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  1. 1. Mexicanos by Manuel G Gonzales. Erick Peisker
  2. 2. Spaniards and Native Americans <ul><li>Chapter 1: Prehistory - 1521 </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Spanish <ul><li>After the collapse of the Roman Empire the rise of the Spaniards were the next most influential group on history. </li></ul><ul><li>As the Spanish united the country and defeated the Moors (Muslims) out of Spain they embraced Catholicism and began to clear the country of Jews and Muslims. </li></ul><ul><li>Christopher Columbus- from Genoa came to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella for funding. </li></ul><ul><li>The Columbus Expedition- with the Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria had him land somewhere in the Bahamas, effectively discovering the New World. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The First Peoples. <ul><li>It is believed that they are descendants from nomads that came over a land bridge from Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>The first great civilizations developed n the lowlands of southern Vera Cruz and Tabasco. </li></ul><ul><li>All pre-Columbian people had advanced agriculture techniques and architecture that had more precision than Europe at that time. </li></ul><ul><li>Incas, Mayans, Aztecs were all great civilizations that grew in their prospective areas with extra ordinary accomplishments. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Conquest <ul><li>Upon arrival the Conquistadores saw the natives as children of god – although respected they saw them as young and ignorant and felt they had to save them with Christianity. </li></ul><ul><li>Soon found themselves conquered and converted by explorers like Cortez. Disease and warfare left these great civilizations weak and submissive. </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico began to resemble two worlds, that of the old and new and a fusion of ideas and lives began. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Spanish Frontier <ul><li>Chapter 2: 1521-1821 </li></ul>
  7. 7. Spanish Exploration <ul><li>As the Spanish began to settle the New World they began to shape the culture by marrying the natives. Their offspring became known as Mestizas. </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish conquest pushed northward. Explorers and priests did the initial work. </li></ul><ul><li>Driven by a search for gold, silver and a passageway to the East. </li></ul><ul><li>They began pushing into Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and Alta California. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Settlement <ul><li>A string of settlements often near rivers or Indian Pueblos sprung up. </li></ul><ul><li>The missions that were set up played a smaller role in settlement, but many found the great cities we know today in California. </li></ul><ul><li>Often settlers found themselves battling the hostile Indians. Later they also found themselves encroached upon by other old world settlers. </li></ul>
  9. 9. New Beginnings <ul><li>The settlers found a hard life. But often old world laws carried over. Many of those favored women who could own land or a business, drink or gamble. </li></ul><ul><li>The imposed caste system by Spain becomes blurred, but there is a class of haves and have nots. </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish exploration ended around the time of settlement of Alta California as the Spanish Empire was slowly loosing it’s reign. </li></ul><ul><li>American Manifest Destiny began to influence and later stop settlement of the Southwest. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Mexican Far North Chapter 3: 1821-1848
  11. 11. Spain’s Loss <ul><li>The collapse of the Spanish Empire due to it’s financial and military losses encouraged independence. </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico developed out of the need for protection from the hostile Indian Nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Rich in natural resources, it soon found itself mismanaged. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Texas <ul><li>The Texas revolt in 1836, when Gen. Santa Ana and his army attacked the Alamo. </li></ul><ul><li>This began a string of events that led to the Anglo- Austin to come to power in Texas and hope to join the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. was in the middle of a dispute that would become the American Civil War and the entry of Texas was postponed. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Mexicans felt that this was an ultimate betrayal and felt it had been designed by the U.S. government. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Mexican American War <ul><li>The Mexican War of 1847 – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. Government actions forced Mexico to defend itself and in turn allowed the congress to declare war in defense. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The war was a manipulation that resulted in the loss and surrender of vast lands across the southwest. California, New Mexico and Texas were all lost. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This loss would demoralize the Mexican nation for years to come and damage relations with the U.S.A. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The American Southwest Chapter 4: 1848-1900
  15. 15. California <ul><li>The Anglo invasion quickly out numbered the New Spanish in the area. </li></ul><ul><li>Ranches were for the most part reclaimed from the Mexicans due to lack of deeds or other paperwork that the government circumnavigated around. </li></ul><ul><li>The discovery of gold further pushed the New Spaniards down the economic ladder as racial prejudice saw them pushed out of gold strikes. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Arizona <ul><li>The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgos and the Gadsden Purchase left the Mexican settlers part of the new U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>The Hispanic elite’s power waned as railroads realigned fortunes and more Anglos moved in. </li></ul><ul><li>Overall racial agreement was present here more than other areas of integration. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Great Migration Chapter 5: 1900-1930
  18. 18. Revolution <ul><li>The Mexican Revolution violence was spilling North and many fled to the U.S. for safety and work. </li></ul><ul><li>The Mexican Government made choices that benefited few and helped profits of foreign investors. </li></ul><ul><li>Diaz begins his rule. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Immigration <ul><li>In the first 3 decades of the 20 th century it is estimated that over 1 million Mexicans entered the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Many came with no intention of staying, quite different from other immigrant groups at the time. </li></ul><ul><li>A series of laws excluding other ethnic groups made it easier to turn a blind eye to Mexicans immigrating to fill needed labor positions. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Mexican-American War Aftermath <ul><li>A growing discontent within the Mexican people </li></ul><ul><li>From 1821 to 1876 the Mexican presidency changed hands 75 times. </li></ul><ul><li>Many left for better economic fortunes. </li></ul><ul><li>This time period seriously repressed the Mexican people and hurt their drive and ambition. </li></ul><ul><li>A growing distrust of the U.S. and its laws developed. </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Depression Chapter 6: 1930 -1940
