Nutrition In The Fast LaneUse healthy eating habits and exercise to combat cancer, diabetes and heart disease.
Objectives • Discuss possible causes for cancer, diabetes and heart disease. • Identify the role of nutrition and exercise as interventions in preventing cancer, diabetes and heart disease.
Definition of Cancer What is Cancer? • Cancer is not just one disease – there are hundreds of different types of cancers. • Cancers are mutations within the genetic makeup or DNA. Cancer cell under attack Once this occurs, they begin to crowd out the “good cells”. by the immune system
Definition of Cancer• Mutations or changes within our body’s cells can also occur when the DNA is damaged by “free radicals” (which can damage cells, DNA and proteins).• Cancer has two major categories; solid tumors and hematologic cancers. Solid tumors are initially confined to a specific tissue on organ. They can shed and travel through the blood system. Hematologic tumors involve the blood and lymphatic system – enabling disease to travel fast.
Risk Factors of Cancer • Heredity – genetic predisposition for cancer • Chemical and environmental carcinogens – soot, coal tar, cigarette smoke, asbestos, amyl chloride arsenic, sweeteners (saccharin and cyclamates), smoked foods and nitrates (used to smoked foods) • Radiation – ultraviolet rays from the sun, x-rays and radioactive chemicals • Growing older • Poor diet • Alcohol • Lack of exercise and obesity
Cancer – SEER Incidence From 2003 – 2008, the median age of diagnosis for cancer of all sites was 66 years of age. Approximately 1.1% were diagnosed under age 20; 2.7% between 20 and 34; 5.6% between 35 and 44; 14.1% between 45 and 54; 22.7% between 55 and 64; 24.7% between 65 and 74; 21.4% between 75 and 84; and 7.8% 85+ years of age. The age-adjusted incidence rate was 464.4 per 100,000 men and women per year. These rates are based on cases diagnosed in 2004-2008 from 17 SEER geographic areas. Incidence Rates by Race Race/Ethnicity Male Female All Races 541.0 per 100,000 men 411.6 per 100,000 women White 543.6 per 100,000 men 423.0 per 100,000 women Black 626.1 per 100,000 men 400.9 per 100,000 women Asian/Pacific Islander 347.7 per 100,000 men 297.0 per 100,000 women American Indian/Alaskan Native 338.0 per 100,000 men 309.0 per 100,000 women Hispanic 360.2 per 100,000 men 287.5 per 100,000 womenSource: SEER.Cancer.Gov/StatFacts (Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results)
Cancer – U.S. Mortality From 2003 – 2007, the median age at death for cancer of all sites was 73 years of age. Approximately 0.4% died under age 20; 0.8% between 20 and 34; 2.6% between 35 and 44; 9.0% between 45 and 54; 17.8% between 55 and 64; 24.9% between 65 and 74; 29.7% between 75 and 84; and 14.9% 85+ years of age. The age-adjusted death rate was 183.8 per 100,000 men and women per year. These rates are based on patients who died in 2003-2007 in the U.S. Death Rates by Race Race/Ethnicity Male Female All Races 225.4per 100,000 men 155.4 per 100,000 women White 222.5 per 100,000 men 155.0 per 100,000 women Black 296.5 per 100,000 men 180.6 per 100,000 women Asian/Pacific Islander 134.2 per 100,000 men 94.1 per 100,000 women American Indian/Alaskan Native 183.7 per 100,000 men 138.0 per 100,000 women Hispanic 150.5 per 100,000 men 102.3 per 100,000 womenSource: SEER.Cancer.Gov/StatFacts (Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results)
Foods That Combat Cancer• Tomato products with “olive oil” (contain lycopene)• Fish (i.e., cod, herring, mackerel, sardines (contain selenium)• “Veggies” (i.e., broccoli, brussel sprouts, cabbage and cauliflower (7 or more “handfuls” per week can reduce cancer by 50%)• Berries, green vegetables (vitamin C), citrus fruits (antioxidants – fight free radicals that damage DNA)• Wheat germ, nuts (vitamin E – fights certain cancers)
What is Diabetes?• People with diabetes have high blood sugar because of either: • Type I – They do not make enough insulin or • Type II – The body cells are not able to use the insulin and prevent glucose (sugar) from been delivered inside the cell.
