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Darrow.research.vss.nov2010v2

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K-12 online learning research in California

K-12 online learning research in California

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  • 1. Rob Darrow, Ed.D. Virtual School Symposium, Nov. 2010 Dissertation Topic (California State University, Fresno) Rob’s Wiki: http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com
  • 2. Virtual School Symposium 2010 Research Presentation. Rob Darrow @ cusd.com. http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com. Nov. 2010. Background – National Trends ** Online Schools ** Enrollment increases 10% - 30% per year ** Charter Schools ** Enrollment increases 11% - 20% per year  Two educational trends challenging traditional education: •Allen and Consoletti, 2010. Washington, D.C.: Center for Education Reform. •Allen & Seaman, 2010.
  • 3. Virtual School Symposium 2010 Research Presentation. Rob Darrow @ cusd.com. http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com. Nov. 2010. One Other National Trend: Static Dropout Rates
  • 4. Virtual School Symposium 2010 Research Presentation. Rob Darrow @ cusd.com. http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com. Nov. 2010. A little (parallel) history about charters and online schools  1991-1992 – First states pass charter school laws (Minnesota and California)  1994 – 1997 - First K-12 online schools.  Utah Electronic School, VHS, Inc., Florida Virtual School  2007 – Number of online charter schools:  173 in 18 states  92,235 students (Center for Ed Reform, 2008)  2009 – More than a million K-12 online school students (Picciano and Seaman, 2009)  2009 – 5,042 charter schools serve over 1.5 million students in 40 states
  • 5. Virtual School Symposium 2010 Research Presentation. Rob Darrow @ cusd.com. http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com. Nov. 2010. Research Focus: California, because…  In California  13% of the total U.S. K-12 public school student enrollment  20% of the U.S. public charter school enrollment  Top rated state regarding charter school law and policy  National Alliance for Public Charter Schools (2010)
  • 6. Virtual School Symposium 2010 Research Presentation. Rob Darrow @ cusd.com. http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com. Nov. 2010. Research Focus  Full Time Online Charter School Students  Full Time Traditional High School Students  At-Risk Students  In California  Measured By:  Achievement Test Scores  Dropout Rates
  • 7. Virtual School Symposium 2010 Research Presentation. Rob Darrow @ cusd.com. http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com. Nov. 2010. Two silos from which information was collected: Full time students in traditional high schools, Grades 9-12, in California Full time students in online charter high schools, Grades 9-12, in California
  • 8. Virtual School Symposium 2010 Research Presentation. Rob Darrow @ cusd.com. http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com. Nov. 2010. Research Questions  1. Are there more at-risk students attending online charter high schools than traditional high schools in California?  2. Are at-risk students more successful in online charter high schools than in traditional high schools in California?
  • 9. Virtual School Symposium 2010 Research Presentation. Rob Darrow @ cusd.com. http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com. Nov. 2010. Defining Terms  Online High School  Attending courses online where 80% instruction is online  Charter School  independently operated public schools of choice (allowed by law in 40 states)  At-Risk  any student not making progress towards graduation  Success  proficient on California Standards Test/English-Language Arts (CST ELA)  lower number of student dropouts
  • 10. Virtual School Symposium 2010 Research Presentation. Rob Darrow @ cusd.com. http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com. Nov. 2010. Online Course Definitions Allen & Seaman, 2007
  • 11. Virtual School Symposium 2010 Research Presentation. Rob Darrow @ cusd.com. http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com. Nov. 2010. How are students who are at-risk / dropouts counted?  One student counts as a dropout if either:  A. Leaves a school and does NOT register at another school OR  B. Leaves a school and does NOT have a high school diploma  Standards set by US Department of Education (reported by states)  Counted in Grades 7-12 in California
  • 12. Virtual School Symposium 2010 Research Presentation. Rob Darrow @ cusd.com. http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com. Nov. 2010. How are online school students counted?  Part-time Online Students  Take one or two online courses in addition to attending traditional school  One student in one course per semester counts one  Full Time Online Students  One student attending the school counts one Watson, Gemin, Ryan & Wicks (2009). Keeping pace with K-12 online learning.
