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Mac201 news values Mac201 news values Presentation Transcript

  • MAC201   Sec+on  1:  News   Week  2:  News  Values  robert.jewi5@sunderland.ac.uk     1
  • Outline  1.  Introduc<on  2.  Rise  of  repor<ng  3.  Galtung  and  Ruge  (1965)  4.  Harcup  and  O’Neil  (2001)  5.  Conclusion   2
  • Introduction•  What  is  news...?   3
  • Introduction•  What  is  news...?  •  “When  a  dog  bites  a  man  that   is  not  news,  but  when  a  man   bites  a  dog,  that  is  news”   –  (Charles  Anderson  Dana,  editor  and   proprietor,  New  York  Sun,  1882)     4
  • Introduction•  What  is  news...?  •  “[News  is]  anything  that  makes  the   reader  say  ‘Gee  whiz’”   –  (quoted  in  Mo5,  1950:  126)   5
  • Introduction•  What  is  news...?  •  “News  is  what  somebody   wants  to  suppress;  all  the  rest   is  adver<sing”   –  (a5ributed  to  Lord  Northcliffe  in   MacShane,  1979:  46     6
  • Introduction•  What  is  news...?            •  Millions  of  events  happen  every  day  –  but  why  are   the  same  stories  replicated  throughout  the  media?   7
  • •  Golding  and  Elliot  (1996:  405)  note   that  news  produc<on…     –  ‘is  for  the  most  part  the  passive   exercise  of  rou8ne  and  highly   regulated  procedures  in  the  task  of   selec8ng  from  already  limited  supplies   of  informa8on’   8
  • Limited  News  Supply  Because:  •  Historical  decisions  regarding  what  is  thought   to  be  interes<ng  to  readers    •  Material  thought  to  be  inoffensive  to  specific   adver<sers  •  Material  profitable  to  media  companies     9
  • Rise  of  repor+ng  •  Venice  (16th  century):  gaze?es     –  see  Allan,  1999/2004/2010  •  Content:  military/poli<cal/trade  events  •  Bookshops  and  coffee  houses  (17th  century,     increased  literacy  •  New  formats  emerge:   •  [Which]  ‘brought  sex  and  scandal,  fantasy,   sensa<onalism,  bawdiness,  violence  and  prophecy  to   their  readers:  monstrous  births,  dragons,  mermaids   and  most  horrible  murders;  but  they  also  brought   items  of  news’.   (Craven,  1992:  3)   10
  • Popular  press?  •  Emergence  of  ‘non-­‐par<san’  (supposedly  neutral)   repor<ng  of  issues  in  the  ‘public  interest’  •  ‘pauper  press’  (UK)  &  ‘penny  press’  (US)  in  19th   century  (see  Allan,  2004/2010)  •  Pauper  press  ac<vely  campaigned  for  social  change     11
  • Pauper press Traditional pressWorking class Educated elite 1-2 pence 6-7 penceHuman interest AnalyticalRevolutionary RespectableControversial Critical 12
  • TABLOID              Vs              BROADSHEET   Pauper press Traditional press Working class Educated eliteRadical    press   1-2 pence 6-7 pence Human interest Analytical Revolutionary Respectable Controversial Critical 13
  • TABLOID              Vs              BROADSHEET   Pauper press Traditional press Working class Educated eliteRadical    press   1-2 pence 6-7 pence Human interest Analytical Revolutionary Respectable Controversial Critical Fear  of  upseqng  the  Crown   Press  conserva<sm   Reach  large  affluent  readerships   14
  • Important  historical  factors  1.  market forces2.  human interest and sensationalism3.  political decisions and the public good4.  the speed at which ‘facts’ could be reported 15
  • What  are  news  values?  •  Series  of  unwri5en  ground  rules  •  “News  values  are  meant  to  be  the  dis<lla<on  of   what  an  iden<fied  audience  is  interested  in   reading  or  watching”  (Richardson,  2007:  91)   16
  • 17
  • Galtung  and  Ruge  (1965)  •  Journal of Peace Research•  International news in Norwegian papers•  Identified 12 factors 18
  • Galtung  and  Ruge  (1965)  Eight  principles  of    news  selec5on    (F1)  Frequency  •  The  temporal  unfolding      of  an  event  has  to      correspond  with  the      needs  of  the  news  media.        •  Daily  news  focuses  on      events  rather  than      longer  trends.   19
