med122 history of internet

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Special thanks to Neil Perryman as the major source for these slides. Gone but never forgotten. Come back soon, fella!

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  • http://networkingsandhardware.blogspot.co.uk/2008/08/internet-history.html
  • 1945 and science fiction author - Sir Arthur C Clarke (PIC) and his technical paper “Can Rocket Stations give world wide Radio Coverage?” which appeared in Wireless World.
  • 1957 Russians launch Sputnik (PIC) and in response the USA forms the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) designed to come up with the technology to thwart those pesky Russians.
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MDRDl7w3nto
  • 1962 - The first recorded description of the social interactions through computer networking is a series of memos written by J.C.R. Licklider (PIC) of MIT discussing a "Galactic Network" concept - globally interconnected set of computers through which everyone could quickly access data and programs from any site.
    This guy essentially invented junk-email judging by the amount of memos he liked to write.
  • 1962 - The first recorded description of the social interactions through computer networking is a series of memos written by J.C.R. Licklider (PIC) of MIT discussing a "Galactic Network" concept - globally interconnected set of computers through which everyone could quickly access data and programs from any site.
    This guy essentially invented junk-email judging by the amount of memos he liked to write.
  • 1963 -- It's the Cold War and so the RAND Corporation (research and development) specialising in national security contracts begins research into how the government can communicate after a nuclear war.
    Result is concept for a fault tolerant "packet-switching network," that divides data up into small packets, each labeled with the destination for the packet.
    This network (conceived by RAND researcher Paul Baran (PIC) , would have no central control system, and would be designed from the start to continue to operate when parts of the network fail. Back then this kind of thinking is still in the realms of science fiction.
    Syncom the first synchronous communication satellite, is launched. Clarke's vision is a reality.
  • Connects 2 Computers in California & Massachusetts
  • 1963 -- It's the Cold War and so the RAND Corporation (research and development) specialising in national security contracts begins research into how the government can communicate after a nuclear war.
    Result is concept for a fault tolerant "packet-switching network," that divides data up into small packets, each labeled with the destination for the packet.
    This network (conceived by RAND researcher Paul Baran (PIC) , would have no central control system, and would be designed from the start to continue to operate when parts of the network fail. Back then this kind of thinking is still in the realms of science fiction.
    Syncom the first synchronous communication satellite, is launched. Clarke's vision is a reality.
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zs6A54QTNRo
  • ARPANET's dream involves huge supercomputers like LILLAC IV (PIC) begin connected up so scientists across the country could use it's super-computing strength. This is the porsche of computers.
    It is decided that ARPANET will be managed by interconnected ‘Interface Message Processors’ or IMPs in front of the major supercomputers. They evolve into today’s routers.
    The man who essentially made it possible was Kleinrock and his "packet switching principle" and as a reward the first central node of what would become the Internet is situated in his department in UCLA. Awwww. Isn't it sweet?
  • October 1969 - The Internet in its most basic form, still called ARPANET is switched on. Four sites were chosen for this grand experiment UCLA, Standford Research Institute, USCB and University of UTAH.
  • The first to use the Internet was Charley Kline at UCLA who sent the first packets on ARPANet as he tried to connect to Stanford Research Institute on October 29, 1969. the first message ever sent was LO! (PIC)
    LO = Biblical?LO = Abbrev. of Hello?
    No, the system crashed as he reached the G in LOGIN!One the second attempt it works.
  • The ARPANET begins the year with 14 nodes in operation.
    BBN modifies and streamlines the IMP design so it can be moved to a less cumbersome platform than the DDP-516.
    BBN also develops a new platform, called a Terminal Interface Processor (TIP) which is capable of supporting input from multiple hosts or terminals
  • Intel’s release of the 4004, the first ‘computer on a chip,’ ushers in the epoch of the microprocessor. The combination of memory and processor on a single chip reduces size and cost, and increases speed. It's a huge leap forward.
