I’d like to provide a few additional examples of tools that are used in very similar ways …Add ET– first one go backwards
Applied previous slides to this particular tool
Planning Paradigms:Civic Design - Design that reflects assumed values - Plan of ChicagoExpert Practice Land Use Planning - Application of expert knowledge through instrumental rationality forecasting - Kent (1964), Perhaps ChapinNegotiation - Focus on communicative rationality - Susskind (1987); Healey (1996)Advocacy - Focus on strategic rationality - Davidoff (1965)Futures Analysis/Scenario Planning - Explicit attention to value and instrumental rationality - Bartholomew and Ewing (2008)Explain flaw.I needed a normative theory of practice that included all the dimensions at work. Albrecht’s spatial provided a useful framework. It allowed me to see the history of land use planning through a new prism, emphasizing elements that remain present in contemporary practice. Early heroic plans like Burnham’s plan of Chicago not dictatorial, but visionary designs for consideration, since as ?? explained was filtered through democratic processes since even road widenings required a vote and planning had not yet been institutionalized with legal powers. Subsequent movements emphasized different dimensions.
Strategic spatial planning is a “public-sector-led sociospatial process through which a vision, actions, and means for implementation are produced that shape and frame what a place is and may become” that is characterized by multiple forms of rationality:Communicative (understanding from deliberation)Instrumental (identifying optimal means for achieving goals)Strategic (addressing power relationships)Value (design of alternative futures)Theoretical approach arose in a European context because they needed a definition transcend national traditions
Argyris and SchonEvidence seeking behaviorI was able to get answers to the questions I had. [Q12]Valid informationWorkshop participants discussed the issues in an open way. [Q15; D101]Free and informed choiceOther participants at the workshop listened to what I had to say. [Q11]Alternative viewpoints were considered at the workshop. [Q16]Internal commitment to choiceI would support recommendations created by the participants of this workshop. [Q18; related to D117]http://blog.crisp.se/2012/02/06/anderslaestadius/congruent-leadership
Feedback is accomplished through a person who is responsible for operating the model and reporting back to the group.The broad perspective from human computer interaction is what Paul Dourish calls “embodied computing,” the focus should be on the setting, not narrowly on the technical artifact. This is an important shift in focus from much of the previous PSS research.
Recess: planning support systems and how they work Next I wanted to trace out why and how. Was it because people could see the visualizations – only one type – for envisioning. When it came to the deliberative process, the group worked with the model through intermediaries, namely a map, sticker chips, and a computer operator. The operator as an interpreter and human interface played a key role. Two workshops, one about halfway through someone went around to each table, announcing basic indicators of what they had designed so far. At the other one, only a few tables reported back. Reported learning significantly lower at the second versus the first. (Need to statistically control for other dimensions).
If it was a random sample, expect 5%, but I found 84%
Summarize factors from model
Dissertation Defense: Planning Support Systems for Spatial Planning Through Social Learning
Planning Support Systems for Spatial PlanningThrough Social LearningRobert GoodspeedDissertation DefenseMIT Department of Urban Studies and PlanningMay 22, 2013Dissertation Committee:Professor Joseph Ferreira, Jr. (chair)Professor Annette M. KimProfessor Brent D. RyanFig. 5.3c
Introduction• Thank you to everyone who helped make this possible!• Figures and tables are labeled with their numbers fromthe dissertation.It is an exciting time for U.S. metropolitanspatial planning …2
Vignette: Salt Lake City, UtahPhoto: Flickr/arbyreed1990s 1999-presentPhoto: Flickr/Porchista• Adopted Envision Utah/Quality Growth Strategy• 40+ miles of new light rail, 50 stations• New TOD: Daybreak (4,000 acres, 10k people, 1 in 6new homes being sold in Utah, 70% walk to school)• 1970-1990, 65% population growth,38% growth in land area(Kolankiewicz and Beck 2001)3See Briggs (2008), Matheson (2011), and Scheer (2012)
New Planning Practices have Emerged …4Sacramento spatial planning workshop. Laptoprunning I-PLACE3S PSS. Photo: SACOG.Envision Utah planning workshop. Outputs fromparticipatory meetings analyzed in GIS to create twoalternative scenarios, subsequent meetings haveused PSS. Photo: Envision Utah.Weston Nursery: Sasaki developed and usedcomputer tool: “The software would do the scenario, soif you changed the density you get new numbers ...[helped people] argue about what it means, [develop] abit of a common language.”
