1. A CASE STUDY ON JOB SATISFACTION
Submitted to Punjab Technical University in partial
fulfillment of requirement for degree of
MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
PUNJAB COLLEGE OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION
Punjab Technical University, JALANDHAR
“Surpassing milestones towards a mission sometimes gives me such
2. degree of jubilance that i tend to forget the precious help extended
by people to whom the success of mission is solely dedicated.”
Like everyone else, I owe much more than I can repay or even tell in
this venture. This report has been made possible through the direct
and indirect cooperation guidance of various people whom I wish to
express my sincere appreciation & gratitude.
First with the limitless humility, I would like to thank "GOD", for
bestowing me with all the favorable circumstances and keeping me in
I am extremely grateful to my parent for their invaluable support,
blessings and encouragement. With the deep sense of gratitude, I
express my sincere thanks to Mr. Gautam Bansal, Lecturer of
Workshop on Research Methodology, for his guidance and whenever
needed, support and direction that lead to completion of the project.
Title of the Project : "A Case Study on Job Satisfaction of OATI
Name of the Student : Rajat
University Roll No. :
3. Subject : Research Methodology
Name of the major
advisor : Mr. Gautam Bansal
Total pages :
Name of University : Punjab Technical University
A study was undertaken to measure the level of job satisfaction
among the executives of Open Access Technology International, Inc.
(OATI). The study mainly review around the view of employees
regarding the job satisfaction. What they think about the job
satisfaction. The data was collected all primary, as collected through
personal interviews in the form of questionnaire.
Sig. of Major Advisor Sig. of Student
4. TABLE OF CONTENT
Chapter Particulars Page no.
1) Introduction 6-
2) Review of Literature
3) Objective of Study
4) Research Methodology
5) Data Analysis & interpretation
6) Result & Finding
Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job.
The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. Job satisfaction
is not the same as motivation, although it is clearly linked. Job design aims to enhance job
satisfaction and performance, methods include job rotation, job enlargement and job
enrichment. Other influences on satisfaction include the management style and culture,
employee involvement, empowerment and autonomous work groups. Job satisfaction is a
very important attribute which is frequently measured by organizations. The most common
way of measurement is the use of rating scales where employees report their reactions to their
jobs. Questions relate to rate of pay, work responsibilities, variety of tasks, promotional
opportunities the work itself and co-workers. Some questioners ask yes or no questions while
others ask to rate satisfaction on 1-5 scale (where 1 represents "not at all satisfied" and 5
represents "extremely satisfied").
One of the biggest preludes to the study of job satisfaction was the Hawthorne studies. These
studies (1924-1933), primarily credited to Elton Mayo of the Harvard Business School,
sought to find the effects of various conditions (most notably illumination) on workers’
productivity. These studies ultimately showed that novel changes in work conditions
temporarily increase productivity (called the Hawthorne Effect). It was later found that this
increase resulted, not from the new conditions, but from the knowledge of being observed.
This finding provided strong evidence that people work for purposes other than pay, which
paved the way for researchers to investigate other factors in job satisfaction.
7. Scientific management also had a significant impact on the study of job satisfaction.
Frederick Winslow Taylor’s 1911 book, Principles of Scientific Management, argued that
there was a single best way to perform any given work task. This book contributed to a
change in industrial production philosophies, causing a shift from skilled labor and piecework
towards the more modern approach of assembly lines and hourly wages. The initial use of
scientific management by industries greatly increased productivity because workers were
forced to work at a faster pace. However, workers became exhausted and dissatisfied, thus
leaving researchers with new questions to answer regarding job satisfaction. It should also be
noted that the work of W.L. Bryan, Walter Dill Scott, and Hugo Munsterberg set the tone for
Some argue that Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, a motivation theory, laid the foundation
for job satisfaction theory. This theory explains that people seek to satisfy five specific needs
in life – physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, self-esteem needs, and self-
actualization. This model served as a good basis from which early researchers could develop
job satisfaction theories.
