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Job satisfaction

Job satisfaction






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    Job satisfaction Job satisfaction Document Transcript

    • degree of jubilance that i tend to forget the precious help extended by people to whom the success of mission is solely dedicated.” Like everyone else, I owe much more than I can repay or even tell in this venture. This report has been made possible through the direct and indirect cooperation guidance of various people whom I wish to express my sincere appreciation & gratitude. First with the limitless humility, I would like to thank "GOD", for bestowing me with all the favorable circumstances and keeping me in high spirits. I am extremely grateful to my parent for their invaluable support, blessings and encouragement. With the deep sense of gratitude, I express my sincere thanks to Mr. Gautam Bansal, Lecturer of Workshop on Research Methodology, for his guidance and whenever needed, support and direction that lead to completion of the project. RAJAT GUPTA MBA-1(B) Title of the Project : "A Case Study on Job Satisfaction of OATI Employees" Name of the Student : Rajat University Roll No. : 2
    • Subject : Research Methodology Name of the major advisor : Mr. Gautam Bansal Total pages : Name of University : Punjab Technical University ABSTRACT A study was undertaken to measure the level of job satisfaction among the executives of Open Access Technology International, Inc. (OATI). The study mainly review around the view of employees regarding the job satisfaction. What they think about the job satisfaction. The data was collected all primary, as collected through personal interviews in the form of questionnaire. ________________ ________________ Sig. of Major Advisor Sig. of Student 3
    • TABLE OF CONTENT Chapter Particulars Page no. 1) Introduction 6- 2) Review of Literature 3) Objective of Study 4) Research Methodology 5) Data Analysis & interpretation 6) Result & Finding 7) Suggestion 8) Conclusion • Bibliography • Annexure(Questionnaire) 4
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    • INTRODUCTION Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job. The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. Job satisfaction is not the same as motivation, although it is clearly linked. Job design aims to enhance job satisfaction and performance, methods include job rotation, job enlargement and job enrichment. Other influences on satisfaction include the management style and culture, employee involvement, empowerment and autonomous work groups. Job satisfaction is a very important attribute which is frequently measured by organizations. The most common way of measurement is the use of rating scales where employees report their reactions to their jobs. Questions relate to rate of pay, work responsibilities, variety of tasks, promotional opportunities the work itself and co-workers. Some questioners ask yes or no questions while others ask to rate satisfaction on 1-5 scale (where 1 represents "not at all satisfied" and 5 represents "extremely satisfied"). History One of the biggest preludes to the study of job satisfaction was the Hawthorne studies. These studies (1924-1933), primarily credited to Elton Mayo of the Harvard Business School, sought to find the effects of various conditions (most notably illumination) on workers’ productivity. These studies ultimately showed that novel changes in work conditions temporarily increase productivity (called the Hawthorne Effect). It was later found that this increase resulted, not from the new conditions, but from the knowledge of being observed. This finding provided strong evidence that people work for purposes other than pay, which paved the way for researchers to investigate other factors in job satisfaction. 6
    • Scientific management also had a significant impact on the study of job satisfaction. Frederick Winslow Taylor’s 1911 book, Principles of Scientific Management, argued that there was a single best way to perform any given work task. This book contributed to a change in industrial production philosophies, causing a shift from skilled labor and piecework towards the more modern approach of assembly lines and hourly wages. The initial use of scientific management by industries greatly increased productivity because workers were forced to work at a faster pace. However, workers became exhausted and dissatisfied, thus leaving researchers with new questions to answer regarding job satisfaction. It should also be noted that the work of W.L. Bryan, Walter Dill Scott, and Hugo Munsterberg set the tone for Taylor’s work. Some argue that Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, a motivation theory, laid the foundation for job satisfaction theory. This theory explains that people seek to satisfy five specific needs in life – physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, self-esteem needs, and self- actualization. This model served as a good basis from which early researchers could develop job satisfaction theories. Models of job satisfaction (a) Affect Theory Edwin A. Locke’s Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job satisfaction model. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Further, the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work (e.g. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/aren’t met. When a person values a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met), compared to one who doesn’t value that facet. To illustrate, if Employee A values autonomy in the workplace and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy, then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a position with little or no autonomy compared to Employee B. This theory also states that too much of a particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet. 7