… that Feature New Spatial Planning Support SystemsEnvisionTomorrowINDEX UrbanFootprintI-PLACE3SWhere?Across theU.S.30 states and6 countriesCaliforniaMetrosMetroSacramentoIllustrativeIndicators• Estimated Vehicle Miles Traveled / Greenhouse Gas Emissions• Impervious Surface• Housing Diversity / Affordability• Energy Use• Air QualityINDEX PlanBuilder Getting Started Guide505/200 59 June 2010Indicator maps are also accessed through the Indicator Results table by clicking the map icon in theright-side column.I-PLACE3S User Guide Chapter 8Page 90 Revised: 4/29/08Figure 108Select Mark Place Type from the command menu and then select the Place Type youd like tomark (Figure 109). Clicking on a polygon will mark all parcels that are contained within thepolygon with the Place Type you have selected.Figure 109For tool description see Chapter 3. 5
Research Motivation• Many forces at work in new spatial planning practice, myinterest is in the creation and implementation of specificspatial plans.• GIS and new planning support systems (PSS) are widespreadin professional practice (Grant, Rooney, and Assasie 2010; Condon, Cavensand Miller 2009; Hoglund 2011)• Time is ripe for close empirical examination of theseprocesses:• Opportunity to learn from and scrutinize professional techniques• Context to answer theoretical questions about planning & sociallearning• Provide useful insights at a time of rapid technological development• This dissertation is set in regional planning contexts but NOTabout regional planning as a whole – only one part of it.6
Overview1. Introduction2. Theories & Previous Research3. Hypotheses, Cases and Research Methodology4. Results5. Discussion & Topics for Future Research6. Conclusion7
The “oft-foretold revolution in computer-aidedplanning” has arrived!9Galveston, TexasCape Cod, Mass.Meridian, IdahoMedford, Mass.Sources: Medford (MAPC), Marshfield (author), allothers from CommunityViz case studiesSouth Holland, NetherlandsMarshfield, Mass.(Similar to Fig. 5.9)Klosterman (1997)
Theoretical Perspectives on PSS10GIS-based modeling systems used for:• Interactive Representation• Rule Extrapolation• Indicator Construction and CalculationUsed in specific sociocultural practices(spatial planning)Alternative theoretical perspectives:• Social Learning: Changes to factual knowledge, skills, attitudes, and emergence of newcollective understanding (Wenger 1998; Muro and Jeffrey 2008; Holden 2008).• Social choice: Planning primarily about trade-offs, interests and preferences pre-existing(Sager 2002; Arrow 1951).• Structured coercion: Elite manipulation or coercion (Peattie 1987; Arnstein 1969).
Theoretical ApproachArtifactsMethodsToolsBehavioralTheoriesSocial LearningPsychologyFraming TheoriesCollaborative PlanningPragmatismDiagram inspired by Allmendinger (2002)See Chapter 2 for full description of theoretical framework.“Design Research”March and Smith (1995)Hevner et al. (2004)Planning Support SystemsParticipatory GISLink learning & planning:• Frames (Schön and Rein 1994)• Institutions (e.g., Powell and Dimaggio 1991;Kim 2011) 11
Which scales?12Planning ProcessKnowledge InfrastructureInteractionOpportunitiesInteractionOpportunitiesIndividual interactionLongerScalesofSpace&TimeMicroMesoMacroAfter Edwards (2003)
Previous Paradigms Do Not Fully DescribePlanning PracticeBurnham (1909);Calthorpe (2001)Kent (1964)Susskind (1987);Healey (1997)Davidoff (1965)Bartholomew andEwing (2008)14
Spatial planning combines communicative,instrumental, strategic, and value rationality.Albrecht (2004) 15
What is (Social) Learning?• Historical Views• Behaviorism (Skinner 1974)• Constructionism (Piaget 1963)• Psychological Social Learning (Bandura 1977)• Individual development in an environment (Vygotsky, from Rogoff 1990)• Phylogenic – slowly changing species history (genes)• Sociocultural – changing cultural history, artifacts & norms• Ontogenetic – Changes in individuals over their life history, such aschildhood or educational experiences• Microgenetic – “moment-to-moment learning by individuals” built onspecific genetic and sociocultural backgrounds.• “Social” perspectives emphasize the importance of social context inunderstanding individual development, and the emergence of uniquelysocial phenomenon like new understandings16
