Mac309 viral media

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Some updated slides (March 2013)

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  • On the 5, PHL_On_NAN posts a remix (v2), gaining 300,000 views within 24 hours, and prompting further parodies shortly after.
  • On Feb. 7, YouTuberhiimrawn uploaded a version titled "Harlem Shake v3 (office edition)" featuring the staff of online video production company Maker Studios. The video becomes is a hit, amassing more than 7.4 million views over the following week, and inspiring a number of contributions from well-known Internet companies, including BuzzFeed, CollegeHumor, Vimeo and Facebook.
  • Here's a graph that shows retweets during the first week, as the meme was being established. We can identify dominant profiles who helped make the videos visible on Twitter, key information brokers. Each node represents a Twitter user, and the larger a node, the more Retweets that user generated when posting to the meme. The lighter colored participated earlier, hence we see @baauer, @dipio and @maddecent very early on, posting to Twitter and accruing Retweets. On the bottom right region, we identify influential YouTubers who were key to passing on the meme, such as @kingsleyyy, @KSIOlajidebt, @ConnorFranta, and @Jenna_Marbles. Note the general size of these profiles versus @StephenAtHome (Colbert) or even @YouTube. These influential YouTubers clearly played a prominent role in generating buzz across Twitter, much more than significantly larger accounts such as Stephen Colbert's or YouTube itself.Source: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/gilad-lotan/the-harlem-shake_b_2804799.html
  • In this case we see a clear network of influential YouTubers across the U.S. and the U.K. combined with a dense cluster of musicians and DJs who helped make this meme incredibly visible. We also see how it very quickly spread around the world, with dense contingents in Jamaica, South Africa, Brazil, France and the Netherlands.Source: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/gilad-lotan/the-harlem-shake_b_2804799.html
  • Students protest after school principal suspended for allowing 'indecent' dance video to be filmed on premiseshttp://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/mar/07/tunisia-harlem-shake

