Cultural Logic of the Remix
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Revised slides used in the third year music module

Revised slides used in the third year music module

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Cultural Logic of the Remix Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The cultural logic of the ‘remix’
    MAC351
    robert.jewitt@sunderland.ac.uk
    1
  • 2. 2
  • 3. 3
  • 4. Overview
    Web 2.0 and ‘remix culture’
    The origins of the remix
    Creativity or piracy? A war of words
    The ‘mash-up’
    Legal threats
    4
  • 5. Essential reading
    5
  • 6. 6
  • 7. harness/exploit the collective wisdom and effort of their users
    7
  • 8. harness/exploit the collective wisdom and effort of their users
    trust and respect users, and treat them as co–developers rather than consumers
    8
  • 9. harness/exploit the collective wisdom and effort of their users
    trust and respect users, and treat them as co–developers rather than consumers
    are open to — and encourage — remixing, hacking and sharing, with permissive licensing, open standards and programming languages, freely available application programming interfaces (APIs) etc
    (O’Reilly cited in Allen, 2008)
    9
  • 10. Web 2.0
    10
    Democratising tools which throw the old rules into disarray
    (Lasica, 2005: 2)
  • 11. N-Geners
    Demographic born between 1977-1996
    First to ‘grow up in a digital age … bathed in bits’
    (Tapsoctt & Williams, 2008: 47)
    Driven by a desire ‘for choice, convenience, customization and control by designing, producing and distributing products themselves’
    (ibid: 52)
    11
  • 12. N-Geners
    ‘The ability to remix media, hack products, or otherwise tamper with consumer culture is their birthright, and they won't let outmoded intellectual property laws stand in their way’
    (Tapscott & Williams, 2008: 52)
    12
  • 13. 13
  • 14. 14
  • 15. 15
  • 16. 16
  • 17. US ‘remixers’?
    19% of online teens
    18% of online adults
    remixed content gathered from other sources into a new creation
    (Lenhart and Madden, 2005)
    17
  • 18. The remix as cultural norm
    Film
    The Phantom Edit
    Raiders of the Lost Ark: The Adaptation
    18
  • 19. The remix as cultural norm
    Fashion
    19
  • 20. The remix as cultural norm
    Art
    20
    Nick Út
    Banksy
  • 21. The remix as cultural norm
    Video Games
    21
  • 22. The remix as cultural norm
    User Generated Content
    Mash-up/mix compilations?
    Blog posts?
    Presentations?
    Photos?
    Machinima?
    AMV?
    Video?
    22
  • 23. History: the origins of the remix
    23
  • 24. Part 1 – the ‘dub’
    24
    See also Matt Mason, 2008, The Pirate’s Dilemma for details
  • 25. ‘All any prime minister had to do to gauge the winds was to listen closely to the week’s 45 rpm single releases; they were like political polls set to melody and riddim’ (Jeff Chang, 2005: 31).
    Arthur ‘Duke’ Reid:
    “King of Sound & Blues” 1956, 1957 and 1958
    25
  • 26. 1962 – Jamaican independence
    1964 – Reid built recording studio
    1967 – The Paragons
    Rudolph ‘Ruddy’ Redwood
    & Byron Smith
    26
  • 27. Part 2 – the ‘edit’
    1972 –Botel club, Fire Island, New York
    27
  • 28. Part 3 – the breakdown
    1967 – Clive Campbell arrives in the Bronx
    AKA DJ KoolHerc
    28
  • 29. Creativity or piracy? A war of words
    29
  • 30. ‘‘We might anticipate a new music based on reworking MP3 recordings pulled from the Internet . . . . In this respect, the Internet is more than just a means of distribution, it becomes a raison d’eˆtre for a culture based on audio data’’
    (Riddell, 2001, p.341 cited in Shiga, 2007: 94)
    30
  • 31. 31
  • 32. Now?
