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Combat Systems Fusion Engine for the F-35
 

Combat Systems Fusion Engine for the F-35

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Michael Skaff of Lockheed Martin and the Principal Engineer for the F-35’s pilot vehicle interface explains the combat systems and their integration in the F-35. This capability is inherent in ...

Michael Skaff of Lockheed Martin and the Principal Engineer for the F-35’s pilot vehicle interface explains the combat systems and their integration in the F-35. This capability is inherent in every F-35 or part of the baseline aircraft. In a real sense software development is never done; it is part of the evolving capability of the aircraft.

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  • This graphic depicts the sensor which are installed on every production F-35. This is an important point becauselegacy fighters, typically, only come with a radar. The client must purchase the other sensor and they are usually in the form of an external pod. External pods severely impact radar cross section and aerodynamic performance.Radar - the radar is an Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA). It is arguably the most advanced AESA in production today. The hallmark of an AESA is in its ability to steer beams through space in fractions of a second. From the pilot point of view it appears to be doing multiple functions at once. Some of these functions are air to air search and track, ground moving target indications, sea search, and synthetic aperture radar.EOTS - the Electro-optical Targeting System resides under the chin of the radome. The EOTS is a high magnification midwave infrared (IR) telescope which can point along a line of sight and perform various targeting functions. Some of these functions are point track, area track, laser spot track, and IR search and track.EWS - an Electronic Warfare Suite is built into the aircraft. It performs a number functions which on legacy fighters would have been federated. Among those functions are Radar Warning Receiver (RWR), emitter location, precise direction finding, and Electronic Counter Measures (ECM).DAS - the Distributed Aperture System is a unique sensor not found on legacy fighters. The DAS is comprised of 6 staring focal plane arrays which gather midwave IR photons throughout the entire sphere surrounding the aircraft. The DAS performs these functions: short range IR search and track, missile launch detection, point of origin of missile launch, and navigation imaging. The pilot may use these cameras to “look through” aircraft structure. DAS imagery is displayed both head down on the PCD as well as head up on the HMD.CNI - the Communications Navigation and Identification suite is an advanced Software Defined Radio (SDR) within the aircraft. SDRs instantiate radio waveforms such as TACAN, ILS, voice channels, and datalinks. Because it is an SDR it is software upgradeable. This means as new radios and waveforms are needed/invented software rather than hardware will change.
  • The fusion engine can automatically task individual sensors to search, detect, track, and identify things in battlespace. The pilot does not have to be involved in this because fusion understands the fields of regard and fields of view of each sensor and will task them accordingly. In addition, fusion may use multiple sensors on one track to get a better kinematic estimate of some particular piece of data.

Combat Systems Fusion Engine for the F-35 Combat Systems Fusion Engine for the F-35 Presentation Transcript