  • Mac309 viral media

    1. 1. Viral Media:Forward/Embed/Share/Play MAC309 robert.jewitt@sunderland.ac.uk http://twitter.com/rob_jewitt
    2. 2. In this session I‟d like to look at one of the emergent trends coming out of thetech space. This session is going to be considering some of the ways in whichbrands and companies have tried to engage with users in order to establishthemselves.
    3. 3. 1 3 2 4In (1) I‟ll look at the emergence of „virality‟ in recent tech success stories. In (2)I‟ll draw on a specific example of a viral business. In (3) I‟ll look at some of therisks involved with social media before looking at why certain videos go viral in(4)
    4. 4. 1 3 2 4I want to illustrate section (1) by drawing on an idea coined recently by AdamPenenberg, something he calls a viral loop
    5. 5. 5 „Viral expansion loops‟Adam L. Penenberg (2009) identified a number of successful organisations whoincorporated virality into their functionality so that each user begets anotheruser.
    6. 6. 6Click to play videos Play video
    7. 7. 7 The value of your social network?Penenberg‟s book has a Facebook application that measures the value of yoursocial network, by working out how well connected you are. A case of you arewhat you share, measured in dollars. A viral tool to spread his message (ie.“buy my book”) across the popular network
    8. 8. 8 The value of your social network?Oh, and there‟s also an iPhone app. But it‟s not available in the UK…“It just goes to show that marketing a book aint what it used to be” (Penenberg,2009)
    9. 9. When something online is free,you‟re not the customer, you‟re the product.
    10. 10. When something online is free,you‟re not the customer, you‟re the product.
    11. 11. From a Google perspective, youre not thecustomer. The ad service buyer is thecustomer. Youre the commodity. Bymaking you a more attractive commodity,i.e. by making sure to only serve you anad if you are in the target population for it,they are making the ads pay better fortheir customers, and they can reap alarge part of the difference to theircompetitors, the other ad services - Liorean, 2004
    12. 12. Perhaps because youre not thecustomer any more. Youre simply a"resource" to be managed for profit …Who is the customer? Not you, whoselife is reduced to someone elsessalable, searchable, investigatabledata. The customer is everyone whowishes to own a piece of your life. - Claire Woolfe, 1999
    13. 13. 13“Viral strategies aren‟t strictly for businesses. They are also seeping into otherarenas – like politics. And no one was more successful in imprinting a viral loopinto a campaign than Barack Obama” (Penenberg, 2009: 14). Obama raised$55 million online by Feb 2008 without attending a single fundraiser
    14. 14. 14“One of my fundamental beliefs from my days as a community organizer is thatreal change comes from the bottom up … And there‟s no more powerful tool forgrassroots organizing than the Internet” (Wired, 2009). my.BarackObama.com(aka “MyBo”) was the technological driver of that change.
    15. 15. 1 3 2 4Now in section (2), still drawing on Penenberg, I‟ll explain how a viral successstory emerged using Am I Hot Or Not? as an example of a organisation whichtook advantage of a socially orientated growth strategy.
    16. 16. 16 Am I Hot or Not?In October 2000, James Hong and Jim Young were discussing a woman thatYoung described as the „perfect 10‟. They had the idea of applying a metric topeople‟s looks by getting people to vote on pictures in order to establish a
    17. 17. 171 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ✓ Most people are a….?
    18. 18. 18 Am I Hot or Not? Day 1October 9th: Hong emailed 42 people the site link. He went to a nearby softwarecall centre (TellMe) and mentioned it to an officer worker there. Within 10 minsthe IP address for TellMe was logged and it multiplied as officer workers sharedthe link
    19. 19. 19 Am I Hot or Not? Day 1By the end of the day the site had received 37,000 unique views while 200photos had been uploaded
    20. 20. 20 Hot or Not? Day 2100,000+ unique visitors. Hong estimated the cost for bandwidth at the presentrate of growth to be $150,000 per year. Popularity came with a real cost aspeople passed on the site address to their friends
    21. 21. 21 Am I Hot or Not? Day 3Salon.com reporter Janelle Brown called in a story based on the site‟s successafter a venture capitalists passed on a viral email with a link. It was describedas„nothing more than a virtual meat market‟yet„indescribably horrible … and yetutterly addictive‟
    22. 22. 22 ScalabilityIn order to offset costs decided to host the photos on Yahoo‟s Geocities and thesite on a cheap 400-mghz Celeron PC under a desk in Berkeley. By 5am theserver had been down for 2 hours. The Dean of the engineering departmentcomplained the traffic was pulling the entire network down. They werestruggling to stay in control of their rapid growth
    23. 23. 23Lots of media attention, but still no plan for monetisation. They were gettingmore notoriety and more traffic. By day 8 the site was getting 1.8 million pageviews per day. Agreed a deal with Rackspace servers who wanted to boost theirpresence/reputation
    24. 24. 24Within 6 weeks the site had 3 million page views, was hosting 3000 photos.However, there was still no clear funding model. The site predated Google‟sAdSense service for automated advertisements.
    25. 25. 25The site faced a number of problems as it grew and funding was being sought.Several users were uploading pornographic content that wouldn‟t sit well withpotential advertisers. Initially Hong‟s parents moderated images but they soonturned to the community to keep the service free of shocking images
    26. 26. 26Within 2 months the site had counted 7 million page views per day making itone of the top 25 domains online. They had collected 130,000 photos and hadgenerated $100,000 in ad revenue
    27. 27. 27The site received Cease & Desist letter from racier Am I Hot site after HowardStern mispronounced the name on air. They changed the name to Hot or Not.The dot-com bubble burst meant that ad revenue dried up