    • (b) Dispositional Theory Another well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory. It is a very general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction, regardless of one’s job. This approach became a notable explanation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and jobs. Research also indicates that identical twins have similar levels of job satisfaction. A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory was the Core Self- evaluations Model, proposed by Timothy A. Judge in 1998. Judge argued that there are four Core Self-evaluations that determine one’s disposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of self-esteem (the value one places on his/her self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in one’s own competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Having an internal locus of control (believing one has control over herhis own life, as opposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher job satisfaction. Finally, lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction. (c) Two-Factor Theory (Motivator-Hygiene Theory) Frederick Herzberg’s Two factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) attempts to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. This theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors – motivation and hygiene factors, respectively. Motivating factors are those aspects of the job that make people want to perform, and provide people with satisfaction, for example achievement in work, recognition, promotion opportunities. These motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic to the job, or the work carried out. Hygiene factors include aspects of the working environment such as pay, company policies, supervisory practices, and other working conditions. While Hertzberg's model has stimulated much research, researchers have been unable to reliably empirically prove the model, with Hackman & Oldham suggesting that Hertzberg's original formulation of the model may have been a methodological artifact.[ Furthermore, the theory does not consider individual differences, conversely predicting all employees will 8
    • react in an identical manner to changes in motivating/hygiene factors. Finally, the model has been criticised in that it does not specify how motivating/hygiene factors are to be measured. (d) Job Characteristics Model Hackman & Oldham proposed the Job Characteristics Model, which is widely used as a framework to study how particular job characteristics impact on job outcomes, including job satisfaction. The model states that there are five core job characteristics (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) which impact three critical psychological states (experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility for outcomes, and knowledge of the actual results), in turn influencing work outcomes (job satisfaction, absenteeism, work motivation, etc.). The five core job characteristics can be combined to form a motivating potential score (MPS) for a job, which can be used as an index of how likely a job is to affect an employee's attitudes and behaviors----. A meta-analysis of studies that assess the framework of the model provides some support for the validity of the JCM. Measuring job satisfaction There are many methods for measuring job satisfaction. By far, the most common method for collecting data regarding job satisfaction is the Likert scale (named after Rensis Likert). Other less common methods of for gauging job satisfaction include: Yes/No questions, True/ False questions, point systems, checklists, and forced choice answers. This data is typically collected using an Enterprise Feedback Management (EFM) system. The Job Descriptive Index (JDI), created by Smith, Kendall, & Hulin (1969), is a specific questionnaire of job satisfaction that has been widely used. It measures one’s satisfaction in five facets: pay, promotions and promotion opportunities, coworkers, supervision, and the work itself. The scale is simple, participants answer either yes, no, or can’t decide (indicated by ‘?’) in response to whether given statements accurately describe one’s job. 9