  • Advanced Fusion Avionics Suite Full Spherical Coverage by Distributed Aperture System (DAS) Radar Warning System 360o CoverageElectro-Optical Band 3 / 4 Targeting Fwd Band 3 / 4 RadarSystem (EOTS) Warning Fwd Band 2 Active DAS Apertures Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) Aft Band 2 RADAR Electronic Support Measures Fwd Band 2 Band 3 / 4 Radar Fwd Band 3 / 4 Warning Emitter Locating Data All Aspect Stealth – Very Low Observable Links© 2011 Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Public Release 092611 - 1
  • Target Detection, Track, Classification and Identification Day/Night Capable Day/Night and All Weather Capable EOTS Radar EO DAS Sea Surface Search/track RWR ESM Sensors: EO DAS EOTS Radar Radar GMTI SAR Target Class: All Classes Moving Relocatable Emitting Increasing Range F-35 Is Autonomous, Long Range and All Weather-Capable 239© 2011 Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Public Release 092611 - 2
  • APG-81 Radar Active Electronically Scanned Array Interleaved Search and Track Data Link Air-to-Air Target Detection/Track Synthetic Aperture Radar With Effective BDA Ground Moving Target Detection Cruise Missile UCAV 231© 2011 Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Public Release 092611 - 3
  • 4th Generation No Correlation Multiple Inputs • Targeting Solution Is • Limited ID of Targets Radar Centric • Pilot Determines How • Assess & Engage to Task Active Sensors Targets • Task Saturation In • Pilot Left With Highly Dynamic Air IRST ESM Reduced Time Combat IFF to Act RADAR MW Multiple Displays • Individual Sensors • One Sensor Per Display Accumulate Data • Pilot Must Interpret • Multiple Tracks Individual Displays & Created “Correlate” Information In His Head Multiple Tracks Pilot Must Manage Sensors and Sensor Workload© 2011 Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Public Release 092611 - 4
  • 4th Generation – Correlation “What the other guys call sensor fusion” Multiple Inputs • SA Based on Partial • Pilot Determines How Information to Task Active Sensors • Targeting Solution • Task Saturation In Relies on Primary Highly Dynamic Source Air Combat IRST ESM • Pilot Left With Single Reduced IFF Display With Time to Act RADAR MW Single Track Multiple Tracks • Individual Sensors • “Display De-cluttering” Accumulate Data • Correlates Multiple • Multiple Tracks Tracks to Single Best Created Source • Extra Tracks Discarded Single Best Track Pilot Manages Sensors and Acts on Correlated Display© 2011 Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Public Release 092611 - 5
  • F-35 Sensor Fusion • On+Off • One Track, Board Inputs One ID Off Board Sensor Tracks & Data MADL EOTS • Multi-Spectral • Ownship, ESM Composite Wingmen, IFF Situational Network RADAR Awareness DAS DECIDE Fusion Server • Automatic Sensor Tasking • Automatic ID & ROE •Image Processing Fusion •Sensor Management Manages & Tasks Sensors ACT •Tracker • OODA Loop is Accelerated • All Information is Single, Fused Fused and Presented View of Battlespace to Pilot • Pilot Focuses On Acting out Tactics, Not Sensor Management F-35 Pilot Expends Majority of Effort on Tactics© 2011 Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Public Release 092611 - 6
  • Slide 1 (A) • This graphic depicts the sensor, which are installed on every production F-35. This is an important point because legacy fighters, typically, only come with a radar. The client must purchase the other sensor and they are usually in the form of an external pod. External pods severely impact radar cross-section and aerodynamic performance. • Radar - the radar is an Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA). It is arguably the most advanced AESA in production today. The hallmark of an AESA is in its ability to steer beams through space in fractions of a second. From the pilot point of view it appears to be doing multiple functions at once. Some of these functions are air-to-air search and track, ground moving target indications, sea search, and synthetic aperture radar. • EOTS - the Electro-optical Targeting System resides under the chin of the radome. The EOTS is a high magnification midwave infrared (IR) telescope, which can point along a line of sight and perform various targeting functions. •© 2011 Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Public Release 092611 - 7
  • Slide 1 (B) • Some of these functions are point track, area track, laser spot track, and IR search and track. • EWS - an Electronic Warfare Suite is built into the aircraft. It performs a number of functions which on legacy fighters would have been federated. Among those functions are Radar Warning Receiver (RWR), emitter location, precise direction finding, and Electronic Counter Measures (ECM). • DAS - the Distributed Aperture System is a unique sensor not found on legacy fighters. The DAS is comprised of 6 staring focal plane arrays, which gather midwave IR photons throughout the entire sphere surrounding the aircraft. • The DAS performs these functions: short range IR search and track, missile launch detection, point of origin of missile launch, and navigation imaging. The pilot may use these cameras to “look through” aircraft structure. DAS imagery is displayed both head down on the PCD as well as head up on the HMD.© 2011 Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Public Release 092611 - 8
  • Slide 1 (C) • CNI - the Communications Navigation and Identification suite is an advanced Software Defined Radio (SDR) within the aircraft. • • SDRs instantiate radio waveforms such as TACAN, ILS, voice channels, and datalinks. Because it is an SDR it is software upgradeable. This means as new radios and waveforms are needed/invented software rather than hardware will change.© 2011 Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Public Release 092611 - 9
  • Slides 2-4 • The fusion engine can automatically task individual sensors to search, detect, track, and identify things in battlespace. The pilot does not have to be involved in this because fusion understands the fields of regard and fields of view of each sensor and will task them accordingly. In addition, fusion may use multiple sensors on one track to get a better kinematic estimate of some particular piece of data. • AESA provides near simultaneous air-to-air –air and air-to- ground radar coverage. Able to engage inbound enemy fighter, bomber and low flying helos and maintain air supremacy over the battle area while detecting, identify and targeting fixed and moving ground targets. • The well known John Boyd OODA loop works well when trying to understand fusion or, in this case, lack of even correlation. This might represent an early 4th gen fighter. The pilot does the entire mental math to visualize battlespace.© 2011 Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Public Release 092611 - 10
  • Slides 5 and 6 • In the next graphic we see a modern 4.x gen fighter. These use correlation, which is a big step toward advanced sensor fusion. None the less, the pilot’s workload and situation awareness are improved, but not like in a 5th gen fighter. • 5th gen advanced fusion has three key features: 1) a single integrated picture of battlespace, 2) automatic sensor tasking, and 3) connectivity in order to share the picture. • These three key elements are the keys to providing extreme situational awareness (SA) while managing workload (WL). SA and WL contribute directly to increased lethality, greater survivability, and safety. Advanced sensor fusion is one of the hallmarks of the 5th generation© 2011 Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Public Release 092611 - 11