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Principles And  Practices Of  S S I
 

Principles And Practices Of S S I

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Slides used in applied research course for introduction to semi-structured interviewing.

Slides used in applied research course for introduction to semi-structured interviewing.

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    Principles And  Practices Of  S S I Principles And Practices Of S S I Presentation Transcript

    • Semi-Structured Interviewing: Principles and Practices
      • Things We Do in Qualitative Interviews
      • Use open-ended questions
      • Avoid leading questions
      • Probe issues in depth
      • Let the informant lead
    • Semi-Structured Interviewing: Principles and Practices
      • Use Open-Ended Questions
      • Closed Questions: Questions for which the answer choices are either given to the respondent or understood by the respondent
      • Examples:
          • What are three ways to prevent a cold [Implies limited correct answers]
          • Do you talk to people about your experiences as a student at Eastern? [Choice implied: yes/no]
          • Do people here want more or less government intervention? [Implies limited choices]
      • Closed questions limit the breadth of information that a respondent has to offer.
      • Open Questions: Questions that allow the respondent to answer without presented or implied choices
      • Turn the above closed questions into open questions
      • Open Question Words: What? Where? Who? When? How? Why?* OR Tell me about…
      • * Wh y? Limit the use of “ Why?” questions because it implies that there is a right answer and because there is not always a re ason for behavior (at least not one respondents can identify).
    • Semi-Structured Interviewing: Principles and Practices
      • Avoid Leading Questions
      • Allow people to answer in their own terms voicing their own views, values and experiences.
      • Leading questions are phrased to suggest a particular answer or to imply that one answer is expected or more correct:
          • What do you like about the distance learning portion of the program?
          • Why is the election process such a problem here?
          • How good has your experience at Eastern been?
      • Non-leading questions on the same topics could be asked this way:
      • Turn the above into non-leading questions
    • Semi-Structured Interviewing: Principles and Practices Probing “ Th e key to successful interviewing is learning how to probe effectively … ...that is, to stimulate an informant to produce more information… ...without injecting yourself so much into the interaction that you only get a reflection of yourself in the data. ” Bernard, H. R. (1995). Research methods in anthropology : qualitative and quantitative approaches. Walnut Creek, CA., AltaMira Press.
    • Semi-Structured Interviewing: Principles and Practices
      • Types of Probes
      • Echo - repeat the last thing the respondent said with a slight rise in the voice..."I think x is good... You think x is good...?"
      • Re-question - "What else do you think about x...?"
      • Silent – wait, just remain quiet and wait for the respondent to continue
      • Re-cap - "Could you repeat what you said about x..?" The repeat will likely yield new information
      • Encouragement - Verbal probe with noises such as uh-huh, I see, etc.
      • Non-verbal - Such things as smile, click, head shake, etc.
      • Phased Assertion - When you act as if you know something in order to get people to open up.
    • Semi-Structured Interviewing: Principles and Practices Letting the Informant Lead “ In unstructured interviewing, you keep the conversation focused on a topic, while giving the informant room to define the content of the discussion. Th e rule is: Get an informant on to a topic of interest and get out of the way. Let the informant provide information that he or she thinks is important.” Bernard, H. R. (1995). Research methods in anthropology : qualitative and quantitative approaches. Walnut Creek, CA., AltaMira Press.
    • Semi-Structured Interviewing: Principles and Practices
      • Some Tips for Interviewing--Asking Questions
      • Do not begin interviewing right away
        • Friendly greeting and explanations
        • Establish “c u ltural ignorance”—interviewer as learner
      • Listen and express interest in what the informant tells you
        • More of a friendly conversation
        • Not a strict question & answer exchange
        • But remain neutral: don’t approve or disapprove
      • Try to encourage informant to expand on their answers and give as many details as possible —informants have a tendency is to abbreviate answers
        • Use “d e scribe” or “t e ll me more about that…”
        • Don’t rush through questions--explore!
        • Let informant’s answers determine the direction the interview takes ( keeping within topics of interest )
      • Use informant’s own language to ask new questions
        • Do this as you learn informant’s “l a nguage ”
      • Crude measure of success is the volume of response
        • 80% at least “their” words
        • Most problems are the fault of the interviewer
      • Learn how to re-phrase/re-think questions
      • Avoid using “w h y?” questions as much as possible.
        • Informants will try to give you a ‘right’ answer
        • Informants may have to “i n vent” an explanation/justification
    • Semi-Structured Interviewing: Principles and Practices
      • Some Tips for Interviewing--Openings and Closings
      • Greetings/Explanations:
        • Describe reasons for interview
        • Describe confidentiality/Receive consent (as appropriate)
        • Explain the types of questions/content (their ability to opt out)
        • Explain your method of recording information
        • Provide any special task instructions (if any, e.g. pile sorting)
      • Closing comments:
        • Thank the informant
        • Express a desire to meet again (as applicable)
        • Set a time for next meeting (if applicable)
        • Invite the informant to ask questions
    • Semi-Structured Interviewing: Principles and Practices
      • Types of Interview Questions
      • Spradley, J. P. (1979). The ethnographic interview. New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
      • Descriptive Questions
        • Grand Tour
        • Example Questions