  • 13. Virtual School Symposium 2010 Research Presentation. Rob Darrow @ cusd.com. http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com. Nov. 2010. Counting Online School Students, Part 2  Part-time online students not officially counted, except as an estimate in response to a researcher’s survey  Full time online students counted if they attend an online charter school  In California, public school students, including online charters, are counted each October via California Basic Educational Data System (CBEDS)
  • 14. Virtual School Symposium 2010 Research Presentation. Rob Darrow @ cusd.com. http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com. Nov. 2010. Research and Dropouts “Lack of school success is probably the greatest single cause which impels pupils to drop out of school.”  Ayres (1909). Laggards in our schools.
  • 15. Virtual School Symposium 2010 Research Presentation. Rob Darrow @ cusd.com. http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com. Nov. 2010. Indicators Leading to Student Dropouts  Individual factors  Family factors  School factors • Balfanz et al. (2009), Hammond (2007), Wehlage et al. (1989) School factors contribute to the majority of student dropouts • Schussler (2002), Natriello, McDill and Pallas (1990), Rumberger (1987), Wehlage and Rutter (1986)
  • 16. Virtual School Symposium 2010 Research Presentation. Rob Darrow @ cusd.com. http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com. Nov. 2010. High school graduation rates Graduation rates have stayed the same…75% for the past 40 years  Wehlage et al. (1989)
  • 17. Virtual School Symposium 2010 Research Presentation. Rob Darrow @ cusd.com. http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com. Nov. 2010. What causes at-risk students to be successful? Mentor programs or the presence of a significant caring adult can cause at-risk students to remain in school • Camak (2007), Rysewyk (2008), Noddings (2005), Outlaw (2004).
  • 18. Virtual School Symposium 2010 Research Presentation. Rob Darrow @ cusd.com. http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com. Nov. 2010. Comparison Study  Online charter high school students  14 existed in California – 2006-2009  Traditional high school students  Comparisons in:  Growth Rates  Achievement Rates  Dropout Rates
  • 19. Virtual School Symposium 2010 Research Presentation. Rob Darrow @ cusd.com. http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com. Nov. 2010. Results: California Standards Test / English-Language Arts (CST ELA) 2007-08 and 2008-09  Taken yearly in grades 9, 10 and 11  Selected Online Charter Schools  Selected Traditional Schools
  • 20. Virtual School Symposium 2010 Research Presentation. Rob Darrow @ cusd.com. http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com. Nov. 2010. Year: 2007-2008 CST ELA Comparisons Percent Proficient and Above Online Charters Traditional Schools 55% 46% 40% 63% 57% 55% 9th 10th 11th
  • 21. Virtual School Symposium 2010 Research Presentation. Rob Darrow @ cusd.com. http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com. Nov. 2010. 56% 48% 46% 64% 60% 57% 9th 10th 11th Online Charters Traditional Schools Year: 2008-2009 CST ELA Comparisons Percent Proficient and Above
  • 22. Virtual School Symposium 2010 Research Presentation. Rob Darrow @ cusd.com. http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com. Nov. 2010. Results: Dropout Rates 2006-07 and 2007-08  Reported yearly in grades 9, 10, 11 and 12  Selected Online Charter Schools  Selected Traditional Schools Note: Dropout data from 2008-2009 not available
  • 23. Virtual School Symposium 2010 Research Presentation. Rob Darrow @ cusd.com. http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com. Nov. 2010. Year: 2006-2007 Dropout Percentages by Grade Note: 2006-07 Online Charter School Enrollment in Grades 11 and 12 was less than 100 students per grade 2% 6% 0.60% 0.90% 9th 10th Online Charters Traditional Schools
  • 24. Virtual School Symposium 2010 Research Presentation. Rob Darrow @ cusd.com. http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com. Nov. 2010. Year: 2007-2008 Dropout Percentages by Grade 22% 29% 32% 59% 0.70% 0.50% 0.70% 4% 9th 10th 11th 12th Online Charters Traditional Schools