Social Learning Theories• Macro (Sociocultural)• Frames (Schön and Rein 1994) and Institutional Theory (e.g., Kim 2011, 2012;Powell and Dimaggio 1991)• Diffusion Theory (Rogers 2003)• Meso (Ontogenetic and collective)• Organizational Learning (single/double loop) (Argyris and Schön 1978, 1996)• Wenger (1998)• Micro (Microgenetic)• Wenger’s “social theory of learning” (1998)• Three infrastructures for design: imagination, alignment, and engagement• Design for learning:• participation/reification• designed/emergent• local/global• identification/negotiability17
Operationalizing LearningSingle Loop/”Factual” Learning• “I learned a great deal.”• Widespread use in education assessment, correlated with student stimulation (Holmes1971)Double Loop Learning• Five questions used to create a summative scale (Spector 1992)• Cronbach’s Alpha = 0.82 for all surveys, 0.86 for Austin workshops19Table 4.1
Categorizing Computation in Planning• Many possible ways to categorized models/tools: substance, technical or theoreticalapproach, complexity (e.g., Klosterman 2012; Klosterman and Pettit 2012; Landis 2011)• “Epistemic lifestyles” of climate modeling (Shackley 2001)• Study informed by studies in participatory GIS and modeling and GIS evaluation(Arciniegas, Janssen, and Rietveld 2012; Jones et al. 2009; Salter et al. 2009; Smith et al. 2012; Nyerges andAguirre 2011; Schively 2007; Van den Belt 2004; Cockerill, Tidwell, and Passell 2004)20Urban System Models Planning Support SystemsPrimary focusRepresent complexity ofurban systemPractical usefulness inplanning processAdvantages(selected)Capture interactions &emergent behavior ofcomplex systemsPractical, easier to understand&less data requiredDisadvantages(selected)High cost and complexityLimited topical scope, simplicitycan lead to misleading resultsExamples UrbanSim, SLEUTHCommunityViz, EnvisionTomorrowFor discussion see Chapter 3
Research Questions & Hypotheses22Research Questions• Q1: How do spatial PSS contribute to social learning in participatory workshops, inlight of evolving technology and infrastructure?• Q2: What characteristics of the sociotechnical PSS process facilitate single loopand double loop learning?• Q3: How do metropolitan regions develop a sociotechnical infrastructure for sociallearning in spatial planning?Summary of HypothesesQ1 and Q2:• What type of workshops resulted in the greatest learning? How did PSS comparewith paper maps only? (1.1)• What factors of the workshop and participant backgrounds helped explain thislearning? (1.2, 1.3 2.1, 2.2)• What is the relationship between the two learning measures at the workshops?Are they complements or substitutes? (2.3)Q3:• What can we learn from applying Rogers’ theory of the diffusion of innovations orframe analysis to understand how PSS are developed?
Potential Cases• Boston• Hingham Master Plan• Marshfield Buildout andAlternative Futures Project• North Suburban PriorityMapping Project• Boston (BRA)• Fairmount-Indigo PlanningInitiative• Austin• Hutto• Dripping Springs• Elgin• Lockhart• Austin• Kansas City• State Avenue Corridor• North Oak• U.S. 40• Troost• Rock Island• Shawnee Mission/Metcalf• Others• Singapore• Tacoma, WA• East Tennessee• Central Arkansas• Provincetown, MA• North Kingstown, RI23
Final Cases• Boston• Hingham Master Plan• Marshfield Buildout andAlternative Futures Project• North Suburban PriorityMapping Project• Boston (BRA)• Fairmount-Indigo PlanningInitiative• Austin• Hutto• Dripping Springs• Elgin• Lockhart• Austin• Kansas City• State Avenue Corridor• North Oak• U.S. 40• Troost• Rock Island• Shawnee Mission/Metcalf• Others• Singapore• Tacoma, WA• East Tennessee• Central Arkansas• Provincetown, MA• North Kingstown, RI24
Paper Map ExercisesUpham’s Corner Visioning Forum North Suburban Priority Mapping ProjectPublic ForumFig. 5.13Fig. 5.12Fig. 5.6Fig. 5.738
Does participant personality explain learning?Percentage ofParticipantsSensation Seeking(e.g., Zuckerman 1979)Goal Orientation(e.g., Locke andLatham 1990)Very strong preference(≈ 95th percentile) 84.1% 58.6%Moderate preference(≈ 50th percentile) 9.9% 21.2%Low Preference(< 50th percentile) 5.9% 20.2%Operationalization and percentile from Jackson’s Learning Styles Profilerinstrument (Jackson 2005). For integrated model see also O’Connor andJackson (2008) and Jackson (2008).Table 5.739