    • The Job in General Index is an overall measurement of job satisfaction. It is an improvement to the Job Descriptive Index because the JDI focuses too much on individual facets and not enough on work satisfaction in general. Other job satisfaction questionnaires include: the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS), and the Faces Scale. The MSQ measures job satisfaction in 20 facets and has a long form with 100 questions (five items from each facet) and a short form with 20 questions (one item from each facet). The JSS is a 36 item questionnaire that measures nine facets of job satisfaction. Finally, the Faces Scale of job satisfaction, one of the first scales used widely, measured overall job satisfaction with just one item which participants respond to by choosing a face. Job satisfaction and emotions Mood and emotions while working are the raw materials which cumulate to form the affective element of job satisfaction. Moods tend to be longer lasting but often weaker states of uncertain origin, while emotions are often more intense, short-lived and have a clear object or cause. There is some evidence in the literature that state moods are related to overall job satisfaction. Positive and negative emotions were also found to be significantly related to overall job satisfaction. Frequency of experiencing net positive emotion will be a better predictor of overall job satisfaction than will intensity of positive emotion when it is experienced. Emotion regulation and emotion labor are also related to job satisfaction. Emotion work (or emotion management) refers to various efforts to manage emotional states and displays. Emotion regulation includes all of the conscious and unconscious efforts to increase, maintain, or decrease one or more components of an emotion. Although early studies of the consequences of emotional labor emphasized its harmful effects on workers, studies of workers in a variety of occupations suggest that the consequences of emotional labor are not uniformly negative. 10
    • It was found that suppression of unpleasant emotions decreases job satisfaction and the amplification of pleasant emotions increases job satisfaction. The understanding of how emotion regulation relates to job satisfaction concerns two models: 1. Emotional dissonance. Emotional dissonance is a state of discrepancy between public displays of emotions and internal experiences of emotions, that often follows the process of emotion regulation. Emotional dissonance is associated with high emotional exhaustion, low organizational commitment, and low job satisfaction. 2. Social interaction model. Taking the social interaction perspective, workers’ emotion regulation might beget responses from others during interpersonal encounters that subsequently impact their own job satisfaction. For example: The accumulation of favorable responses to displays of pleasant emotions might positively affect job satisfaction performance of emotional labor that produces desired outcomes could increase job satisfaction. Relationships and practical implications Job Satisfaction can be an important indicator of how employees feel about their jobs and a predictor of work behaviours such as organizational citizenship, absenteeism, and turnover. Further, job satisfaction can partially mediate the relationship of personality variables and deviant work behaviors. One common research finding is that job satisfaction is correlated with life satisfaction.[22] This correlation is reciprocal, meaning people who are satisfied with life tend to be satisfied with their job and people who are satisfied with their job tend to be satisfied with life. However, some research has found that job satisfaction is not significantly related to life satisfaction when other variables such as non-work satisfaction and core self-evaluations are taken into account. With regard to job performance, employee personality may be more important than job satisfaction. The link between job satisfaction and performance is thought to be a spurious relationship; instead, both satisfaction and performance are the result of personality. 11
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    • REVIEW OF LITERARTURE Gupta & Joshi (2008), concluded in their study that Job satisfaction is an important technique used to motivate the employees to work harder. It had often said that, "A HAPPY EMPLOYEE IS A PRODUCTIVE EMPLPOYEE." Job satisfaction is very important because most of the people spend a major of their life at their work place. Khan (2006), reveals in his study hat Hoppack brought Job satisfaction to limelight. He observed Job satisfaction in the combination of psychological & environmental circumstances that cause person to fully say, "I am satisfied with my job" Rao (2005), reveal in his study that Job satisfaction refer to person feelings of satisfaction on the job, which acts as a motivation to work. It is not the self satisfaction, happiness or self- contentment but the satisfaction of the job. According to him, there are 4 types of theories: 1. Need Fulfillment Theory 2. Equity Theory 3. Two Factor Theory 4. Discrepancy Theory 13