  • (F2)  Threshold  •  The  bigger  the  event,  the  more   violent  the  murder,  the  greater   the  casual<es/fatali<es  in  an   accident:  the  more  newsworthy   it  will  be.   20
  • (F3)  Lack  of  ambiguity    The  clearer  the  meaning  of  an      event,  the  easier  it  can  be      understood    (F4)  Meaningfulness    Has  to  be  of  significance,  or  be      meaningful,  within  the  given      cultural  environment.       21
  • (F5)  Predictability  •  “…this  creates  a  mental  matrix      for  easy  recep<on”  (Galtung  and      Ruge,  1981:  55);  or  much  of  the      news  is  the  delivery  of  rou<ne      informa<on.      (F6)  Unpredictability  •  Unexpected  or  rare      events  are  inherently      newsworthy     22
  • F7)  Con8nuing  news  •  If  something  is  already      newsworthy,  it  will  con<nue      to  be  so:  even  if  its  impact      decreases.        (F8)  Composi<onal  value  •  A  balance  of  domes<c,      interna<onal,  celebrity  and      sports  news  is  required.   23
  • Cultural factors in news selection(F9)  “Elite  na<ons”  are  more  newsworthy  •  Economic  power  (i.e.  Western  Europe,  USA).     Accusa<ons  of  cultural  “Eurocentrism”  and  a   corresponding  “Orientalism”  (see  E.  W.  Said)    (F10)  “Elite  people”  are  more  newsworthy  •  The  poli<cal  and  financial  elite;  the  “celebri<es”   24
  • (F11)  News  should  be  presentable  in  terms  of  the  personal  • Focus  on  the  “ordinary”  person  in  excep<onal  circumstances  (F12)  Nega<vity  • Nega<ve  news  is  seen  as  unambiguous.   25
  • The  Daily  Star’s  front   page:     21  September2010   26
  • The  Independent’s   front  page:  21  September  2010   27
  • 28
  • 29
  • In  summary…  •  The  more  criteria  an  event  sa<sfies  from  the  list   of  news  values,  the  more  likely  it  will  be  selected   to  be  news.  •  Once  an  event  is  selected,  the  factors  which   made  it  newsworthy  will  be  accentuated  (or   distorted)  •  The  process  of  selec<on  and  accentua<on  will   occur  at  all  stages,  from  the  event  through  to  the   readers.   30
  • Problems  with  Galtung  and  Ruge?  •  Very  useful  for  iden+fying  the  formal   elements  within  the  construc<on  of  news…  •  But  what  about  the  ideology  behind  the   selec<on?  How  is  news  ‘framed’?  •  Are  news  values  always  aligned  around  daily   news  stories  or  only  major  events?  •  Drawn  from  interna<onal  news:   –  Applicable  to  domes<c  news?   –  Applicable  to  different  formats?   31
  • Problems  with  Galtung  and  Ruge?     •  ‘News  values  appear  as  a  set  of   neutral,  rou<ne  prac<ces:  but   we  need,  also,  to  see  formal   news  values  as  an  ideological   structure  –  to  examine  these   rules  as  the  formalisa<on  and   opera<onalisa<on  of  an   ideology  of  news’     (Hall,  1973:  182)   32
  • ‘News  Frames’  •  Refers  to  the  ways  in  which  ar<cles  shape   readers  understandings  of  news  events   depending  on  how  the  intro/headline  to  a   story  and  the  conclusion  are  framed     –  See  Price,  Tewksbury,  Powers  (1997)   –  Valkenburg,  Semetko,  &  de  Vreese  (1999)     –  Ar<cle  by  de  Vreese  on  SunSpace   33
  • Harcup  and  O’Neil  (2001)   Galtung  &  Ruge  Revisited   •  Re-­‐tested  news  values  –  studied  3  Bri<sh  daily   newspapers      •  Concluded  that  “Galtung  and  Ruge  ignored  day-­‐to-­‐day   coverage  of  lesser,  domes<c  and  bread-­‐and-­‐bu5er   news”  (2001:  276)   34
  • Harcup  and  ONeill  (1-­‐3)  (1)  The  POWER  elite  •  Stories  concerning  ‘powerful  individuals,   organisa<ons  or  ins<tu<ons’  (2001:  278).      (2)  Celebrity  •  Stories  concerning  the  already      famous  (3)  Entertainment  •  Sex,  show  business,  human  interest,      animals,  humorous  stories  or  photos.   35
