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The cultural logic of the ‘remix’<br />MAC351<br />robert.jewitt@sunderland.ac.uk<br />1<br />
2<br />
3<br />
Overview<br />Web 2.0 and ‘remix culture’<br />The origins of the remix<br />Creativity or piracy? A war of words<br />The...
Essential reading<br />5<br />
6<br />
harness/exploit the collective wisdom and effort of their users<br />7<br />
harness/exploit the collective wisdom and effort of their users<br />trust and respect users, and treat them as co–develop...
harness/exploit the collective wisdom and effort of their users<br />trust and respect users, and treat them as co–develop...
Web 2.0<br />10<br />Democratising tools which throw the old rules into disarray<br />(Lasica, 2005: 2)<br />
N-Geners<br />Demographic born between 1977-1996<br />First to ‘grow up in a digital age … bathed in bits’ <br />(Tapsoctt...
N-Geners<br />‘The ability to remix media, hack products, or otherwise tamper with consumer culture is their birthright, a...
13<br />
14<br />
15<br />
16<br />
US ‘remixers’?<br />19% of online teens<br />18% of online adults<br />remixed content gathered from other sources into a ...
The remix as cultural norm<br />Film<br />The Phantom Edit<br />Raiders of the Lost Ark: The Adaptation<br />18<br />
The remix as cultural norm<br />Fashion<br />19<br />
The remix as cultural norm<br />Art<br />20<br />Nick Út<br />Banksy<br />
The remix as cultural norm<br />Video Games<br />21<br />
The remix as cultural norm<br />User Generated Content<br />Mash-up/mix compilations?<br />Blog posts?<br />Presentations?...
History: the origins of the remix<br />23<br />
Part 1 – the ‘dub’<br />24<br />See also Matt Mason, 2008, The Pirate’s Dilemma for details <br />
‘All any prime minister had to do to gauge the winds was to listen closely to the week’s 45 rpm single releases; they were...
1962 – Jamaican independence<br />1964 – Reid built recording studio<br />1967 – The Paragons<br />Rudolph ‘Ruddy’ Redwood...
Part 2 – the ‘edit’<br />1972 –Botel club, Fire Island, New York<br />27<br />
Part 3 – the breakdown<br />1967 – Clive Campbell arrives in the Bronx<br />AKA DJ KoolHerc<br />28<br />
Creativity or piracy? A war of words<br />29<br />
‘‘We might anticipate a new music based on reworking MP3 recordings pulled from the Internet . . . . In this respect, the ...
31<br />
Now?<br />32<br />
The ‘mash-up’<br />33<br />
34<br />
http://www.myspace.com/djsunderlandhttp://www.mashuptown.com/2007/03/dj_sunderland_s.html<br />35<br />
36<br />
On WebCT<br />John Shiga, 2007, ‘Copy and Persist’<br />Good Copy, Bad Copy (2007, Denmark)<br />37<br />
Legal threats<br />38<br />
The ‘cult of the amateur’ (Carr, 2005)<br />“mass culture provides the building blocks for the stuff we create” (Lessig in...
Fair use/dealing<br />‘a culture of contempt for intellectual property’<br />IPI (2007): cost to the US music industry = $...
Industry response<br />lobbying for legislative changes<br />court actions<br />education and propaganda campaigns<br />te...
Copyright Term Extension Act<br />42<br />
‘Piracy used to be about folks who made and sold large numbers of counterfeit copies. Today, the term “piracy” seems to de...
Original or derivative?<br />44<br />
45<br />
http://remix.nin.com/<br />46<br />
http://www.djsasha.com/mailer/<br />47<br />
48<br />
49<br />
50<br />
Copyright law?<br />Technological shifts<br />Cultural shifts<br />Legal shifts<br />If you were sued every time you accid...
52<br />
Conclusion<br />Less than 2% of works have any continuing commercial value (Lessig, 2004)<br />CTEA = Mickey Mouse act?<br...
Questions<br />Is the remix a cultural norm and if so, is it under threat?<br />Is there any value or significance to the ...
Sources<br />B. Alexander, 2006. “Web 2.0: A new wave of innovation for teaching and Learning?” EDUCAUSE Review, volume 41...
Check this out<br />Larry Lessig, 2007, TED, http://www.ted.com/talks/larry_lessig_says_the_law_is_strangling_creativity.h...