  • 25. Virtual School Symposium 2010 Research Presentation. Rob Darrow @ cusd.com. http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com. Nov. 2010. Statistics: In California…  Enrollment in online charter schools has increased each year for the past three years: 80% from 2006-07 to 2008-09  Percent of students in charter high schools: 6% of total 9-12 enrollment  Percent of students in online charter high schools: .16% of total 9-12 enrollment
  • 26. Virtual School Symposium 2010 Research Presentation. Rob Darrow @ cusd.com. http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com. Nov. 2010. Results: Achievement and Dropouts  Student Achievement (CST ELA)  Somewhat greater in traditional high schools than in online charter schools  Percentage difference ranged from 8% to 11%  Dropout Rates  Much greater in online charter schools than in traditional schools  Percentage difference ranged from 22% to 55%
  • 27. Virtual School Symposium 2010 Research Presentation. Rob Darrow @ cusd.com. http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com. Nov. 2010. Implications for Practitioners  Full time online programs and charter schools attract more “at-risk” students because they have already left a traditional school  How to engage “at-risk” students in online or charter schools is the same as traditional schools: need caring adults to build relationships with students
  • 28. Virtual School Symposium 2010 Research Presentation. Rob Darrow @ cusd.com. http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com. Nov. 2010. Final Reflection Based on My Research  Future students will attend schools that do have online options  Education at all levels (K-12, community college, university) should be designing and offering fully online courses now  Online learning will grow with or without the involvement of traditional schools
  • 29. Virtual School Symposium 2010 Research Presentation. Rob Darrow @ cusd.com. http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com. Nov. 2010. Questions? Rob’s Wiki: http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com
  • 30. Virtual School Symposium 2010 Research Presentation. Rob Darrow @ cusd.com. http://robdarrow.wikispaces.com. Nov. 2010. Selected References Charter School Statistics Allen, J., & Consoletti, A. (2010). Annual survey of America's charter schools. Washington, D.C.: Center for Education Reform. Retrieved March 10, 2010, from http://www.edreform.com/Press_Box/Press_Releases/?Annual_Survey_of_Americas_Charter_Schools_2010. Tice, P., Chapman, C., Princiotta, D., & Bielick, S. (2006). Trends in the use of school choice 1993-2003. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved March 10, 2009, from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2007045. Online School Statistics Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2010). Learning on demand: Online education in the United States, 2009. Newburyport, MA: The Sloan Consortium. Retrieved March 1, 2010, from http://www.aln.org/publications/survey/learning_on_demand_sr2010. Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2007). Online nation: Five years of growth in online learning. Newburyport, MA: The Sloan Consortium. Retrieved December 10, 2009, from http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/survey/online_nation. Watson, J., Gemin, B., Ryan, J., & Wicks, M. (2009). Keeping pace with K-12 online learning. Denver, CO: Evergreen Education Group. Retrieved December 10, 2009, from http://www.kpk12.com/download.html. At-Risk Students Wehlage, G. G., Rutter, R. A., Smith, G. A., Lesko, N., & Fernandez, R. R. (1989). Reducing the risk: Schools as communities of support. New York: Falmer Press. Cataldi, E. F., Laird, J., KewalRamani, A., & Chapman, C. (2009). High school dropout and completion rates in the United States: 2007. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved July 10, 2009, from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2009064. •California Dropout Research Project. http://www.cdrp.ucsb.edu/. •National Dropout Prevention Center. http://www.dropoutprevention.org/ •Alliance for Education Excellence. http://www.all4ed.org/

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