    Ray Tomlinson invents email
    Video of Vint Cerf talking about this: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oxySmrn-IwQ
  • 1973 - APRANET continues to grow - 30 institutions now online (PIC) Places like NASA join up.
    APRA is now DARPA (D for defense) and looks to extend its reach beyond the USA.
    A Packet Radio Site connecting seven computers on four islands; and a satellite connection enables linking to two foreign sites in Norway and the UK!
  • Vin Cerf hired by Roberts at DARPA to connect APRANET and these satellite sites together. They are not very compatible at first until Cerf develops a Transmission Control Protocol or TCP
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=frWeGyes6Ew
  • The ARPANET geographical map now shows 61 nodes
  • 1978 - ARPRA's job is now complete. What it started becomes commonly known as The Internet from this point on.
  • What was needed was a single modem that could "do it all"; connect directly to the phone, answer incoming calls, dial numbers to initiate outgoing calls and hang up when the call was complete.
    Dennis C Hayes and Dale Hetherington – created a ‘hobby level’ modom capable of this Hayes’s kitchen
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hayes_Microcomputer_Products
  • First spam email sent by Gary Thuerk
    Thuerk, a marketing manager at Digital Equipment Corp., sent his first mass e-mailing to 400 customers over the Arpanet, hoping to get attention, particularly from West Coast customers, for Digital's new T-series of VAX systems.
    Instead, he ended up getting crowned, for better or worse, as the father of spam.
    "Actually," Thuerk interjects, "I think of myself as the father of e-marketing. There's a difference."
  • First spam email sent by Gary Thuerk
    Thuerk, a marketing manager at Digital Equipment Corp., sent his first mass e-mailing to 400 customers over the Arpanet, hoping to get attention, particularly from West Coast customers, for Digital's new T-series of VAX systems.
    Instead, he ended up getting crowned, for better or worse, as the father of spam.
    "Actually," Thuerk interjects, "I think of myself as the father of e-marketing. There's a difference."
  • 1979 - USENET begins - and with it the start of NEWSGROUPS (Computer Mag Cover)
    Newsgroups, which are discussion groups focusing on a topic, followed, providing a means of exchanging information throughout the world. rec.arts.drwho, alt.sex.dogs to alt.culture to alt.music enimen
    While Usenet is not considered as part of the Internet, since it does not share the use of TCP/IP, it linked Unix systems around the world, and many Internet sites took advantage of the availability of newsgroups. It was a significant part of the community building that took place on the networks.
  • Kevin Mackenzie’s emoticon
    http://www.sherv.net/emoticon-history.html
  • Scott Fahlman’s emoticon
  • http://www.sherv.net/emoticon-history.html
  • 1985 - The number of hosts on the net now totals 2000
    Between the beginning of 1986 and the end of 1987 the number of networks grows from 2,000 to nearly 30,000
  • 1986 - TCP/IP is available on workstations and PCs such as the newly introduced Compaq portable computer. Ethernet is becoming accepted for wiring inside buildings and across University campuses.
  • In Switzerland HTTP (hyper-text-transfer-protocol). This was invented by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989. He was a physicist working at CERN, the European Particle Physics Laboratory Tim Berners-Lee addresses the issue of the constant change in the currency of information and the turn-over of people on projects. Instead of an hierarchical or keyword organization, Berners-Lee proposes ‘Hypertext’, that will run across distributed systems on different operating systems. Thus is born what eventually becomes the World Wide Web!