  22. 22. Racial Tensions <ul><li>After the economic collapse of the Great Depression and later Dust Bowl migration, Mexicans were targets for Anglo Americans. </li></ul><ul><li>They had to fight the stereo –type of being dirty, lazy, and violent that sprung up after the Mexican American war and fanned by American media. </li></ul><ul><li>Repatriation to Mexico began to push out many illegal immigrants and also the ones that could not show documentation that may have been born here. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Labor <ul><li>A growing self awareness began the labor movement to protect it’s citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>Some found allies with communist idealists since they were the only ones open to helping or accepting Mexicans into their labor movements. </li></ul><ul><li>The days of the silent hard worker were coming to an end. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Urbanization <ul><li>The depression was a catalyst in the urban push, especially in the Southwest. </li></ul><ul><li>Mexican barrios began on the outside of major population centers – East Los Angeles for example. </li></ul><ul><li>The barrios provided a sense of community, but also led to inner city strife and poverty. </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Second World War and Its Aftermath Chapter 7: 1940-1965
  26. 26. Military <ul><li>Many Mexicans joined the armed services during WWII and Korea as a way to show pride in their new land, gain an economic advantage and show that they are macho. </li></ul><ul><li>Many were very valiant and some were recognized, it remained a disproportionate number that were sacrificed compared to other ethnic groups. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Workers <ul><li>While U.S. GIs were off at war, workers were needed in factories, railroads, mines, and in agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. began the Bracero temporary worker program, even though it was a legal program it really served big business better than the average citizen. </li></ul><ul><li>Illegal immigration continued. </li></ul><ul><li>Chicano women took a deeper role in the workforce. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Urbanization <ul><li>Gang violence and the image of the “greaser” is beginning to take root in some communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Zoot Suit period with the Pachuco gang wearing baggy high-waisted pants and a feathered hat. </li></ul><ul><li>The first generation of American born Chicanos begins to influence cities as they begin to cement roots while holding onto culture and tradition of the old country. </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Chicano Movement Chapter 8: 1965-1975
  30. 30. Chicano Movement <ul><li>Consisted of hundreds of organizations focusing on a variety of issues. </li></ul><ul><li>The key organization representing their perspective was undoubtedly the United Farm Workers (UFW) led by Cesar Chavez. </li></ul><ul><li>No mainstream leader developed to champion all their causes as Martin Luther King Jr. had become for Black America. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Chicano Student Movement <ul><li>By 1970 the Chicano movement was increasingly dominated by young people. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on the problems they experienced at these educational institutions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students were heavily committed to the idea of cultural regeneration- glorification of the homeland. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Students also became very focused on the growing sentiment against the Vietnam War and the large numbers of Chicanos serving with little recognition and seemingly disproportionate numbers to other groups. </li></ul>
  32. 32. The Chicana Movement <ul><li>Around 1970 a new force began to surface in the community- feminism. </li></ul><ul><li>They found themselves often worse off than their male comrades. </li></ul><ul><li>The movement began to be divided into two categories – “loyalists” and “feminists.” </li></ul><ul><li>Welfare rights, child care, sexual discrimination in employment, abortion and birth control were all heated topics. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Goodbye to Aztlan Chapter 9: 1975-1994
  34. 34. Demographics <ul><li>Mexicanos maintained a high profile in American society after the 1970s. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bilingualism and affirmative action. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hispanics saw an enormous increase of 61% between 1970 and 1980. And another 53% between 1980 and 1990. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A resurgence in Mexican Immigration and the challenges it brought with it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An increased main stream political interest develops. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Religion <ul><li>Catholic Church makes a resurgence as the number of religious decline. The church becomes involved in bigger issues of Mexican interest like immigration policy. </li></ul><ul><li>Evangelical religions that promote a closer relationship with Jesus become more popular since they relate to Mexican cultural issues on a daily basis. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Feminism <ul><li>The second wave of Chicano feminists begins </li></ul><ul><li>The first wave was seen as too academic and had a lesbian influence/bias. </li></ul><ul><li>Women begin to find a voice in culture and in politics. </li></ul><ul><li>We see a movement away from being just Chicano to being empowered Latinas, as the culture begins to merge with other Hispanic influences. </li></ul>
  37. 37. The Hispanic Challenge Chapter 10:1994-Present
  38. 38. Immigration <ul><li>A new wave of Nativism sprung up in the mid 1990s and appears to be cyclical in turn with the strength of the economy. </li></ul><ul><li>The debate over illegal migration continues and no temporary worker program or amnesty for those already here illegally exists. </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination is rising and most reforms are tied to security measures that have been debated since 9/11 as the war on terrorism. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Socioeconomic <ul><li>Mexicans are moving to new areas previous untouched by their culture in an effort to fill more jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Most legal residents still have some ties to their old country and many send back remittances. </li></ul><ul><li>A stronger Mexican middle class is developing. It is beginning to embrace other protestant religions and become more involved in politics. </li></ul><ul><li>A shift to the Republican party is beginning, since both groups share more traditional conservative values. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Culture <ul><li>In the last 10 years Mexicans have made great impressions on the culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Mexican food and culture are prevalent throughout the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>Mexican stories are becoming a part of television and film and many Mexican American actors are becoming more famous. </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico dominates the U.S. world of boxing and has many major players in baseball and soccer. </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish language media – newspapers, TV, and Internet are all widely available. </li></ul><ul><li>Mexican music and pop stars have become part of the American culture. </li></ul>