Why and How to Write APA-Style Citations in the Body and Reference Section of Your Papers Drew C. ApplebyIndiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
HOW AND WHY TO WRITE APA-STYLE CITATIONSAuthor Contact Information:Dr. Drew C. ApplebyIUPUI Department of Psychology402 North Blackford StreetIndianapolis, IN 46202-3275Copyright 2010 by Drew C. Appleby.
The purpose of this presentation is toexplain WHY it is necessary to cite thesources you use to support what youwrite in your papers and HOW to citethese sources in correct APA styleaccording to the 6th edition of thePublication Manual of the AmericanPsychological Association.
APA-Style Citations in the Body of Your Paper
What is the purpose of includingAPA-style citations in the bodyof a paper?• Give appropriate credit to the person or persons whose words or ideas you are using to support what you have written in your paper.• If you do not give credit to those whose work you use, you are guilty of plagiarism
Remember that for this class, youare not allowed to use quotationsin your paper.
If you paraphrase from a source give the author(s) credit for their ideas as follows:• According to Jones and Smith (2009), phobias can be treated more successfully by cognitive therapy than psychoanalysis.• According to some researchers (Jones & Smith, 2009), phobias can be treated more successfully…
When citing sources that have a lot of authors• The 1st time you cite in-text, include all authors if there are 5 or less authors: – Jones, Smith, Webber, and Connor (2009) discuss… – Previous research supports the idea of the social exclusion principle (Jones, Smith, Webber, & Connor, 2009).• The 2nd time you cite in-text (or if there are more than 5 authors): – Jones et al. (2012) showed that… – Previous research indicates that memory for items is better when the item is at the beginning of a list (Jones et al., 2012).
If you refer to a primary source (e.g., ajournal article by Jones) you read aboutin a secondary source (e.g., a textbookby Smith), you must create the followingtype of citation: DO NOT DO THIS! Find the original article and read it yourself
Important details to remember...• Use an ampersand (&) between authors when their names are within parentheses.. . . is an effective treatment (Smith & Jones, 2009).• Use a regular and between authors when their names are not within parentheses.. . . is the most effective treatment according to Smith and Jones (1999).• If your source does not have a date, replace the date in the citation with n.d., which is the abbreviation for “no date.”. . . British Psychological Association (n.d.).
APA-Style Citationsin the Reference Section of Your Paper
What is the purpose of APA-stylecitations in a reference section? The citations in your reference section provide your readers with the information necessary to retrieve the sources you cited in the body of your paper by performing a library or online search.
What questions are answered inan APA-style reference that willenable a reader to perform asuccessful search?• Who wrote this document?• When was it written?• What was its title?• Where was it published?
ExampleSuppose you paraphrased informationfrom a journal article entitled “Sexyred: Perceived sexual receptivitymediates the red-attraction relation inmen viewing woman” that waswritten in 2012 in the Journal ofExperimental Psychology.
Who wrote it?Pazda, A.D., Elliot, A.J., & Greitmeyer, T.
When was it written?Pazda, A.D., Elliot, A.J., & Greitmeyer, T. (2012)
What was its title?Pazda, A.D., Elliot, A.J., & Greitmeyer, T. (2012). Sexy red:Perceived sexual receptivity mediates the red-attractionrelation in men viewing woman.
Who published it?Pazda, A.D., Elliot, A.J., & Greitmeyer, T. (2012).Sexy red: Perceived sexual receptivity mediatesthe red-attraction relation in men viewing woman.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Be sure to capitalize the first letter of each of the major words in the journal title.
What volume (and pages) was it published in?Pazda, A.D., Elliot, A.J., & Greitmeyer, T. (2012). Sexy red: Perceived sexual receptivity mediates the red-attraction relation in men viewing woman. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology,48, 787- 790.
Important details to remember...• Spacing• Use of the ampersand (&)• Use of italics• Capitalization• Hanging indentation• Primary and secondary sources
Spacing Follow each punctuation mark (e.g., comma, period, and colon) with one space.Pazda, A.D., Elliot, A.J., & Greitmeyer, T. (2012). Sexy red: Perceived sexual receptivity mediates the red-attraction relation in men viewing woman. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology,48, 787- 790.
