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Erick Peisker

Erick Peisker



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    Mexicanos Mexicanos Presentation Transcript

    • Mexicanos by Manuel G Gonzales. Erick Peisker
    • Spaniards and Native Americans
      • Chapter 1: Prehistory - 1521
    • The Spanish
      • After the collapse of the Roman Empire the rise of the Spaniards were the next most influential group on history.
      • As the Spanish united the country and defeated the Moors (Muslims) out of Spain they embraced Catholicism and began to clear the country of Jews and Muslims.
      • Christopher Columbus- from Genoa came to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella for funding.
      • The Columbus Expedition- with the Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria had him land somewhere in the Bahamas, effectively discovering the New World.
    • The First Peoples.
      • It is believed that they are descendants from nomads that came over a land bridge from Asia.
      • The first great civilizations developed n the lowlands of southern Vera Cruz and Tabasco.
      • All pre-Columbian people had advanced agriculture techniques and architecture that had more precision than Europe at that time.
      • Incas, Mayans, Aztecs were all great civilizations that grew in their prospective areas with extra ordinary accomplishments.
    • The Conquest
      • Upon arrival the Conquistadores saw the natives as children of god – although respected they saw them as young and ignorant and felt they had to save them with Christianity.
      • Soon found themselves conquered and converted by explorers like Cortez. Disease and warfare left these great civilizations weak and submissive.
      • Mexico began to resemble two worlds, that of the old and new and a fusion of ideas and lives began.
    • The Spanish Frontier
      • Chapter 2: 1521-1821
    • Spanish Exploration
      • As the Spanish began to settle the New World they began to shape the culture by marrying the natives. Their offspring became known as Mestizas.
      • Spanish conquest pushed northward. Explorers and priests did the initial work.
      • Driven by a search for gold, silver and a passageway to the East.
      • They began pushing into Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and Alta California.
    • Settlement
      • A string of settlements often near rivers or Indian Pueblos sprung up.
      • The missions that were set up played a smaller role in settlement, but many found the great cities we know today in California.
      • Often settlers found themselves battling the hostile Indians. Later they also found themselves encroached upon by other old world settlers.
    • New Beginnings
      • The settlers found a hard life. But often old world laws carried over. Many of those favored women who could own land or a business, drink or gamble.
      • The imposed caste system by Spain becomes blurred, but there is a class of haves and have nots.
      • Spanish exploration ended around the time of settlement of Alta California as the Spanish Empire was slowly loosing it’s reign.
      • American Manifest Destiny began to influence and later stop settlement of the Southwest.
    • The Mexican Far North Chapter 3: 1821-1848
    • Spain’s Loss
      • The collapse of the Spanish Empire due to it’s financial and military losses encouraged independence.
      • Mexico developed out of the need for protection from the hostile Indian Nations.
      • Rich in natural resources, it soon found itself mismanaged.
    • Texas
      • The Texas revolt in 1836, when Gen. Santa Ana and his army attacked the Alamo.
      • This began a string of events that led to the Anglo- Austin to come to power in Texas and hope to join the U.S.
      • The U.S. was in the middle of a dispute that would become the American Civil War and the entry of Texas was postponed.
      • Many Mexicans felt that this was an ultimate betrayal and felt it had been designed by the U.S. government.
    • Mexican American War
      • The Mexican War of 1847 –
        • U.S. Government actions forced Mexico to defend itself and in turn allowed the congress to declare war in defense.
        • The war was a manipulation that resulted in the loss and surrender of vast lands across the southwest. California, New Mexico and Texas were all lost.
        • This loss would demoralize the Mexican nation for years to come and damage relations with the U.S.A.
    • The American Southwest Chapter 4: 1848-1900
    • California
      • The Anglo invasion quickly out numbered the New Spanish in the area.
      • Ranches were for the most part reclaimed from the Mexicans due to lack of deeds or other paperwork that the government circumnavigated around.
      • The discovery of gold further pushed the New Spaniards down the economic ladder as racial prejudice saw them pushed out of gold strikes.
    • Arizona
      • The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgos and the Gadsden Purchase left the Mexican settlers part of the new U.S.
      • The Hispanic elite’s power waned as railroads realigned fortunes and more Anglos moved in.
      • Overall racial agreement was present here more than other areas of integration.
    • The Great Migration Chapter 5: 1900-1930
    • Revolution
      • The Mexican Revolution violence was spilling North and many fled to the U.S. for safety and work.
      • The Mexican Government made choices that benefited few and helped profits of foreign investors.
      • Diaz begins his rule.
    • Immigration
      • In the first 3 decades of the 20 th century it is estimated that over 1 million Mexicans entered the U.S.
      • Many came with no intention of staying, quite different from other immigrant groups at the time.
      • A series of laws excluding other ethnic groups made it easier to turn a blind eye to Mexicans immigrating to fill needed labor positions.
    • Mexican-American War Aftermath
      • A growing discontent within the Mexican people
      • From 1821 to 1876 the Mexican presidency changed hands 75 times.
      • Many left for better economic fortunes.
      • This time period seriously repressed the Mexican people and hurt their drive and ambition.
      • A growing distrust of the U.S. and its laws developed.