Models of job satisfaction
(a) Affect Theory
Edwin A. Locke’s Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job
satisfaction model. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a
discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Further, the theory
states that how much one values a given facet of work (e.g. the degree of autonomy in a
position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/aren’t met.
When a person values a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted
both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met),
compared to one who doesn’t value that facet. To illustrate, if Employee A values autonomy
in the workplace and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy, then Employee A would be
more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a
position with little or no autonomy compared to Employee B. This theory also states that too
much of a particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker
values that facet.
8. (b) Dispositional Theory
Another well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory. It is a very general
theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies
toward a certain level of satisfaction, regardless of one’s job. This approach became a notable
explanation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over
time and across careers and jobs. Research also indicates that identical twins have similar
levels of job satisfaction.
A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory was the Core Self-
evaluations Model, proposed by Timothy A. Judge in 1998. Judge argued that there are four
Core Self-evaluations that determine one’s disposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem,
general self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of
self-esteem (the value one places on his/her self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in one’s
own competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Having an internal locus of control
(believing one has control over herhis own life, as opposed to outside forces having control)
leads to higher job satisfaction. Finally, lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job
(c) Two-Factor Theory (Motivator-Hygiene Theory)
Frederick Herzberg’s Two factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) attempts
to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. This theory states that satisfaction
and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors – motivation and hygiene factors,
respectively. Motivating factors are those aspects of the job that make people want to
perform, and provide people with satisfaction, for example achievement in work, recognition,
promotion opportunities. These motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic to the job, or
the work carried out. Hygiene factors include aspects of the working environment such as
pay, company policies, supervisory practices, and other working conditions.
While Hertzberg's model has stimulated much research, researchers have been unable to
reliably empirically prove the model, with Hackman & Oldham suggesting that Hertzberg's
original formulation of the model may have been a methodological artifact.[ Furthermore, the
theory does not consider individual differences, conversely predicting all employees will
9. react in an identical manner to changes in motivating/hygiene factors. Finally, the model has
been criticised in that it does not specify how motivating/hygiene factors are to be measured.
(d) Job Characteristics Model
Hackman & Oldham proposed the Job Characteristics Model, which is widely used as a
framework to study how particular job characteristics impact on job outcomes, including job
satisfaction. The model states that there are five core job characteristics (skill variety, task
identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) which impact three critical
psychological states (experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility for outcomes,
and knowledge of the actual results), in turn influencing work outcomes (job satisfaction,
absenteeism, work motivation, etc.). The five core job characteristics can be combined to
form a motivating potential score (MPS) for a job, which can be used as an index of how
likely a job is to affect an employee's attitudes and behaviors----. A meta-analysis of studies
that assess the framework of the model provides some support for the validity of the JCM.
Measuring job satisfaction
There are many methods for measuring job satisfaction. By far, the most common method for
collecting data regarding job satisfaction is the Likert scale (named after Rensis Likert).
Other less common methods of for gauging job satisfaction include: Yes/No questions, True/
False questions, point systems, checklists, and forced choice answers. This data is typically
collected using an Enterprise Feedback Management (EFM) system.
The Job Descriptive Index (JDI), created by Smith, Kendall, & Hulin (1969), is a specific
questionnaire of job satisfaction that has been widely used. It measures one’s satisfaction in
five facets: pay, promotions and promotion opportunities, coworkers, supervision, and the
work itself. The scale is simple, participants answer either yes, no, or can’t decide (indicated
by ‘?’) in response to whether given statements accurately describe one’s job.
10. The Job in General Index is an overall measurement of job satisfaction. It is an improvement
to the Job Descriptive Index because the JDI focuses too much on individual facets and not
enough on work satisfaction in general.
Other job satisfaction questionnaires include: the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire
(MSQ), the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS), and the Faces Scale. The MSQ measures job
satisfaction in 20 facets and has a long form with 100 questions (five items from each facet)
and a short form with 20 questions (one item from each facet). The JSS is a 36 item
questionnaire that measures nine facets of job satisfaction. Finally, the Faces Scale of job
satisfaction, one of the first scales used widely, measured overall job satisfaction with just
one item which participants respond to by choosing a face.