    32
  • 33. The ‘mash-up’
    33
  • 34. 34
  • 35. http://www.myspace.com/djsunderlandhttp://www.mashuptown.com/2007/03/dj_sunderland_s.html
    35
  • 36. 36
  • 37. On WebCT
    John Shiga, 2007, ‘Copy and Persist’
    Good Copy, Bad Copy (2007, Denmark)
    37
  • 38. Legal threats
    38
  • 39. The ‘cult of the amateur’ (Carr, 2005)
    “mass culture provides the building blocks for the stuff we create” (Lessig in Lasica, 2005)
    39
  • 40. Fair use/dealing
    ‘a culture of contempt for intellectual property’
    IPI (2007): cost to the US music industry = $12.6 billion
    40
  • 41. Industry response
    lobbying for legislative changes
    court actions
    education and propaganda campaigns
    technological means
    For more info see Allen (2008) and Lessig (2004, 2008)
    41
  • 42. Copyright Term Extension Act
    42
  • 43. ‘Piracy used to be about folks who made and sold large numbers of counterfeit copies. Today, the term “piracy” seems to describeany unlicensed activity, especially if the person engaging in it is a male teenager. The content industry calls some things that are unquestionably legal “piracy”’.
    Litman, 2000: 7-8
    43
  • 44. Original or derivative?
    44
  • 45. 45
  • 46. http://remix.nin.com/
    46
  • 47. http://www.djsasha.com/mailer/
    47
  • 48. 48
  • 49. 49
  • 50. 50
  • 51. Copyright law?
    Technological shifts
    Cultural shifts
    Legal shifts
    If you were sued every time you accidentally violated copyright law in a single day how much would you owe?
    DMCA
    Fair use/dealing
    Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act
    51
  • 52. 52
  • 53. Conclusion
    Less than 2% of works have any continuing commercial value (Lessig, 2004)
    CTEA = Mickey Mouse act?
    ‘Rent-seeking’?
    Stifling creativity?
    53
  • 54. Questions
    Is the remix a cultural norm and if so, is it under threat?
    Is there any value or significance to the remix as a cultural practice?
    Does existent copyright law restrict creativity?
    Does copyright law go far enough?
    54
  • 55. Sources
    B. Alexander, 2006. “Web 2.0: A new wave of innovation for teaching and Learning?” EDUCAUSE Review, volume 41, number 2, pp. 32–44, http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/erm0621.pdf
    Peter J Allen, 2008, ‘Rip, mix, burn … sue … ad infinitum: The effects of deterrence vs voluntary cooperation on non-commercial online copyright infringing behaviour’, First Monday, Vol 13, No 9, http://www.uic.edu/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/issue/view/269
    N. Carr, 2005. “The amorality of Web 2.0,” Rough Type, http://www.roughtype.com/archives/2005/10/the_amorality_o.php
    Jeff Chang, 2005, Can’t Stop Won’t Stop: A History of the Hip-Hop Generation, St. Martin's Press
    J. D. Lasica, 2005, Darknet: Hollywood’s war against the digital generation, Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.
    Lawrence Lessig, 2008, Remix: Making art and commerce thrive in the hybrid economy, London: Bloomsbury
    Lawrence Lessig, 2004, Free Culture: The nature and future of creativity, London: Penguin, http://www.free-culture.cc/freeculture.pdf
    J. Litman, 2000. “The demonization of piracy,” Proceedings of CFP 2000: Challenging the Assumptions. The Tenth Conference on Computers, Freedom & Privacy (6 April, Toronto, Canada), at http://www-personal.umich.edu/~jdlitman/papers/demon.pdf
    Matt Mason, 2008, The Pirates Dilemma: How hackers, punk capitalists and graffiti millionaires are remixing our culture and changing the world, London: Allen Lane, http://thepiratesdilemma.com/download-the-book
    T. O’Reilly, 2005. “What is Web 2.0? Design patterns and business models for the next generation of software, http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html
    William Patry, 2009, Moral Panics and the Copyright Wars, London: Oxford University Press
    Simon Reynolds, 2006, Rip It Up & Start Again, London: Faber
    žJohn Shiga, 2007, ‘Copy-and-Persist: The Logic of Mash-Up Culture’ in Critical Studies in Media Communication, Volume 24, Number 2, pp. 93-114
    Don Tapscott & Anthony D Williams, 2008, Wikinomics: How mass collaboration changed everything, London: Atlantic Books
    55
  • 56. Check this out
    Larry Lessig, 2007, TED, http://www.ted.com/talks/larry_lessig_says_the_law_is_strangling_creativity.html
    Michael Masnick, 2009, MIDEM09, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Njuo1puB1lg
    56