Participation, Identification, and Reification ofPSS and Learning Variables• Participation not strongly related with either type of learning; may alsoreflect the lack of participation in this project as a whole• Agreeing with the statements, “The computer tool reflects my uniqueissues and concerns” (identification) and “workshop participants felt freeto question the outputs from the computer tool” (reification) werepositively related to learning.40Table 5.8
Analyzing the Learning ContextSource: Wenger (1998: 237)Also:• Participant Self-Perception (Rogoff 1990; Lave and Wenger 1991)41
Model SummaryPositive Impact on DoubleLoop Index• Wenger’s model• Participant identity• Learning from modelfeedback (imagination)Negative Impact on DoubleLoop Index• Attend frequent meetings• 3D visual rendering(possibly)44Differences in model for Reported Learning:• Identity and previous meetings less important• Larger coefficients on PSS variables, smaller ondiscussion-related variables
Complements or substitutes?452.502.702.903.103.303.503.703.904.104.304.503.50 3.70 3.90 4.10 4.30 4.50 4.70ReportedLearningDouble Loop IndexReported learning and double-loop indexFig. 5.17
The Puzzle of Non-AdoptionKansas City Creating Sustainable Places:• HUD funding• Fregonese & Associates provided detailed, day-longtrainings to project planners on Envision Tomorrow• Original focus on new PSS has shifted to focus on“toolbox,” and only two of the corridors using it in anyway at all• Why?47
First Perspective: Diffusion of InnovationsRogers (2003) diffusion characteristics:• Relative advantage• Compatibility• Complexity• Trialability• ObservabilityTheory predicts slow adoptionHowever, poorly describes PSS – uniquely dependent oncontextual factors48Wikipedia Authors, “Diffusion of Innovations,” Last modified18 May 2013.
Second Perspective: Frames• Kansas City Planner: “If we were using it moreappropriately, none of us could perceive it could be handy that way.We saw a bunch of quantitative numbers … I didn’t realize it couldbe used in a visionary planning kind of way.”• Uncertain role for PSS in Focus Groups:• Provide factual inputs?• Help develop a “bit of a common language”?• “Make them think … allowed some questions to be asked”?• Reconcile “tradeoffs” and “competing values”?• Conclusion: Adoption requires professional reframing, one reasonPSS are adopted as part of a new planning paradigm (scenarioplanning)49
5. Discussion, Recommendations, & Future Research
Discussion Issues• Demographics: Limited ability to explorerace, culture, class.• Gender: Qualitative evidence that highly genderedpatterns occurred for one table, facilitators helped avoidelsewhere• The Black Box: Two “errors,” only one detected, raiseimportant issues regarding trust and transparency51
Recommendations1. Planners should incorporate PSS into projects, focusingon their use to facilitate stakeholder dialog and learning.2. Metropolitan planning agencies should use projects todevelop PSS and broader IT capacity.3. Planning agencies should cultivate organizationallearning, including evaluating workshops and projects.4. Planning researchers should develop theoretical modelswhich acknowledge dimensions beyond communicativerationality5. Planning as a field needs sociotechnical research andresearch paradigms in planning (forthcoming article)52
Further ResearchDeveloped in Optional Slides:• Trust in PSS• Linking micro and macro• Analyzing PSS as sociotechnical infrastructures53
Conclusions55A survey finds find very high reported learning and doubleloop index scores at workshops which use PSS. Designswhich use a mediated PSS have the highest learningoutcomes. Participant personality and planner identitypartly explains learning. Findings confirm thecommunicative planning paradigm, but with a framingtheory that adds additional dimensions.In these cases, participation in PSS development is notrelated to learning measures, but there must be highidentification and low reification of the PSS, translatingand testing Wenger’s theory in a new context.Qualitative evidence suggests that while “innovationcharacteristics” from conventional diffusion theory explainslow adoption, the durability of professional frames is amore nuanced explanation.
Thank you!Robert GoodspeedPhD CandidateMIT Department of Urban Studies and Planningrgoodspe at mit.eduFall 2013Assistant Professor of Urban PlanningA. Alfred Taubman College of Architecture and Urban PlanningUniversity of Michiganrgoodspe at umich.edu56
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