    • Aswathappa (2003), opines that the Job Satisfaction of employees can be judged through the system of wage payment. Different organisation adapts different type of wage payment system. Along with wages and salaries they are paying incentives, perquisites and non- monetary benefits. According to him, he explained 3 theories of remuneration: A. Reinforcement and Expectancy Theory B. Equity Theory C. Agency Theory Velnampy (2008), in his study "Job Attitude and Employees Performance of Public Sector Organizations in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka" concluded that job satisfaction does have impact on future performance through the job involvement, but higher performance also makes people feel more satisfied and committed. It is a cycle of event that is clearly in keeping with the development perspective. Attitudes such as satisfaction and involvement are important to the employees to have high levels of performance. The results of the study revealed that attitudes namely satisfaction and involvement, and performance are significantly correlated. Brown, Forde, et. al. (2008), in their study "Changes in HRM and job satisfaction, 1998– 2004: evidence from the Workplace Employment Relations Survey" examined that their significant increases in satisfaction with the sense of achievement from work between 1998 and 2004; a number of other measures of job quality are found to have increased over this period as well. It also finds a decline in the incidence of many formal human resource management practices. The paper reports a weak association between formal human resource management practices and satisfaction with sense of achievement. Improvements in perceptions of job security, the climate of employment relations and managerial responsiveness are the most important factors in explaining the rise in satisfaction with sense of achievement between 1998 and 2004. We infer that the rise in satisfaction with sense of achievement is due in large part to the existence of falling unemployment during the period under study, which has driven employers to make improvements in the quality of work. Jain, Jabeen, et. al. (2007), in their study "Job Satisfaction as Related to Organisational Climate and Occupational Stress: A Case Study of Indian Oil" concluded that that there is no significant difference between managers and engineers in terms of their job satisfaction and 14
    • both the groups appeared almost equally satisfied with their jobs. When the managers and engineers were compared on organizational climate, it was found that both the groups differed significantly. Managers scored significantly high on organizational climate scale than the engineers indicating that the managers are more satisfied due to the empowerment given to them. Shah & Shah (2008), in their study "Job Satisfaction and Fatigue Variables" concluded that relationship between fatigue and Job Satisfaction variables which were found to be significantly negative. The study alo founds that fatigue is negative predictor of Job Satisfaction. The study is clearly indicative of different issues for Call Centre employees in Indian context. There are different ON THE JOB and OFF THE JOB FACTORS leading to dissatisfaction and fatigue for them which were explored in this study. If fatigue can be reduced and job satisfaction can be increased by various innovative and encouraging strategies. Shahu & Gole (2008), in their study "Effect of Job satisfaction on Performance: An Empirical Study" concluded that the companies that are lagging behind in certain areas of job satisfaction & job stress need to be developed so that their employees show good performance level, as it is provided that performance level lowers wit high satisfaction scores. The awareness program pertaining to stress & satisfaction is to be taken up in the industries to make them aware of the benefits of knowledge of stress and its relationship with satisfaction and achievement of goal of industries. Job Satisfaction is in regard to one's feeling or state-of-mind regarding the nature of their work. Job Satisfaction can be influenced by a variety of factors,eg, the quality of one's relationship with their supervisions, the quality of the physical environment in which they work, degree of their fulfillment in their work etc. 15
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    • OBJECTIVES OF STUDY This study is conducted to judge the level of Job Satisfaction of employees who are working in Open Access Technology International, Inc. (OATI), Chandigarh. The title of this study – A CASE STUDY ON JOB SATISFACTION OF OATI EMPLOYEES " OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY 1) To discover the various expectations that determine the satisfaction level of employee(s). 2) To measure the level of satisfaction of employees with respect to the company. 3) To judge the level of job satisfaction of employees on various parameters. a. Working conditions b. Salary structure/ Perquisites/ Other benefits c. Relationship with employees of company d. Policies of company 17
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    • RESEARCH METHDOLGY Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. Research Methodology comprises of two words, research and methodology. Research is defined as human activity based on intellectual application in the investigation of matter. The primary purpose for applied research is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. Research may be defined as a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search of new facts in any branch of knowledge. In short, it comprises defining a refined problem's, formulating hypothesis or suggested solution; collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and research conclusions; and lastly carefully testing the conclusion to determine whether they fit the hypothesis Methodology can be defined as: 1) "the analysis of the principles of methods, rules, and postulates employed by a discipline"; or 19