Job satisfaction and emotions
Mood and emotions while working are the raw materials which cumulate to form the
affective element of job satisfaction. Moods tend to be longer lasting but often weaker states
of uncertain origin, while emotions are often more intense, short-lived and have a clear object
There is some evidence in the literature that state moods are related to overall job satisfaction.
Positive and negative emotions were also found to be significantly related to overall job
Frequency of experiencing net positive emotion will be a better predictor of overall job
satisfaction than will intensity of positive emotion when it is experienced.
Emotion regulation and emotion labor are also related to job satisfaction. Emotion work (or
emotion management) refers to various efforts to manage emotional states and displays.
Emotion regulation includes all of the conscious and unconscious efforts to increase,
maintain, or decrease one or more components of an emotion. Although early studies of the
consequences of emotional labor emphasized its harmful effects on workers, studies of
workers in a variety of occupations suggest that the consequences of emotional labor are not
11. It was found that suppression of unpleasant emotions decreases job satisfaction and the
amplification of pleasant emotions increases job satisfaction. The understanding of how
emotion regulation relates to job satisfaction concerns two models:
1. Emotional dissonance. Emotional dissonance is a state of discrepancy between public
displays of emotions and internal experiences of emotions, that often follows the
process of emotion regulation. Emotional dissonance is associated with high
emotional exhaustion, low organizational commitment, and low job satisfaction.
2. Social interaction model. Taking the social interaction perspective, workers’ emotion
regulation might beget responses from others during interpersonal encounters that
subsequently impact their own job satisfaction. For example: The accumulation of
favorable responses to displays of pleasant emotions might positively affect job
satisfaction performance of emotional labor that produces desired outcomes could
increase job satisfaction.
Relationships and practical implications
Job Satisfaction can be an important indicator of how employees feel about their jobs and a
predictor of work behaviours such as organizational citizenship, absenteeism, and turnover.
Further, job satisfaction can partially mediate the relationship of personality variables and
deviant work behaviors.
One common research finding is that job satisfaction is correlated with life satisfaction.
This correlation is reciprocal, meaning people who are satisfied with life tend to be satisfied
with their job and people who are satisfied with their job tend to be satisfied with life.
However, some research has found that job satisfaction is not significantly related to life
satisfaction when other variables such as non-work satisfaction and core self-evaluations are
taken into account.
With regard to job performance, employee personality may be more important than job
satisfaction. The link between job satisfaction and performance is thought to be a spurious
relationship; instead, both satisfaction and performance are the result of personality.
13. REVIEW OF LITERARTURE
Gupta & Joshi (2008), concluded in their study that Job satisfaction is an important
technique used to motivate the employees to work harder. It had often said that, "A HAPPY
EMPLOYEE IS A PRODUCTIVE EMPLPOYEE." Job satisfaction is very important
because most of the people spend a major of their life at their work place.
Khan (2006), reveals in his study hat Hoppack brought Job satisfaction to limelight. He
observed Job satisfaction in the combination of psychological & environmental
circumstances that cause person to fully say, "I am satisfied with my job"
Rao (2005), reveal in his study that Job satisfaction refer to person feelings of satisfaction on
the job, which acts as a motivation to work. It is not the self satisfaction, happiness or self-
contentment but the satisfaction of the job.
According to him, there are 4 types of theories:
1. Need Fulfillment Theory
2. Equity Theory
3. Two Factor Theory
4. Discrepancy Theory
14. Aswathappa (2003), opines that the Job Satisfaction of employees can be judged through the
system of wage payment. Different organisation adapts different type of wage payment
system. Along with wages and salaries they are paying incentives, perquisites and non-
According to him, he explained 3 theories of remuneration:
A. Reinforcement and Expectancy Theory
B. Equity Theory
C. Agency Theory
Velnampy (2008), in his study "Job Attitude and Employees Performance of Public Sector
Organizations in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka" concluded that job satisfaction does have impact
on future performance through the job involvement, but higher performance also makes
people feel more satisfied and committed. It is a cycle of event that is clearly in keeping with
the development perspective. Attitudes such as satisfaction and involvement are important to
the employees to have high levels of performance. The results of the study revealed that
attitudes namely satisfaction and involvement, and performance are significantly correlated.