        • Experience Questions
        • “ Native Language” Questions
      • Structural Questions
      • Contrast Questions
    • Semi-Structured Interviewing: Principles and Practices
      • Descriptive Questions
      • These questions seek to open the door and start to get an idea of how things work
      • Grand Tour
        • Typical - “D e scribe a typical day here. ”
        • Specific - “D e scribe what happened yesterday, beginning with when you woke up. ”
        • Guided - “ Could you show me around your community/office/campus? ”
        • Task - “I would like to ask you to draw a map for me of the surrounding community and explain to me what it is like here. ”
      • Example Question
      • “ Y o u mentioned challenges your church faces in helping returning vets integrate into your church. I would like to hear some examples of these challenges? ”
      • Experience Questions
      • “ T e ll me about some of your experiences of trying to help homeless men in this community. ”
      • “ Native-Language” Questions
      • “ Y o u mentioned how ‘mniha’ has changed here. Tell me more about how ‘mniha’ works. ”
      • D e scriptive questions form the basis of all ethnographic interviewing .
    • Semi-Structured Interviewing: Principles and Practices Structural Questions Verify terms learned via descriptive questions and the relationships between them “ W h at are some of the different kinds of ‘loha’ that occur here?” “ I’m interested in knowing all the different symptoms of ‘mambo-layo’ that you talked about. ” “ Y o u said that women here are afraid to go out alone because of ‘teasing’. What are some ways you have seen ‘teasing’ take place? ”
    • Semi-Structured Interviewing: Principles and Practices Contrast Questions These questions also seek to find out what an informant means by various terms: “ W h at are the differences between the ‘hardcore homeless’ and ‘newbies’? ” “ E a rlier you said that the ‘second generation’ of Hmong immigrants view violence differently than the ‘first generation’. Give me some examples of the difference between the two. ”
    • Semi-Structured Interviewing: Principles and Practices Putting it All Together: A Checklist to Guide the Interview Process
    • Semi-Structured Interviewing: Principles and Practices
      • Field Guides
      • (experiment with a style that works for you)
      • Purpose: to help us identify and explore relevant topics with key informants.
      • Length: 10-20 Questions/Question Elements, plus instructions
        • Should focus on the research topic
        • May be subdivided into subtopical areas
      • Introductory Statement: Purpose of study, confidentiality, disclosure statement
      • Types of questions:
        • Begin with descriptive, open-ended questions to explore/identify terms and concepts
        • Move from descriptive to structural and contrast questions
      • Ways to use EFG:
        • As a starting point - a set of cues
        • NOT to be followed like a structured survey
      • TYPICAL PROBLEM OF INEXPERENCED INTERVIEWERS: STICK SLAVISHLY TO GUIDE
    • Semi-Structured Interviewing: Principles and Practices Note Taking Process Collect Raw Field Notes Notebook for raw field notes Small notebook for informal observations Write Expanded Field Notes Write up immediately after interview/observation Hand write clearly in notebook for expanded notes or, Type up expanded notes, if possible Code Field Notes
    • Semi-Structured Interviewing: Principles and Practices
      • Writing Raw Field Notes
      • Write in a “r a w notes ” notebook
      • All team members should take notes
        • Exception is during an activity where the person facilitating the activity does not take notes.
      • Record questions as well as answers
      • Jot down cue words, probes or phrases you used to encourage more
        • Usually not word for word, as much as possible however
        • Record especially appropriate quotes
      • Keep track of key terms/phrases
      • Make Sketches, Diagrams, Maps
      • Keep in Mind: THESE NOTES ARE THE RAW DATA--THE “EVIDENCE BASE”
    • Semi-Structured Interviewing: Principles and Practices
      • Writing Expanded Field Notes
      • Allocate time the same day
        • 1 hr interview --> 2-4 hours expanding
      • Place identification information at the top
        • Topic, date, informant(s) (pseudonym)
        • Description of setting and informant(s)
        • Include contextual information
            • Who recommended the informant(s)
            • How you found the informant(s)
            • How this interview fits in with other information
      • Main body of expanded notes
        • Majority of your notes here
        • Scripting method preferred (not summary but actual words “v e rbatim ” )
        • Record non-verbal behavior
      • Summary (process & content)
        • How did the activity go?
        • Informant(s) truthful/frank?
        • Informant(s) participate? willingly?
        • Biases?
        • Conclusions related to study questions?
        • Important issues to follow-up
    • Semi-Structured Interviewing: Principles and Practices
      • Coding
        • Management and Analysis Tool -- based on learning objective AND emerging themes
        • Classifies words
        • Functions:
          • Organize data
          • Retrieve data
          • Reduce data
          • Find patterns
          • Forces you to read your data
        • Types of codes:
          • Numbers (with codebook)
          • Letters or mnemonic (help to remember code meaning)
          • Words
          • Colors
        • Where to code:
          • Usually in the margins of expanded notes
          • Adjacent to last line of the relevant text
        • When to code:
          • Start with a coding list that can change as you go (add, drop codes, re-coding)
          • Can wait until a significant amount of data has been collected or wait until the end of the study
    • Semi-Structured Interviewing: Principles and Practices
      • Examples of Codes
      • Letter Codes for Food Security Interviews
        • FS--Food Source
        • SL--Seasonal Differences in Food Intake
        • PV--Poverty (description)
        • HP--Hope
        • WR--Worry or Insecurity
        • CH--Changes Over Time
        • CP--Community Problem
        • HP--Household Problem
        • KP--Child Problem
        • WP--Woman’s Problem
        • MP--Man’s Problem
        • CA-Cause
        • EF-Effect