Networked journalism and the Arab Spring#mac309@rob_jewitt 1
2 John Gilmore “The Net interprets censorship as damage and routes around it” TIME magazine (6 Dec 1993)
3Outline 1. Networked journalism 2. The Twitter revolution? Lessons from Iran 3. The Arab Spring and activism
4Transformation of journalism“In the 20th Century making the news was almostentirely the province of journalists… The economicsof publishing and broadcasting createdlarge, arrogant institutions – call it Big Media…Big media … treated the news as a lecture. Wetold you what the news was…. Tomorrow’s newsreporting and production will be more of aconversation, or a seminar…” (2004: xiii)
5 US Airways #1549 2009 Mumbai 2008Asian Tsunami 2004 London 7/7 2005
6Networked journalism A term that has been floating around for some time… Jeff Jarvis (2006) Journalism professor at CUNY Graduate School of Journalism; blogger; writer Charlie Beckett (2008) Director of Polis, at the London School of Economics; writer; former broadcast editor at BBC, ITN & C4
7Networked journalism Jeff Jarvis (2006) “Networked journalism” takes into account the collaborative nature of journalism now: professionals and amateurs working together to get the real story, linking to each other across brands and old boundaries to share facts, questions, answers, ideas, perspectives. It recognizes the complex relationships that will make news. And it focuses on the process more than the product.
8Networked journalism Charlie Beckett (2008) The idea that traditional journalism opens itself up to the public. It shares the production process from start to finish. It uses new technologies to include the citizen in every aspect of news- gathering, production and publication. It means using a lot of jargon like crowd-sourcing, social networking, wikis and Twittering. Many of these techniques build on existing journalism methods and are already out there. But it will also require a participatory revolution in the way we make the news.
9Networked journalism Charlie Beckett (2010) By „Networked Journalism‟ I mean a synthesis of traditional news journalism and the emerging forms of participatory media enabled by Web 2.0 technologies such as mobile phones, email, websites, blogs, micro-blogging, and social networks
10Social media revolutions? Twitter revolution Facebook revolution
11 #iranelection A disparate series of events, reports, protests, accounts, links, stories, et c across multiple media platforms by social agents seeking to redress a perceived and actual danger
12 Top Twitter Trends of 2009 “The terms #iranelection, Iran and Tehran were all in the top-21 of Trending Topics, and #iranelection finished in a close second behind the regular weekly favorite #musicmonday.” Abdur, Dec 15 2009
14 10th Iranian election, aka: Green Revolution Sea of Green Twitter Revolution Persian Awakening
15 June 12: The Election Official (disputed!) results: Ahmadinejad = 24.5 million votes (62.6%) Mousavi = 13.2 million votes (33.7%) Over 80% voter turnout Both claimed they had secured majority of (58-60%) vote
17Other social media Wikipedia YouTube Flickr
18June 13-14: Protests Mainstream media fingered for poor coverage = #CNNFail Al Jazeera English charges Iranian government of direct censorship Al Arabiya‟s Tehran office shut down NBC News in Tehran raided BBC World Service claim signal jammed
20Other social media Wikipedia YouTube Flickr
21June 15-18: Escalation Rumours of Mousavi‟s arrest flood the web Supreme Ayatolla Khomeini initiates partial recount of votes Iranian football team wear green armbands in game vs South Korea US Govt asks Twitter to postpone its scheduled downtime Ministry of Culture issues a directive banning foreign media from leaving their offices
22Other social media Wikipedia YouTube Flickr Facebook
23June 19-21: Violence Bloodiest days of violence across the weekend Social media becomes the main way for citizens to communicate and organise in face of media censorship Shooting of Neda Soltani by Basij forces becomes a rallying cry against the government State run television reports 10 killed in Tehran over the weekend
35 John Gilmore “The Net interprets censorship as damage and routes around it” TIME magazine (6 Dec 1993)
36Tunisia 17th Dec 2010 – Mohamed Bouazizi‟s self- immolation in Sidi Bouzid 18th-24th street protests result in public being shot in Bouziane Protests spread nationally, engulfing Tunis by 27th 14th Jan 2011 – President Ben Ali flees into exile
37Egypt Jan 25th 2011 - Popular uprising began
39Net neutrality? Small team of engineers from Twitter and SayNow created a voice-to-tweet service @speak2tweet
40Egypt Jan 25th 2011 - Popular uprising began 26th Jan – Internet and mobile services shut down 28th Jan – Hundreds of thousands protest across Egypt after Friday prayers 29th Jan – Military presence in Cairo increased 2nd Feb – “Battle of the Camel” in Tahrir Square 11th Feb – Mubarak resigns, Armed Forces take over
41Revolutions were tweeted On Sunspace Focus on Tunisa and Egpyt protests Analyses different „information flows‟ Measuring different actors impact and influence “news on Twitter is being co-constructed by bloggers and activists alongside journalists”
42Conclusion Civic activism can be supported by coordinated internet activism Internet “revolutions” may be somewhat problematic Depending on circumstances, social media and networked journalism contributes to a hybrid and dynamic flow of information.
43In seminars1. Identify an example whereby networks have been used to break a news story before the mainstream news media (it doesnt have to be about the Arab Spring!) 2. Identify any advantages or disadvantages of information bypassing mainstream media channels
44In seminars “One possible reading of the current situation on the ground in Tehran is that, despite all the political mobilisation facilitated by social media, the Iranian government has not only survived, but has, in fact, become even more authoritarian” Evgeny Morozov, 2010, Prospect Magazine1. Listen to the interview (link) with Evgeny Morozov (from 7 mins) To what extent is he right (or wrong) to be skeptical about the power of social media?