    • The Depression Chapter 6: 1930 -1940
    • Racial Tensions
      • After the economic collapse of the Great Depression and later Dust Bowl migration, Mexicans were targets for Anglo Americans.
      • They had to fight the stereo –type of being dirty, lazy, and violent that sprung up after the Mexican American war and fanned by American media.
      • Repatriation to Mexico began to push out many illegal immigrants and also the ones that could not show documentation that may have been born here.
    • Labor
      • A growing self awareness began the labor movement to protect it’s citizens.
      • Some found allies with communist idealists since they were the only ones open to helping or accepting Mexicans into their labor movements.
      • The days of the silent hard worker were coming to an end.
    • Urbanization
      • The depression was a catalyst in the urban push, especially in the Southwest.
      • Mexican barrios began on the outside of major population centers – East Los Angeles for example.
      • The barrios provided a sense of community, but also led to inner city strife and poverty.
    • The Second World War and Its Aftermath Chapter 7: 1940-1965
    • Military
      • Many Mexicans joined the armed services during WWII and Korea as a way to show pride in their new land, gain an economic advantage and show that they are macho.
      • Many were very valiant and some were recognized, it remained a disproportionate number that were sacrificed compared to other ethnic groups.
    • Workers
      • While U.S. GIs were off at war, workers were needed in factories, railroads, mines, and in agriculture.
      • U.S. began the Bracero temporary worker program, even though it was a legal program it really served big business better than the average citizen.
      • Illegal immigration continued.
      • Chicano women took a deeper role in the workforce.
    • Urbanization
      • Gang violence and the image of the “greaser” is beginning to take root in some communities.
      • Zoot Suit period with the Pachuco gang wearing baggy high-waisted pants and a feathered hat.
      • The first generation of American born Chicanos begins to influence cities as they begin to cement roots while holding onto culture and tradition of the old country.
    • The Chicano Movement Chapter 8: 1965-1975
    • Chicano Movement
      • Consisted of hundreds of organizations focusing on a variety of issues.
      • The key organization representing their perspective was undoubtedly the United Farm Workers (UFW) led by Cesar Chavez.
      • No mainstream leader developed to champion all their causes as Martin Luther King Jr. had become for Black America.
    • Chicano Student Movement
      • By 1970 the Chicano movement was increasingly dominated by young people.
        • Focused on the problems they experienced at these educational institutions.
        • Students were heavily committed to the idea of cultural regeneration- glorification of the homeland.
      • Students also became very focused on the growing sentiment against the Vietnam War and the large numbers of Chicanos serving with little recognition and seemingly disproportionate numbers to other groups.
    • The Chicana Movement
      • Around 1970 a new force began to surface in the community- feminism.
      • They found themselves often worse off than their male comrades.
      • The movement began to be divided into two categories – “loyalists” and “feminists.”
      • Welfare rights, child care, sexual discrimination in employment, abortion and birth control were all heated topics.
    • Goodbye to Aztlan Chapter 9: 1975-1994
    • Demographics
      • Mexicanos maintained a high profile in American society after the 1970s.
        • Bilingualism and affirmative action.
        • Hispanics saw an enormous increase of 61% between 1970 and 1980. And another 53% between 1980 and 1990.
        • A resurgence in Mexican Immigration and the challenges it brought with it.
        • An increased main stream political interest develops.
    • Religion
      • Catholic Church makes a resurgence as the number of religious decline. The church becomes involved in bigger issues of Mexican interest like immigration policy.
      • Evangelical religions that promote a closer relationship with Jesus become more popular since they relate to Mexican cultural issues on a daily basis.
    • Feminism
      • The second wave of Chicano feminists begins
      • The first wave was seen as too academic and had a lesbian influence/bias.
      • Women begin to find a voice in culture and in politics.
      • We see a movement away from being just Chicano to being empowered Latinas, as the culture begins to merge with other Hispanic influences.
    • The Hispanic Challenge Chapter 10:1994-Present
    • Immigration
      • A new wave of Nativism sprung up in the mid 1990s and appears to be cyclical in turn with the strength of the economy.
      • The debate over illegal migration continues and no temporary worker program or amnesty for those already here illegally exists.
      • Discrimination is rising and most reforms are tied to security measures that have been debated since 9/11 as the war on terrorism.
    • Socioeconomic
      • Mexicans are moving to new areas previous untouched by their culture in an effort to fill more jobs.
      • Most legal residents still have some ties to their old country and many send back remittances.
      • A stronger Mexican middle class is developing. It is beginning to embrace other protestant religions and become more involved in politics.
      • A shift to the Republican party is beginning, since both groups share more traditional conservative values.
    • Culture
      • In the last 10 years Mexicans have made great impressions on the culture.
      • Mexican food and culture are prevalent throughout the United States.
      • Mexican stories are becoming a part of television and film and many Mexican American actors are becoming more famous.
      • Mexico dominates the U.S. world of boxing and has many major players in baseball and soccer.
      • Spanish language media – newspapers, TV, and Internet are all widely available.
      • Mexican music and pop stars have become part of the American culture.