Risk Factors of Diabetes Age (over 45 years) History of diabetes during pregnancy Low physical activity Family history of diabetes High blood pressure
Symptoms of DiabetesBeing more tired than usual Frequent urination Being very hungry Losing weight Being very thirsty Being irritable Blurred vision
Diabetes – Incidence • Among U.S. residents aged 65 years and older, 10.9 million, or 26.9%, had diabetes in 2010. • About 215,000 people younger than 20 years had diabetes (type 1 or type 2) in the United States in 2010. • About 1.9 million people aged 20 years or older were newly diagnosed with diabetes in 2010 in the United States. • In 2005–2008, based on fasting glucose or hemoglobin A1c levels, 35% of U.S. adults aged 20 years or older had pre-diabetes (50% of adults aged 65 years or older). Applying this percentage to the entire U.S. population in 2010 yields an estimated 79 million American adults aged 20 years or older with pre-diabetes. • Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure, non-traumatic lower- limb amputations, and new cases of blindness among adults in the United States. • Diabetes is a major cause of heart disease and stroke. • Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United StatesSource: National Diabetes Facts Sheet, 2011
Diabetes – Incidence From 2003 – 2007, the median age at death for cancer of all sites was 73 years of age. Approximately 0.4% died under age 20; 0.8% between 20 and 34; 2.6% between 35 and 44; 9.0% between 45 and 54; 17.8% between 55 and 64; 24.9% between 65 and 74; 29.7% between 75 and 84; and 14.9% 85+ years of age. The age-adjusted death rate was 183.8 per 100,000 men and women per year. These rates are based on patients who died in 2003-2007 in the U.S. Sufficient data are not available to estimate the total prevalence of diabetes (diagnosed and undiagnosed) for other U.S. racial/ethnic minority populationsSource: National Diabetes Facts Sheet, 2011
New Cases of Diagnosed DiabetesSource: National Diabetes Facts Sheet, 2011
Diagnosed and Undiagnosed DiabetesSource: National Diabetes Facts Sheet, 2011
Nutrition guidelines for those at risk for diabetes• Carbohydrates are one of the (3) key nutrients our bodies need to be strong and healthy. Carbohydrates, however, directly raise blood sugar (glucose). They need to be limited, if you are at risk of diabetes.
Nutrition guidelines for those at risk for diabetes • Foods containing “carbs” breads, cereals, grains, starchy vegetables, crackers, snacks, dried beans, peas and lentils, fruits, milk and yogurt, desserts, sweets, regular soda • Limit “carb” intake to 3-4 carbs per meal 1 carb choice = 15 grams (g) of carbs Most WOMEN need Most MEN needEach Meal 3 to 4 car choices = 45 to 60 carbs 4 to 5 carb choices = 60 to 75 g of carbsSnacks 1 carb choice = 15 g of carbs 1 to 2 carb choices = 15 to 30 g of carbs(if needed)
Nutrition Facts Read Food LabelsServing Size 8 Crackers (28g) Check the serving size:Amount per serving 8 crackers. Is that how much you plan to eat?Calories 120 Fat Calories 30 % Daily Value This number – 28g – is the weightTotal Fat 3.5g 5% of the crackers, not the amount of carbs in the serving Saturated Fat 1g 5% Trans Fat 0g Polyunsaturated Fat 1.5g Monounsaturated Fat 0.5gCholesterol 0mg 0%Sodium 140mg 6%Total Carbohydrate 22g 7% Count total carbs. Dietary Fiber 1g Sugars 7g You do not need to count sugars separately becauseProtein 2g the are already counted asVitamin A 0% Vitamin C 0% part of the total carbs.Calcium 10% Iron 4%
What is Heart Disease? • Heart Disease or cardiopathy is an umbrella term for a variety of diseases affecting the heart. • Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death in every country. Every American has a 40% chance of dying from heart disease.