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Cultural Logic of the Remix

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Transcript of "Cultural Logic of the Remix"

  1. 1. The cultural logic of the ‘remix’<br />MAC351<br />robert.jewitt@sunderland.ac.uk<br />1<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />
  4. 4. Overview<br />Web 2.0 and ‘remix culture’<br />The origins of the remix<br />Creativity or piracy? A war of words<br />The ‘mash-up’<br />Legal threats<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Essential reading<br />5<br />
  6. 6. 6<br />
  7. 7. harness/exploit the collective wisdom and effort of their users<br />7<br />
  8. 8. harness/exploit the collective wisdom and effort of their users<br />trust and respect users, and treat them as co–developers rather than consumers<br />8<br />
  9. 9. harness/exploit the collective wisdom and effort of their users<br />trust and respect users, and treat them as co–developers rather than consumers<br />are open to — and encourage — remixing, hacking and sharing, with permissive licensing, open standards and programming languages, freely available application programming interfaces (APIs) etc<br />(O’Reilly cited in Allen, 2008)<br />9<br />
  10. 10. Web 2.0<br />10<br />Democratising tools which throw the old rules into disarray<br />(Lasica, 2005: 2)<br />
  11. 11. N-Geners<br />Demographic born between 1977-1996<br />First to ‘grow up in a digital age … bathed in bits’ <br />(Tapsoctt & Williams, 2008: 47)<br />Driven by a desire ‘for choice, convenience, customization and control by designing, producing and distributing products themselves’ <br />(ibid: 52)<br />11<br />
  12. 12. N-Geners<br />‘The ability to remix media, hack products, or otherwise tamper with consumer culture is their birthright, and they won&apos;t let outmoded intellectual property laws stand in their way’ <br />(Tapscott & Williams, 2008: 52)<br />12<br />
  13. 13. 13<br />
  14. 14. 14<br />
  15. 15. 15<br />
  16. 16. 16<br />
  17. 17. US ‘remixers’?<br />19% of online teens<br />18% of online adults<br />remixed content gathered from other sources into a new creation <br />(Lenhart and Madden, 2005)<br />17<br />
  18. 18. The remix as cultural norm<br />Film<br />The Phantom Edit<br />Raiders of the Lost Ark: The Adaptation<br />18<br />
  19. 19. The remix as cultural norm<br />Fashion<br />19<br />
  20. 20. The remix as cultural norm<br />Art<br />20<br />Nick Út<br />Banksy<br />
  21. 21. The remix as cultural norm<br />Video Games<br />21<br />
  22. 22. The remix as cultural norm<br />User Generated Content<br />Mash-up/mix compilations?<br />Blog posts?<br />Presentations?<br />Photos?<br />Machinima?<br />AMV?<br />Video?<br />22<br />
  23. 23. History: the origins of the remix<br />23<br />
  24. 24. Part 1 – the ‘dub’<br />24<br />See also Matt Mason, 2008, The Pirate’s Dilemma for details <br />
  25. 25. ‘All any prime minister had to do to gauge the winds was to listen closely to the week’s 45 rpm single releases; they were like political polls set to melody and riddim’ (Jeff Chang, 2005: 31).<br />Arthur ‘Duke’ Reid:<br />“King of Sound & Blues” 1956, 1957 and 1958<br />25<br />
  26. 26. 1962 – Jamaican independence<br />1964 – Reid built recording studio<br />1967 – The Paragons<br />Rudolph ‘Ruddy’ Redwood<br />& Byron Smith<br />26<br />
  27. 27. Part 2 – the ‘edit’<br />1972 –Botel club, Fire Island, New York<br />27<br />
  28. 28. Part 3 – the breakdown<br />1967 – Clive Campbell arrives in the Bronx<br />AKA DJ KoolHerc<br />28<br />
  29. 29. Creativity or piracy? A war of words<br />29<br />
  30. 30. ‘‘We might anticipate a new music based on reworking MP3 recordings pulled from the Internet . . . . In this respect, the Internet is more than just a means of distribution, it becomes a raison d’eˆtre for a culture based on audio data’’ <br />(Riddell, 2001, p.341 cited in Shiga, 2007: 94)<br />30<br />
  31. 31. 31<br />
  32. 32. Now?<br />32<br />
  33. 33. The ‘mash-up’<br />33<br />
  34. 34. 34<br />
  35. 35. http://www.myspace.com/djsunderlandhttp://www.mashuptown.com/2007/03/dj_sunderland_s.html<br />35<br />
  36. 36. 36<br />
  37. 37. On WebCT<br />John Shiga, 2007, ‘Copy and Persist’<br />Good Copy, Bad Copy (2007, Denmark)<br />37<br />
  38. 38. Legal threats<br />38<br />
