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# 11 particulate model (changes in state & temp curves)

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### 11 particulate model (changes in state & temp curves)

1. 1. PARTICULATE MODEL OF MATTER Interactive Science Volume A Chapter 11
2. 2. Part (e) Heating & Cooling Curves
3. 3. HEATING CURVE <ul><li>The heating curve, as the name implies, plots out the entire graph of the changes in the states of matter as temperature increases over time. </li></ul><ul><li>Such a plot helps us identify fixed temperature points like the melting and boiling points of the substance. This also allows us to identify which state the substance would be in at a given temperature or a given time. </li></ul>Part (e) <ul><li>Learning to interpret a heating/cooling curve will help you identify a certain state the substance will be in easily and quickly for a given temperature or given time. </li></ul>52                                         Temperature / o C Time /min Boiling point Melting point Solid state Solid & Liquid state Liquid state Liquid & gaseous state Gaseous state
4. 4. Temperature / o C Time / min 0 100 Solid State Melting: Solid & Liquid States Melting begins Melting ends Liquid state Boiling: Liquid & Gas States Boiling begins Boiling ends Gas Consider the heating curve for pure water: Part (e) 53
5. 5. HEATING CURVE Temperature / o C Time /min Boiling point Melting point Solid state Liquid state Gaseous state Part (e) <ul><li>Constant temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Breaking of inter-molecular bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Absorbed </li></ul><ul><li>Phase Change </li></ul>54
6. 6. COOLING CURVE <ul><li>The cooling curve, on the other hand, plots out the entire graph of the changes in the states of matter as temperature decreases over time. </li></ul><ul><li>Once we understand how a heating curve works, interpreting such a curve is like working backwards. </li></ul>Part (e) <ul><li>The heating curve displays the temperature behaviour of a substance when it is gaining energy, while the cooling curve displays what happens to the state when the substance loses energy. </li></ul>55                                         Temperature / o C Time /min Condensation point Freezing point Solid state Solid & Liquid state Liquid state Liquid & gaseous state Gaseous state
7. 7. Temperature / o C Time / min 0 100 Solid Melting: Solid & Liquid States Freezing begins Freezing ends Liquid Condensing: Liquid & Gas States Condensation begins Condensation ends Gas Consider the cooling curve for pure water: Part (e) 56
8. 8. COOLING CURVE Part (e) Temperature / o C Time /min Condensation point Freezing point Solid state Liquid state Gaseous state <ul><li>Constant temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of inter-molecular bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Released </li></ul><ul><li>Phase Change </li></ul>57
9. 9. Let’s Review
10. 10. <ul><li>The picture below shows the cooling curve for alcohol. At which temperature is alcohol likely to boil? </li></ul><ul><li>A) Above 78 o C B) At 78 o C C) At - 15 o C D) Below - 15 o C </li></ul>Review Exercise (Heating & Cooling Curves) Temperature / o C Time /min 78 - 15 Solid Liquid Gas
11. 11. <ul><li>The diagram shows part of the heating curve for substance U . What is the point X known to be? </li></ul><ul><li>A) Melting point B) Boiling point C) Room temperature D) Temperature axis </li></ul>Review Exercise (Heating & Cooling Curves) Temperature / o C Time /min X Solid Liquid
12. 12. <ul><li>The diagram shows part of the heating curve for Iron. What is the state of Iron at point B ? </li></ul><ul><li>A) Liquid B) Solid C) Liquid & Solid D) Gas & Liquid </li></ul>Review Exercise (Heating & Cooling Curves) Temperature / o C Time /min Melting point A B C
13. 13. <ul><li>Which of the following correctly describes the states of the substance at points 1 to 2 and 4 to 5 ? </li></ul>Review Exercise (Heating & Cooling Curves) Temperature / o C Time /min 1 2 3 4 5 6 <ul><li>From 1 – 2, the substance changes from gas to liquid. From 4 - 5, the substance freezes to become solid. </li></ul><ul><li>From 1 – 2, the substance is at gaseous state. From 4 - 5, the substance is at liquid state. </li></ul><ul><li>From 1 – 2, the substance starts changing into liquid. From 4 - 5, the substance remains at liquid state. </li></ul><ul><li>From 1 – 2, the substance is at gaseous state . From 4 - 5, the substance freezes to become solid. </li></ul>
14. 14. <ul><li>Which of the following correctly describes what takes place at temperature Y ? </li></ul>Review Exercise (Heating & Cooling Curves) <ul><li>The particles in the substance lose energy, but moves more vigorously within a fixed, regular arrangement. </li></ul><ul><li>The particles in the substance overcome intermolecular forces and move at high speeds. Temperature continues to increase. </li></ul><ul><li>The particles in the substance overcome intermolecular forces and move at high speeds. Temperature remains constant. </li></ul><ul><li>The particles in the substance gain energy and slide past one another, forming new bonds. Temperature remains constant. </li></ul>Temperature / o C Time /min Y Liquid Gas
15. 15. <ul><li>Which of the following correctly describes what happens to the substance at points 2 to 3 and 5 to 6 ? </li></ul>Review Exercise (Heating & Cooling Curves) <ul><li>From 2 – 3, the substance changes from liquid to gas. From 5 - 6, the whole substance has been converted to gas. </li></ul><ul><li>From 2 – 3, the substance melts, bonds are broken and solid changes to liquid. From 5 – 6, the substance boils, bonds are broken and liquid changes to gas. </li></ul><ul><li>From 2 – 3, the substance melts, bonds are broken and solid changes to liquid. From 5 – 6, the substance completes boiling and everything has been converted to gas. </li></ul><ul><li>From 2 – 3, freezing takes place and the substance changes from liquid to solid. From 5 – 6, the substance completes boiling and everything has been converted to gas. </li></ul>Temperature / o C Time /min 1 2 3 4 5 6