  • Harcup  and  ONeill  (4-­‐7)  (4)  Surprise  •  Contrast  (formerly  Unpredictability)  (5)  Bad  news  •  Nega<ve  overtones  (6)  Good  news  •  Posi<ve  overtones  (7)  Magnitude  •  Significant  numbers  of  people  or  large  impact   (formerly  Threshold)   36
  • Harcup  and  ONeill  (8-­‐10)  •  (8)  Relevance  •  …to  readership  (incorporates   Meaningfulness  and  reference  to  Elite   Na<ons)  •  (9)  Follow-­‐up  •  Stories  about  subjects  already  in  the   news    •  (10)  Newspaper  agenda  •  Stories  that  fit  the  organisa<on’s   agenda  (incorporates  Con<nuing  news   and  Composi<onal  value)   37
  • Harcup  and  O’Neil  (2001)  1 The POWER elite Stories concerning 6  Good  news    Posi<ve  overtones  –  rescue,   ‘powerful individuals, organisations or miracle  cures,  etc   institutions’ (p 278). This makes a   distinction between world or business 7  Magnitude    Stories  with  significant  numbers  of   leaders and reality TV contestants etc. people  or  large  impact  (formerly  Threshold)    2 Celebrity Stories concerning the already  8  Relevance    Issues  perceived  to  be  relevant  to   famous the  readership  (incorporates   Meaningfulness  and  reference  to  Elite  3 Entertainment Includes stories about Na<ons).    Would  now  include  places  like   sex, show business, human interest, Magaluf,  Ibiza  and  Ayia  Napa,  which  might   humorous stories or photos. be  relevant  to  certain  readerships.    4 Surprise Stories with an element of 9  Follow-­‐up    Stories  about  subjects  already  in   surprise and/or contrast (formerly the  news   Unexpectedness)   10  Newspaper  agenda    Stories  that  fit  the  5 Bad news Negative overtones – conflict, organisa<on’s  agenda  (incorporates   tragedy, etc Con<nuing  news  and  Composi<onal  value)   38
  • Harcup  and  O’Neill  summary  •  Updated  G  &  R  study  •  Reduced  news  values  from  12  to  10  •  More  contemporary  and  relevant     –  E.g.  Celebrity  and  Entertainment  •  Perhaps  a  more  reliable  and  trustworthy   methodology     –  E.g.  Choice  of  newspapers   39
  • Harcup  and  O’Neill  summary  •  Updated  G  &  R  study  •  Reduced  news  values  from  12  to  10  •  More  contemporary  and  relevant     –  E.g.  Celebrity  and  Entertainment  •  Perhaps  a  more  reliable  and  trustworthy   methodology     –  E.g.  Choice  of  newspapers  •  In  your  essay,  choose  which  set  of  news  values  to  apply  (it  would   be  good  to  analyse  both  or  at  least  men<on  ‘the  other  one’).  •  State  the  reasons  behind  looking  at  one  over  the  other  •  Cri<que  them  (WHAT  DON’T  THEY  TELL  US  etc)...   40
  • Conclusion  •  Range  of  historical  factors  impac<ng  on   professional  journalis<c  prac<ce.      •  Factors  reveal  the  ouen  unspoken,   unconscious  (ideological)  mechanics  of  news   room  selec<on  •  News  Values  are  limited  analy<cal  and  cri<cal   tools  which  should  allow  us  to  get  behind  the   ques<on  of  ‘what  is  news’  without  always   explaining  HOW  they  are  reported   41
  • Bibliography  •  Anderson  Dana,  C.,  1882,  New  York  Sun,  in  Allan,  S.  1999   News  Culture,  Buckingham:  Open  University  Press.  •  Allan,  S.,  2004,  News  Culture,  Buckingham:  Open  University   Press  .  •  Craven,  L.,  1992,  ‘The  early  newspaper  press  in  England’,  in  D.   Giffiths  (ed.)  The  Encylopedia  of  the  Bri8sh  Press,  London:   Macmillan.    •  Galtung,  J.,  and  Ruge,  M.,  1981,  ‘Structuring  and  selec<ng   news’  in  Cohen,  S.,  &  Young,  J.  (eds.),  The  Manufacture  of   News:  Social  problems,  deviance  and  the  mass  media:  Beverly   Hills,  CA:  Sage.  •  Hall,  S.,  1973,  ‘The  determina<on  of  news  photographs’  in   Cohen,  S.,  &  Young,  J.  (eds),  The  Manufacture  of  News.   London:  Constable,  pp.  181  &  182.  •  Harcup,  T.  and  O’Neill,  D.  (2001)  “What  is  news?  Galtung  and   Ruge  revisited”,  Journalism  Studies  2:  261-­‐280.  •  Richardson,  J  (2007)  Analysing  Newspapers.  London:  Palgrave   McMillan   42