Use of the ampersand (&) Use an ampersand before the final author and precede it with a comma.Pazda, A.D., Elliot, A.J., & Greitmeyer, T. (2012). Sexy red: Perceived sexual receptivity mediates the red-attraction relation in men viewing woman. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology,48, 787- 790.
Use of italics Italicize the title of the journal article.Pazda, A.D., Elliot, A.J., & Greitmeyer, T. (2012). Sexy red: Perceived sexual receptivity mediates the red-attraction relation in men viewing woman. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology,48, 787- 790.
Capitalization Capitalize only the first word in the title of an article, except for proper nouns and the first word that follows a colon.Pazda, A.D., Elliot, A.J., & Greitmeyer, T. (2012). Sexy red: Perceived sexual receptivity mediates the red-attraction relation in men viewing woman. Journal ofExperimental Social Psychology,48, 787-790.
Hanging paragraph indentation Use your word processor’s hanging indent command to indent the second and all following lines of your reference. Pazda, A.D., Elliot, A.J., & Greitmeyer, T. (2012). Sexy red: Perceived sexual receptivity mediates the red-attraction relation in men viewing woman. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology,48, 787- 790.
Important exceptions to these rules
All the important words in the title of ajournal are capitalized, and the journal titleand its volume number are italicized. If pagenumbers start at 1 in each issue of a volume,put the issue number in parenthesis—but notin italics—immediately after the volumenumber. Jones, L. K. (2003). The social life of chimpanzees. Journal of Animal Behavior, 7(2), 1-18.
If two citations by the same author(s) with the samedate appear in the text of your paper, one will appearas Jones (2006a) and the other will appear as Jones(2006b). The a or b will be determined by how theyare alphabetized in the reference section, not theorder in which they appear in the text. In this case,the citations in the reference section would look likethe following because the B in Birds comes beforethe Z in Zebra. (Please note that an A or a The at thebeginning of a title is ignored in the alphabetizingprocess.)Jones, T. J. (2006a). Birds are smart creatures. Dallas, TX: Harcourt.Jones, T. J. (2006b). A zebra is a striped horse. Peoria, IL: Wiley.
Online Scholarly Journal Article: Citing DOIsAccording to The APA Style Guide to Electronic References, 6 th edition,you should use the DOI format which the article appears with. Becauseonline materials can potentially change URLs, APA recommendsproviding a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), when it is available, asopposed to the URL. DOIs are an attempt to provide stable, long-lastinglinks for online articles. They are unique to their documents and consist ofa long alphanumeric code. Many-but not all-publishers will provide anarticles DOI on the first page of the document.Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title ofarticle.Title of Journal, volume number, page range.doi:0000000/000000000000Brownlie, D. (2007). Toward effective poster presentations:An annotated bibliography. European Journal of Marketing,41, 1245-1283. doi:10.1108/03090560710821161
Writing Papers in APA Format• Aside from citations, APA formatting has other requirements for written work in the field of Psychology (manuscripts).
APA-Style Writing• Manuscript – Title Page • Includes: – Running head – Page number – Title – Author name(s) – Affiliation
APA-Style Writing• Manuscript – Abstract • 150-250 word summary of the entire article • Block writing format
APA-Style Writing• Manuscript – Introduction • Purpose of the introduction is to introduce the topic and place the topic into the context of research in the field • Inverted triangle format
Figure 15.1 The Inverted Triangle Represents the Way an Introduction should be Written.
APA-Style Writing• Manuscript – Introduction
APA-Style Writing• Manuscript – Method • Provides reader with information about how the study was conducted • Contains information on the: – Design – Participants – Controls used – Step by step description of what happened
APA-Style Writing• Manuscript – Results • Where you present your findings to the readers • Provides information on the descriptive and inferential statistics used and the outcomes
APA-Style Writing• Manuscript – Discussion • Restate the purposes of the study • Evaluate hypotheses • Relate results to prior research • Identify limitations
APA-Style Writing• Manuscript – References • List of all works cited in the paper – Tables & Figures • Visual representations of results not reported in the manuscript
The End Please note that for the weekly review you will need todetermine if a citation is in APA format (or not).