    • 2) "the systematic study of methods that are, can be, or have been applied within a discipline"; or 3) "a particular procedure or set of procedures." RESEARCH DESIGN Research design can be thought of as the structure of research -- it is the "glue" that holds all of the elements in a research project together. We often describe a design using a concise notation that enables us to summarize a complex design structure efficiently. Considering the objectives of the study, sample survey was conducted and accordingly analysis of information was made. Exploratory research design is used in present study. DATA COLLECTION Both primary and secondary data had been used in present study. Primary Data collected through personal interview in the form of questionnaire. Secondary Data was collected from various journals, books, magazines and internet. SAMPELING PLAN In carrying out a survey relating to research, first select the problem and study its implication in different areas. Selection of the research problem should be in line with the researchers interest, chain of thinking and existing research in the same area and should have some direct utilities. The topic should have the practical feasibility to study feasibility, what is important to prepare a preliminary questionnaire on research topic. The first and foremost task in carrying out a research is to select a sample. POPULATION The population of the current study is the 50 executives of Open Access Technology International, Inc. (OATI). SAMPELING TECHNIQUE Convenience sampling technique was used to select respondents through at the sampling and main department of OATI were convert. 20
    • SAMPELING DESIGN A sample design is definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population. It refers to the technique or the procedure the researcher would adopt in selecting items for the sample. The selection of employee was done on the basis of convenience sampling. SAMPELING UNIT Single mpost unit of the population, it may be single person or group of persons, from whom questionnaire will be filled till target is fulfilled. The sampling unit in this report is any employee of OATI. SAMPLE SIZE Sample size refers to the total number of respondents targeted for collecting the data for the researcher. The sampling size of my study is 50 respondents and this sampling size was selected on the basis of convenience sample. ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION of DATA All the questionnaire received were edited. Questions having incomplete replies were kept out of the present study and in all 50 questionnaires were taken into consideration while analyzing he data. All the information/data collected through questionnaires' were first transferee into master table which facilitated the tabulation of data in the desired form. QUANTIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS A 5-point likert scale was used to quantify each response of half of the questions. Responses on the 5-point likert scale were highly satisfied, satisfied, neutral, dissatisfied and highly dissatisfied. Highly satisfied was given score 5, satisfied was given score 4 & so on and similarly another 5-point likert scale was used to quantify each response of rest of half of the questions. Responses on the 5-point likert scale were very frequent, frequent, sometimes, seldom and never. Very frequent was given score 5, frequent was given score 4 & so on. LIMITATIONS 1) The study conducted is limited to a one organization only. 2) The study conducted with the precincts of one department of organization only. 3) Time and money was major limitation, which may have affected the study. 4) Some of the respondents were reluctant to share information with us. 21
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    • BIBLIOGRAPHY Aswathappa k., Human Recourse & Management, 2003, Pg (244 to 245) Khan N.V., Personal management, 2006, Pg (132 to 134) 30
    • Gupta K. Shashi & Joshi Rosy, Human Recourse Management, 2008, Pg (20.9 to 20.17) Rao Subba P., Essential of HRM & Industrial Relationships, 2005, Pg (480 to 482) Velnampy T., "Job Attitude and Employees Performance of Public Sector Organizations in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka", GITAM Journal of Management, Vol. 6, Issue-2, April-June 2008, Pg (66-73) Brown, Forde, "Changes in HRM and job satisfaction, 1998–2004: evidence from the Workplace Employment Relations Survey", Human Resource Management Journal, Vol. 18, Issue-2, 2008, Pg (97–195) http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/120086933/abstract K.K.Jain, Fauzia Jabeen, Vinita Mishra & Naveen Gupta, " Job Satisfaction as Related to Organisational Climate and Occupational Stress: A Case Study of Indian Oil", International Review of Business Research Papers, Vol. 3, Issue-5, November 2007, Pg (193-208) Hardik Shah & Hiral Shah, "Job Satisfaction and Fatigue Study", SCMS-COCHIN Journal managementhelp.org/person_wll/job_statisfaction.htm 31