states require some type of online course aspart of high school graduation requirements(Alabama, Florida, Michigan and Virginia)• An estimated 50% of public school districtsnationally are offering some time of online orblended learning
No one knows for sure how many• Numbers are estimates based on surveys• Bigger schools like K-12, Inc. or ConnectionsAcademies or Florida Virtual School keep countof their own• How students are counted is different (onestudent in one semester course = one)• No one really counts numbers of students inindependent schools involved in blended oronline learning (keep track of your ownnumbers)
Video• More video uploaded in YouTube in thelast 2 months than all new content airedby ABC, NBC and ABC since 1948.• The equivalent of 60,000 full length filmsis uploaded to YouTube every week• 20 hours of video uploaded every minuteto YouTube
Speak Up 2011. Yearly Survey• 416,758 surveys completed from K-12 students, parentsand administrators–A majority of teachers, school siteadministrators and district leveladministrators now reportparticipating in an online class fortheir own professional development.http://www.tomorrow.org/SpeakUp/
Speak Up 2011. Yearly Survey• The profile of a typical student interested intaking an online class today is a middleschool girl who values the use of amobile device in school and sees onlinelearning as her ticket to a morepersonalized learning environmentwhere she is in control of the learningprocess.http://www.tomorrow.org/SpeakUp/
Horizon Report• Yearly report since 2002• Purpose: To understand the impact ofemerging technologies• Diverse group of experts gather anddiscuss and then make predictionshttp://www.nmc.org/horizon-project/horizon-reports/horizon-report-k-12-edition
Horizon Report Predictions (2012)• 1. Education paradigms are shifting to includeonline learning, blended learning andcollaborative models.• 2. The abundance of resources andrelationships made easily accessible via theInternet is increasingly challenging us to revisitour roles as educators.• 3. People expect to be able to work, learn, andstudy whenever and wherever they want.
Disrupting Class• “By 2019, about 50 percent of allhigh school courses will bedelivered online”– Christensen, Horn, Johnson (2010)• Student-centric, modular learning• Affordability, non-consumption(online and blended learning)
Transformation: Perspective• Do you think education should change?• Do you think you should change the wayyou teach?• Do you think the tools you use for teachingshould change?
Transformation = Who or whatinfluences you to change?• Transformation is mostly personal• Transformation of teaching is a personaldecision
Change and Transformation• Change is happening all around us all thetime (technology, student access totechnology and information, etc.)• Transformation occurs when people areinfluenced by others (peers, print, digital,etc.)
But…• To change and transform, we need todefine terms.• What exactly is “blended teaching andlearning”?
We are pretty clearFace-to-Face Teaching• Students in classroom• Teacher in classroom• Interaction face-to-face,mostly verbal, somevisual• Fixed schedule of classesto attend• Prescribed curriculumbased on standards / useof textbooksOnline Teaching• Students online• Teacher online (minimalface-to-face interaction)• Interaction online videoconferencing, email –more visual, less verbal• Flexible schedule for workcompletion• Prescribed curriculumbased on standards / text
A formal education program in which a studentlearns at least in part through online learning, withsome element of student control over time, place,path and/or paceat least in part in a supervised brick-and-mortarlocation away from home (such as school).100010001111010101000The modalities along each student’s learning pathwithin a course or subject are connected toprovide an integrated learning experience.100010001111010101000Defining blended learning
Think in terms of 3-5 yearsfrom now (not just today).Think about what can be,not what is.This is a journey,not a destination.
Emerging blended learning modelsA la Cartemodel
But what doesBlended Learningreally look likefor a teacher?
Teaching and Learning• What is the studentdoing and where is thestudent? What is the teacherdoing and where is theteacher? What and where is thecontent?
From Textbook to Online TeachingOnlineTeachingTextbookEnhancedTeachingTechnologyEnhancedTeachingWeb / OnlineEnhancedTeaching
What does “it” look like?Where do you fit?(* See handout)• Textbook enhanced teaching andlearning• Technology enhanced (not online)• Web/online enhanced• Blended• Online
What does “it” look like?*Teacher-centric vs. Student-centric• Textbook enhancedteaching and learning• Technology enhanced(not online)• Web/online enhanced• Blended• OnlineMore teachercentricCombinationMore studentcentric
What does “it” look like?*Teacher vs. student control ofteaching and learning• Textbook enhancedteaching and learning• Technology enhanced(not online)• Web/online enhanced• Blended• OnlineMore teachercontrolSharedcontrolMore studentcontrol
What does “it” look like?*Control of time and pace• Textbook enhancedteaching and learning• Technology enhanced(not online)• Web/online enhanced• Blended• OnlineSet timestructureSomeFlexibilityFlexible
What does “it” look like?*Blended Learning Models continuum• Textbook enhancedteaching and learning• Technology enhanced(not online)• Web/online enhanced• Blended• OnlineRotationSelf BlendEnrichedVirtualFlex
Textbook EnhancedWhat is the student doing?• Sitting in a desk in aclassroom• Writing on paper• Listening to teacher• Talking with peersWhat is the teacher doing?• Standing in front of theclassroom• Directing Learning• Group discussionsWhat is the content?• Textbooks• Supplemental materials• Teacher created materialsWhere is the content?• On paper• In the classroom• In a school library
Technology EnhancedWhat is the student doing?• Sitting in a desk in a classroom• Writing on paper• Listening to teacher• Talking with peers• Using a shared or personalcomputerWhat is the teacher doing?• Standing in front of the classroom• Directing Learning• Group discussionsWhat is the content?• Textbooks• Supplemental materials• Teacher created materials• Computer (Word, Ppt, etc.)• Computer Program (loaded or CD-Rom)Where is the content?• On paper• In the classroom• In a school library• On a computer/digital white board/ doc camera, etc.