  • med122 history of internet

    1. 1. MED122 A Short History of the Internet Video playlist robert.jewitt@sunderland.ac.uk 1
    2. 2. Recommended reading 2
    3. 3. Recommended reading 3
    4. 4. 1945 - Arthur C. Clarke 1945 - Arthur C. Clarke
    5. 5. 1957 - Sputnik
    6. 6. 1958 – ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency)
    7. 7. 1962 - J.C.R. “Lick” Licklider of MIT “Intergalactic Computer Network”
    8. 8. “A Network of such [computers], connected to one another by wide-band communication lines” which provided the “functions of present-day libraries together with anticipated advances in information storage and retrieval and [other] symbolic functions”. ‘Man Computer Symbiosis’ JCR Licklider, 1960 8
    9. 9. RAND Corporation RAND Corporation
    10. 10. 1965 - Larry Roberts at MIT
    11. 11. Paul Baran Donald Davies Leonard Kleinrock Packet Switching
    12. 12. Kleinrock explains packet switching
    13. 13. 1967 - ARPANET
    14. 14. BoBlBt,N B e(Broaltn, eBker aannedk aNnde wNemwamnan –) BBN 14
    15. 15. IMPs (Interface Message Processors)
    16. 16. 1969 16
    17. 17. October 29th, 1969 Charley Kline - “LO” October 29th,1969 17
    18. 18. 1971 18
    19. 19. 1971 - Ray Tomlinson 1971 - Ray Tomlinson 19
    20. 20. Vinton G. Serf
    21. 21. 1973 21
    22. 22. 1974 – Vint Cerf Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Internet Protocol (IP) 1974 - Vinton Cerf 22
    23. 23. 1975 23
    24. 24. “This ARPA program has created no less than a revolution in computer technology and it has been one of the most successful projects ever undertaken by ARPA. The full impact of the technical changes set in motion by this project may not be understood for many years”. ARPANET Completion Report January 3rd, 1978 24
    25. 25. 1977 Dennis C Hayes & Dale Hetherington 25
    26. 26. 1978 - First BBS 26
    27. 27. Ward Christensen & Randy Suess Computerized Bulletin Board System (CBBS)
    28. 28. 1978 28
    29. 29. 1978 - Gary Thuerk First spam email 29
    30. 30. 1978 - Gary Thuerk 30
    31. 31. 1979 - USENET 31
    32. 32. 1979 - MUD (Multi-User Dungeon) 32
    33. 33. MMORPG 33
    34. 34. - ) 1979 - the emoticon Kevin Mackenzie 34
    35. 35. :-) 1981 Scott Fahlman 35
    36. 36. <19-Sep-82 11:44 Scott E Fahlman :) From: Scott E Fahlman <Fahlman at Cmu-20c> I propose that the following character sequence for joke markers: :-) Read it sideways. Actually, it is probably more economical to mark things that are NOT jokes - given current trends. For this, use :-( 36
    37. 37. 1982 - Minitel 37
    38. 38. DNS (Domain Name System) .gov, .mil, .ac.uk 1982-1984 38
    39. 39. 1985 - The Well 39
    40. 40. 2,000 hosts on the net 1985 40
    41. 41. 30,000 hosts on the net 1986 41
    42. 42. 1986 - NSFNET 42
    43. 43. Al Gore 43
    44. 44. 1988 – IRC (Internet Relay Chat) 1988 44
    45. 45. 1988 - the Morris Internet Worm 45
    46. 46. The Morris Worm 46
    47. 47. 1989 47
    48. 48. Tim Berners-Lee
    49. 49. Tim Berners-Lee 49
    50. 50. 1990 - The World Wide Web 50
    51. 51. In 20 years the net has grown from 4 to 300,000 hosts 1990 51
    52. 52. 1 million hosts 1991 52
    53. 53. 1992 - Mosiac Browser NCSA (National Centre for Supercomputing Applications) 53
    54. 54. Browser Wars! 54
    55. 55. 1993 – Cyberculture! 55
    56. 56. 1995 - Amazon 56
    57. 57. 1995 57
    58. 58. 1995 - Ward Cummingham First ‘wiki’ 58
    59. 59. 1997 - Jom Barger 59
    60. 60. 1988 - Google
    61. 61. 1999-2001 61
    62. 62. 2000 – Dotcom bubble bursts March 2000 62
    63. 63. 2001 - Wikipedia 63
    64. 64. 2003 - MySpace
    65. 65. 2004 – Facebook 65
    66. 66. 2005 - YouTube 66
    67. 67. 2006 - Twitter 67
    68. 68. 2007 – Smartphone ‘revolution’

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