    28. 28. 28 Meet Me?The best way to take advantage of all their regular users was to give them theoption of meeting up. By April 2001 they introduced a $6 per month fee for thefunctionality which generated $25,000 in revenue by the end of the first month($60,000 by year end)
    29. 29. 29www.hotornot.com
    30. 30. 30 Hot or Not? Definitely HotThe pair rejected a $2m offer from search engine Lycos. By 2004 the site wasgenerating $4m. In July 2006 the site registered its 13th billionth vote and wasthe third most popular dating site on the Internet. By 2008 they sold it for $20m.
    31. 31. 31 1 2 4 8 16Users beget usersPyramid schemeChain letters?Sharing key to success
    32. 32. 32 Hotmail Twitter eBay Flickr PayPal BlippyMySpace FarmVilleYouTube GmailFacebook Digg SkypeLinkedIn Zynga EtsyRecent viral success stories?
    33. 33. Uploaded to Vimeo 20th Feb 2012. Uploaded to YouTube 2 March2012.As of 29th March 2012 each site has had 17.7 million and 85.9
    34. 34. 17th March :Jason Russell of Invisible Children is detained bypolice for public nudity , making sexual gestures
    35. 35. 35 „Viral expansion loops‟Recap: Penenberg (2009) identified a number of successful organisations whoincorporated virality into their functionality so that each user begets anotheruser. An effective social strategy in which a brand‟s proposition can be easilydisseminated is key, but not everyone gets that right.
    36. 36. 1 3 2 4In section (3) I‟ll look at how putting social media at the forefront can be a riskystrategy for some organisations, despite the advantages that can come withbeing well known.
    37. 37. 37 Play videoNot all brands benefit from the social strategies of other companies asKryptonite found out when their expensive bicycle locks found themselves thesubject of some unwanted attention
    38. 38. 38 Play videoWhen Nestle decided to embrace the power of social media it found itself at thecentre of an argument with its fans – namely it decided to police the use of its logoacross Facebook. The reason Nestle were so sensitive to their logo‟s appropriationby fans, failing to see this as a compliment, was the video Greenpeace made about
    39. 39. 39 Play videoWhen Andrey Ternovskiy created Chatroulette so strangers could meet otherrandom strangers online it quickly became a hot topic of conversation amongstthe tech savvy. When a piano player named Merton record his encounters withstrangers and share that on YouTube the service became even more infamouspicking up 8+ million views
    40. 40. 40 Play videoIt even spawned a series of imitators including a recreation of the original byprofessional musician Ben Folds live at a gig in front of an audience inCharlotte, North Carolina
    41. 41. 1 3 2 4In this final section (4) I‟ll look at the key factors behind a number of recentsuccessful viral videos
    42. 42. Web video (powered by Google for free!) has given any one of the us thechance to be famous by giving us the power to get our messages across.
    43. 43. 72+ hours of video uploaded every minute! 3 hours of video every minute from mobile devices < TINY tiny tiny % of videos have 1 million+ viewsWeb video (powered by Google for free!) has given any one of the us thechance to be famous by giving us the power to get our messages across. Buthow can we be successful against such odds? What are the key factors insecuring success in a crowded space?
    44. 44. Are you a tastemaker?
    45. 45. Play video
    46. 46. Yosemite Mountain Bear didn‟t set out to create a viral video. He just wanted toshare the amazing thing he‟d just seen
    47. 47. tastemakers
    48. 48. This video had been around a while before it‟s viral success. Originallyuploaded in early February 2011, but saw a spike in traffic around mid-March.Why? Well, it was Friday, but a group of influential tastemakers shared this witha wider group of friends (eg Tosh.O, Michael J. Nelson from MST tweeted aboutit, bloggers, etc) and a community grew up around this inside joke.
    49. 49. Saturday Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday> 10,000 parodies exist!
    50. 50. participation
    51. 51. Nyan cat! Viewed 83+ million times!
    52. 52. Even cats watched this video…
    53. 53. Cats even watched other cats watching this video…
    54. 54. Cats even watched other cats watching other cats watching this video…
    55. 55. What‟s significant is that the original video inspired a number of creative spin-offs. There were many different remixes with international themes. A mash-upcommunity emerged off the back of a silly joke, but what‟s crucial was thatanyone cold participate in it.
    56. 56. randomness
    57. 57. Who could have predicated any of this? Nobody. But the ability to sharesomething quickly, for it to gain traction in noticeable ways, before beingamplified throughout communities looking for unexpected things. Theseelements are key to the success of viral media.
    58. 58. 66 SocialOne of the key aspects of features of viral success stories is the emphasisbeing placed on their social dimensions. By enabling products to be easilyshared, embedded or passed on, they take advantage of the human drive forsociability.
    59. 59. There are, of course, dangers associated with this new found power to share,remix and recirculate digital content. Just ask Jessi Slaughter or Star WarsKid… Digital technology and the internet are powerful tools and with power
    60. 60. 68 • # - C!..., 2010, Share • # - @Hella, 2008, Obama • # - Sergio Vaiani, 2009, Scale Stairs • # - Mike Zienowicz, 2007, Joe • # - MissNatalie, 2008, Miss Natalie’s Growth Chart • # - GDS Infographics, 2010, The Year the Dot-Com Bubble Burst • # - Phil Hatchard, 2010, Sketchbook 2: Internet Dating • # - kurtxia, 2008, Space invaders • # - bitchcakesny, 2008, Weight Watchers Awards • # - Jun Acullador, 2007, Gulf Air • # - plien, 2009, Z4 dash • # - DORONKO, 2010, NIKE +iPod • # – nan palmero, 2010, Foursquare Pins and Tattoos SXSW 2010 • # - yoyolabellut, 2010, Space Invader @ Paris (France) • # - paulszym, 2010, Step 10 – Place the 5mm Sensor for soldering • # - Nina Leen (LIFE), 1964, B F Skinner training a rat • # - yoyolabellut, 2010, Space Invader @ Paris (France) • # - A. Diez Herrero, 2007, creative commons -Franz Patzig-All attempts made to attribute sources but if I‟m missed one, get in touch please

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