  39. 39. The ‘cult of the amateur’ (Carr, 2005)<br />“mass culture provides the building blocks for the stuff we create” (Lessig in Lasica, 2005)<br />39<br />
  40. 40. Fair use/dealing<br />‘a culture of contempt for intellectual property’<br />IPI (2007): cost to the US music industry = $12.6 billion<br />40<br />
  41. 41. Industry response<br />lobbying for legislative changes<br />court actions<br />education and propaganda campaigns<br />technological means<br />For more info see Allen (2008) and Lessig (2004, 2008)<br />41<br />
  42. 42. Copyright Term Extension Act<br />42<br />
  43. 43. ‘Piracy used to be about folks who made and sold large numbers of counterfeit copies. Today, the term “piracy” seems to describeany unlicensed activity, especially if the person engaging in it is a male teenager. The content industry calls some things that are unquestionably legal “piracy”’.<br />Litman, 2000: 7-8 <br />43<br />
  44. 44. Original or derivative?<br />44<br />
  45. 45. 45<br />
  46. 46. http://remix.nin.com/<br />46<br />
  47. 47. http://www.djsasha.com/mailer/<br />47<br />
  48. 48. 48<br />
  49. 49. 49<br />
  50. 50. 50<br />
  51. 51. Copyright law?<br />Technological shifts<br />Cultural shifts<br />Legal shifts<br />If you were sued every time you accidentally violated copyright law in a single day how much would you owe?<br />DMCA<br />Fair use/dealing<br />Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act<br />51<br />
  52. 52. 52<br />
  53. 53. Conclusion<br />Less than 2% of works have any continuing commercial value (Lessig, 2004)<br />CTEA = Mickey Mouse act?<br />‘Rent-seeking’?<br />Stifling creativity?<br />53<br />
  54. 54. Questions<br />Is the remix a cultural norm and if so, is it under threat?<br />Is there any value or significance to the remix as a cultural practice?<br />Does existent copyright law restrict creativity?<br />Does copyright law go far enough?<br />54<br />
  55. 55. Sources<br />B. Alexander, 2006. “Web 2.0: A new wave of innovation for teaching and Learning?” EDUCAUSE Review, volume 41, number 2, pp. 32–44, http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/erm0621.pdf<br />Peter J Allen, 2008, ‘Rip, mix, burn … sue … ad infinitum: The effects of deterrence vs voluntary cooperation on non-commercial online copyright infringing behaviour’, First Monday, Vol 13, No 9, http://www.uic.edu/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/issue/view/269<br />N. Carr, 2005. “The amorality of Web 2.0,” Rough Type, http://www.roughtype.com/archives/2005/10/the_amorality_o.php<br />Jeff Chang, 2005, Can’t Stop Won’t Stop: A History of the Hip-Hop Generation, St. Martin&apos;s Press<br />J. D. Lasica, 2005, Darknet: Hollywood’s war against the digital generation, Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.<br />Lawrence Lessig, 2008, Remix: Making art and commerce thrive in the hybrid economy, London: Bloomsbury<br />Lawrence Lessig, 2004, Free Culture: The nature and future of creativity, London: Penguin, http://www.free-culture.cc/freeculture.pdf<br />J. Litman, 2000. “The demonization of piracy,” Proceedings of CFP 2000: Challenging the Assumptions. The Tenth Conference on Computers, Freedom & Privacy (6 April, Toronto, Canada), at http://www-personal.umich.edu/~jdlitman/papers/demon.pdf<br />Matt Mason, 2008, The Pirates Dilemma: How hackers, punk capitalists and graffiti millionaires are remixing our culture and changing the world, London: Allen Lane, http://thepiratesdilemma.com/download-the-book<br />T. O’Reilly, 2005. “What is Web 2.0? Design patterns and business models for the next generation of software, http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html<br />William Patry, 2009, Moral Panics and the Copyright Wars, London: Oxford University Press<br />Simon Reynolds, 2006, Rip It Up & Start Again, London: Faber<br />žJohn Shiga, 2007, ‘Copy-and-Persist: The Logic of Mash-Up Culture’ in Critical Studies in Media Communication, Volume 24, Number 2, pp. 93-114 <br />Don Tapscott & Anthony D Williams, 2008, Wikinomics: How mass collaboration changed everything, London: Atlantic Books<br />55<br />
  56. 56. Check this out<br />Larry Lessig, 2007, TED, http://www.ted.com/talks/larry_lessig_says_the_law_is_strangling_creativity.html<br />Michael Masnick, 2009, MIDEM09, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Njuo1puB1lg<br />56<br />
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