Web/Online EnhancedWhat is the student doing?•Sitting in a desk in a classroom•Writing on paper•Listening to teacher•Talking with peers•Using a shared or personal computerWhat is the teacher doing?•Standing in front of the classroom•Directing Learning•Group discussions•Some assignments/activities onlineWhat is the content?•Textbooks•Supplemental materials•Teacher created materials•Computer (Word, Ppt, etc.)•Computer Program (loaded or CD-Rom)•Web•Computer led (e.g. programmed mathor English. Plato, Ed 2020)Where is the content?•On paper•In the classroom•In a school library•On a computer/digital white board /doc camera, etc.•Some Online
BlendedWhat is the student doing?(30% work online)•Sitting in a desk in a classroom orcomputer lab•Using personal computer online at homeor other location•Interacting with peers in person andonlineWhat is the teacher doing?(30% interacting with students online)•Standing in front of the classroom andinteracting online•Directing Learning•Meeting students in small groups (f2f andonline)•Developing/assigning online lessons•Grading onlineWhat is the content?•Textbooks•Supplemental materials•Teacher created materials•Computer (Word, Ppt, etc.)•Computer Program (loaded or CD-Rom)•Web•Computer led (e.g. E2020, Aventa, K-12,Inc, Compass, etc ) or Teacher DevelopedWhere is the content?•On paper•In the classroom•In a school library•On a computer/digital white board / doccamera, etc.•Online (computer led or teacher ledcontent)
OnlineWhat is the student doing?(70% or more work online)• Sitting in a desk in a classroom orcomputer lab• Using personal computer online athome or school or other location• Interacting with teacher in personand/or online• Interacting with teacher in personand/or onlineWhat is the teacher doing?(70% or more interacting with studentsonline)Standing in front of the classroom• Facilitating Learning• Meeting students in small groups (f2fand online)• Developing/assigning online lessons• Discussion Board• Online meetings/teaching (e.g.Elluminate)• Grading onlineWhat is the content?• Textbooks• Supplemental materials• Teacher created materials• Computer (Word, Ppt, etc.)• Computer Program (loaded or CD-Rom)• Web• Computer led (e.g. programmed mathor English)• Teacher ledWhere is the content?• On paper• On a computer/digital white board / doccamera, etc.• Online (computer led or teacher ledcontent)
Blended teaching is acombination of many factorsStudent• Flexibility of time• Turns work in mostly online• Participates in onlinediscussion boards• Utilizes Web 2.0 tools tocomplete assignments• Actively engaged in contentTeacher• Personalized learning• Ongoing review of student data tochange instruction• Meeting with students whole class,in groups, individually• Online and face-to-face strategies todeliver instruction• Adept with a variety of Web 2.0 toolsand technologies• Curriculum both face-to-face andonline in different modalities• Curriculum and assignments mostlyonline and graded online• Embraces redundancy and change
Quick Quiz – Blended Teaching or Not?Strategy Yes No MaybeTeacher posts an article online for studentsto read.Students turn work in online and teachergrades all work onlineTeacher utilizes online discussion boardswith students in an ongoing wayStudents create a PowerPoint presentationand present it in class
From Textbook to Online TeachingOnlineTeachingTextbookEnhancedTeachingTechnologyEnhancedTeachingWeb / OnlineEnhancedTeaching
Blended Learning, A DevelopingField. Ongoing Challenges• Teacher: How do I know I am “doing”blended learning?• Administrator: How do I know theteacher is doing blended learning?• Administrator: How do I observe ablended learning lesson?
Blended Learning Rubric (Handout)• 1) Leadership• 2) New Staff Roles• 3) New Student Roles• 4) Personalized Learning Plans• 5) Next Generation Curriculum andAssessment;• 6) Flexible and Real World LearningEnvironments
Remember…The path each school takesdown this road of blendedlearning may be different, butthe journey will be the same.
This is a journey,not a destination.And…Remember…
“Never doubt that asmall group ofthoughtful, committed“educators ” can changethe world.Indeed, it is the onlything that ever has.”- Margaret Mead
Contact Info• Rob Darrow – email@example.com• www.inacol.orgPresentation:http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com
Discussion Questions• On the “continuum” where does your school fit?• On the Blended Learning Rubric, where do youfit?• What has to happen to further transform yourselfand your school to more fully adopt blended oronline learning?• What type of professional development isneeded?• What student support systems are needed?
The challenge..Or JaneOr MiaOr DenyOr JuanOr Sara