Effects of Heart Disease? Damaged arteries slow down your memory and the ability of your organs to function.High blood pressure or the effects of cigarette smoke can damage the inside ofyour arteries. Your body tries to repair the “tears” with cholesterol. But if therepair is with “LDL,” inflammation will occur. A plaque _______ becomes“irritated” and ruptures. This encourages a blood clot to form. The resultcould be a heart attack, stroke, impotence and/or memory loss.
Risk Factors of Heart Disease? Tobacco smoke Physical Inactivity Stress StressMajor Risk Factors youCANNOT control High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure High Blood Cholesterol High Blood CholesterolIncreasing Age Obesity & OverweightMale Sex (Gender)Heredity (Including Race)Major Risk Factors you AlcoholCAN control StressTobacco Smoke High Blood PressureHigh Blood Cholesterol High Blood Cholesterol - (LDL Bad Cholesterol) Diabetes MellitusHigh Blood PressurePhysical Inactivity ObesityObesity and OverweightDiabetes Mellitus
Foods good for your heart Antioxidants (anti-inflammatory Nuts Olive Oil Fish substances):All nuts (i.e., Helps to raise 3 portions/per Nuts, any tea,walnuts, peanuts) – your HDL good week – Salmon, red wine,1 handful a day cholesterol. white fish (cod grapes,decreases the or bass) a must cranberries,incidence of heart which reduces onions anddisease between 20 triglycerides in tomatoes.- 60 percent. The your blood andbest nuts are those lowers plaquehigh in omega-3 build up.fatty acids.
Foods to avoid for your heart Saturated fats LIMIT to 20 grams a day – luncheon meats, full fat diary products, baked goods, fried fast foods, palm and coconut oils, maple syrup.
Exercise your way to good health Exercise and good nutrition: adults need at least 30 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical exercise at least 5 days a week Children and adolescents: 60 minutes a day per week. Examples of exercise: Gardening, bicycling, yard work, dancing, stair climbing, moderate-heavy house cleaning, swimming, brisk walking and working out.
Fruits and Vegetables Any vegetable orAny fruit or 100% 100% vegetablefruit juice counts juice counts as aas part of the Fruit member of theGroup. Vegetable Group. Vegetable may beFruits may be raw or cooked;fresh, canned fresh, frozen,frozen, or dried, canned, orand may be dried/dehydrated,whole, cut-up, or and may be whole,pureed. cut-up, or massed.
Protein Foods All foods made from meat, poultry, seafood, beans and peas, eggs, processed soy products, nuts, and seeds are considered part of the Protein Foods Group. Beans and peas are also part of the Vegetable Group.
Nutrition In The Fast Lane • Use healthy eating habits and exercise to combat cancer, diabetes and heart disease. Combining both regularly and in enough quantity will give you an overall push in the right the direction to a better and healthy quality of life.
Bibliography • American Cancer Society, Cancer facts and figures 2009, Atlanta: American Cancer Society, 2009. • Park Y, Hunter DJ, Spiegelman D, et al. Dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer: a pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies. JAMA 2005:294;2849-2857. • P.A. Futrea, L. Coin, M. Marshall, T. Dowen, T. Hubbard, r. Wooster, et. al., A census of human cancer genes, Nat. Rev. Cancer 4 (2004) 177-183. • Y.J. Surh, Cancer Chemoprevention with dietary phytochemicals, Nat. Rev. Cancer 3 (2003) 768-780. • The Diabetes Control and Complication Trial research group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development of long-term complications in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1993;329;997-86.