Brown, Forde, et. al. (2008), in their study "Changes in HRM and job satisfaction, 1998–
2004: evidence from the Workplace Employment Relations Survey" examined that their
significant increases in satisfaction with the sense of achievement from work between 1998
and 2004; a number of other measures of job quality are found to have increased over this
period as well. It also finds a decline in the incidence of many formal human resource
management practices. The paper reports a weak association between formal human resource
management practices and satisfaction with sense of achievement. Improvements in
perceptions of job security, the climate of employment relations and managerial
responsiveness are the most important factors in explaining the rise in satisfaction with sense
of achievement between 1998 and 2004. We infer that the rise in satisfaction with sense of
achievement is due in large part to the existence of falling unemployment during the period
under study, which has driven employers to make improvements in the quality of work.
Jain, Jabeen, et. al. (2007), in their study "Job Satisfaction as Related to Organisational
Climate and Occupational Stress: A Case Study of Indian Oil" concluded that that there is no
significant difference between managers and engineers in terms of their job satisfaction and
15. both the groups appeared almost equally satisfied with their jobs. When the managers and
engineers were compared on organizational climate, it was found that both the groups
differed significantly. Managers scored significantly high on organizational climate scale
than the engineers indicating that the managers are more satisfied due to the empowerment
given to them.
Shah & Shah (2008), in their study "Job Satisfaction and Fatigue Variables" concluded that
relationship between fatigue and Job Satisfaction variables which were found to be
significantly negative. The study alo founds that fatigue is negative predictor of Job
Satisfaction. The study is clearly indicative of different issues for Call Centre employees in
Indian context. There are different ON THE JOB and OFF THE JOB FACTORS leading to
dissatisfaction and fatigue for them which were explored in this study. If fatigue can be
reduced and job satisfaction can be increased by various innovative and encouraging
Shahu & Gole (2008), in their study "Effect of Job satisfaction on Performance: An
Empirical Study" concluded that the companies that are lagging behind in certain areas of job
satisfaction & job stress need to be developed so that their employees show good
performance level, as it is provided that performance level lowers wit high satisfaction
scores. The awareness program pertaining to stress & satisfaction is to be taken up in the
industries to make them aware of the benefits of knowledge of stress and its relationship with
satisfaction and achievement of goal of industries.
Job Satisfaction is in regard to one's feeling or state-of-mind regarding the nature of their
work. Job Satisfaction can be influenced by a variety of factors,eg, the quality of one's
relationship with their supervisions, the quality of the physical environment in which they
work, degree of their fulfillment in their work etc.
17. OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
This study is conducted to judge the level of Job Satisfaction of employees who are working
in Open Access Technology International, Inc. (OATI), Chandigarh. The title of this study –
A CASE STUDY ON JOB SATISFACTION OF OATI EMPLOYEES "
OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY
1) To discover the various expectations that determine the satisfaction level of
2) To measure the level of satisfaction of employees with respect to the company.
3) To judge the level of job satisfaction of employees on various parameters.
a. Working conditions
b. Salary structure/ Perquisites/ Other benefits
c. Relationship with employees of company
d. Policies of company
19. RESEARCH METHDOLGY
Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. Research
Methodology comprises of two words, research and methodology.
Research is defined as human activity based on intellectual application in the investigation of
matter. The primary purpose for applied research is discovering, interpreting, and the
development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide
variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe.
Research may be defined as a careful investigation or inquiry especially through
search of new facts in any branch of knowledge. In short, it comprises defining a refined
problem's, formulating hypothesis or suggested solution; collecting, organizing and
evaluating data; making deductions and research conclusions; and lastly carefully testing the
conclusion to determine whether they fit the hypothesis
Methodology can be defined as:
1) "the analysis of the principles of methods, rules, and postulates employed by a
20. 2) "the systematic study of methods that are, can be, or have been applied within a
3) "a particular procedure or set of procedures."
Research design can be thought of as the structure of research -- it is the "glue" that holds all
of the elements in a research project together. We often describe a design using a concise
notation that enables us to summarize a complex design structure efficiently.
Considering the objectives of the study, sample survey was conducted and
accordingly analysis of information was made. Exploratory research design is used in present
Both primary and secondary data had been used in present study.
Primary Data collected through personal interview in the form of questionnaire.
Secondary Data was collected from various journals, books, magazines and internet.
In carrying out a survey relating to research, first select the problem and study its implication
in different areas. Selection of the research problem should be in line with the researchers
interest, chain of thinking and existing research in the same area and should have some direct
utilities. The topic should have the practical feasibility to study feasibility, what is important
to prepare a preliminary questionnaire on research topic.
The first and foremost task in carrying out a research is to select a sample.
The population of the current study is the 50 executives of Open Access Technology
International, Inc. (OATI).
Convenience sampling technique was used to select respondents through at the sampling and
main department of OATI were convert.
21. SAMPELING DESIGN
A sample design is definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population. It refers to
the technique or the procedure the researcher would adopt in selecting items for the sample.
The selection of employee was done on the basis of convenience sampling.
Single mpost unit of the population, it may be single person or group of persons, from whom
questionnaire will be filled till target is fulfilled. The sampling unit in this report is any
employee of OATI.
Sample size refers to the total number of respondents targeted for collecting the data for the
The sampling size of my study is 50 respondents and this sampling size was selected
on the basis of convenience sample.
ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION of DATA
All the questionnaire received were edited. Questions having incomplete replies were kept
out of the present study and in all 50 questionnaires were taken into consideration while
analyzing he data.
All the information/data collected through questionnaires' were first transferee into
master table which facilitated the tabulation of data in the desired form.
QUANTIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS
A 5-point likert scale was used to quantify each response of half of the questions. Responses
on the 5-point likert scale were highly satisfied, satisfied, neutral, dissatisfied and highly
dissatisfied. Highly satisfied was given score 5, satisfied was given score 4 & so on and
similarly another 5-point likert scale was used to quantify each response of rest of half of the
questions. Responses on the 5-point likert scale were very frequent, frequent, sometimes,
seldom and never. Very frequent was given score 5, frequent was given score 4 & so on.
1) The study conducted is limited to a one organization only.
2) The study conducted with the precincts of one department of organization only.
3) Time and money was major limitation, which may have affected the study.
4) Some of the respondents were reluctant to share information with us.
22. DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION
TABLE NO. 1
EXPERIENCE OF RESPONDENTS IN ORGANIZTION -:
NO. OF YEARS TOTAL PERCENTAGE (%)
LESS THAN 1 YEARS 12 24
1 – 5 YEARS 38 76
5-10 YEARS NIL 0
MORE THAN 10 YEARS NIL 0
Aswathappa k., Human Recourse & Management, 2003, Pg (244 to 245)
Khan N.V., Personal management, 2006, Pg (132 to 134)
31. Gupta K. Shashi & Joshi Rosy, Human Recourse Management, 2008, Pg (20.9 to 20.17)
Rao Subba P., Essential of HRM & Industrial Relationships, 2005, Pg (480 to 482)
Velnampy T., "Job Attitude and Employees Performance of Public Sector Organizations in
Jaffna District, Sri Lanka", GITAM Journal of Management, Vol. 6, Issue-2, April-June
2008, Pg (66-73)
Brown, Forde, "Changes in HRM and job satisfaction, 1998–2004: evidence from the
Workplace Employment Relations Survey", Human Resource Management Journal, Vol. 18,
Issue-2, 2008, Pg (97–195)
K.K.Jain, Fauzia Jabeen, Vinita Mishra & Naveen Gupta, " Job Satisfaction as Related to
Organisational Climate and Occupational Stress: A Case Study of Indian Oil", International
Review of Business Research Papers, Vol. 3, Issue-5, November 2007, Pg (193-208)
Hardik Shah & Hiral Shah, "Job Satisfaction and Fatigue Study", SCMS-COCHIN Journal