Future Interface : What the last 50+ Years of Modern Computing History May Tell us About the Future.

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The age of modern computing is now dates back than half a century. What key accomplishments in the field over these past decades have notably shaped computing today? And what trends and practices today are likely to have an affect on the future of computing?

In this lively presentation, Mike Amundsen - author, presenter, and software architect - highlights key trends in the past fifty years; drawing from diverse sources including physical architecture, industrial design, the psychology of perception, and cross-cultural mono-myth that helped to shape both the art and business of computing today and discusses current social and technological trends that may have a hand in shaping the future of computing. He asks attendees to consider what the future of computing will look like and what business and individuals can do today to prepare for, and influence, computing's future. Amundsen, whose latest book "Building Hypermedia APIs with HTML5 and Node" has been called "[O]ne of the biggest conceptual advances since Roy Fielding first defined the REST architectural style" will focus on the role APIs can play and how hypermedia and other non-linear, collaborative models can influence the way humans and machines communicate in a future "programmable civilization."

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Future Interface : What the last 50+ Years of Modern Computing History May Tell us About the Future.

  1. 1. Future Interface: What 50+ years of modern computing history may tell us aboutMike Amundsen the future.Principal API Architect@mamund 1
  2. 2. Mike Amundsen Architect, Developer, Presenter Hypermedia Junkie Principal API Architect for Layer 7 “Help people build great APIs for the Web” Personal Mission “Improve the quality and usability of information on the Web.” 2
  3. 3. What concepts and ideas haveinfluenced systems computing? 3
  4. 4. How have these ideas affected the way we think of the Web today? 4
  5. 5. What does this tell us about a possible future? 5
  6. 6. There is much we can learn from our history… If we choose. 6
  7. 7. EARLY CONCEPTS 7
  8. 8. Vannevar Bush Memex, 1945 Key project leader on the Manhattan Project to build the first nuclear bomb. “ A memex …is an enlarged intimate supplement to … memory.” “With one item in its grasp, [the mind] snaps instantly to the next that is suggested by the association of thoughts, in accordance with some intricate web of trails carried by the cells of the brain.” 8
  9. 9. Vannevar Bush - Memex 9
  10. 10. Vannevar Bush - Memex 10
  11. 11. Vannevar Bush - memex 11
  12. 12. Vannevar Bush - memex Mimic human linking using a machine 12
  13. 13. Ted Nelson Hypertext, 1963 Identified and popularized early “cyber-culture” in 1979 book “Computer Lib/Machine Dreams” “If computers are the wave of the future, displays are the surfboards.” 13
  14. 14. Ted Nelson - Hypertext 14
  15. 15. Ted Nelson - Hypertext 15
  16. 16. Ted Nelson - HypertextDescribe how linking works in a network 16
  17. 17. Douglas Engelbart Computer mouse, 1965 Key to creating the ARPANET while at Stanford Research, Institue (SRI). “Augmenting Human Intellect”, 1962 “[A] new and systematic approach to improving the intellectual effectiveness of the individual human being … One of the tools that shows the greatest immediate promise is the computer.” 17
  18. 18. Douglas Engelbart - computer mouse 18
  19. 19. Douglas Engelbart - computer mouse 19
  20. 20. Douglas Engelbart - computer mouse 20
  21. 21. Douglas Engelbart - computer mouse Build the hardware that makes the linked network possible 21
  22. 22. Early Concepts Bush (1945) Mimic human linking using a machine Nelson (1963) Describe how linking works in a network Engelbart (1965) Build the hardware that makes the linked network possible 22
  23. 23. AFFECTED SYSTEMS 23
  24. 24. Christopher Alexander The Timeless Way of Building, 1979 Father of the “patterns” movement “Complexity is one of the great problems in … design” “There is one timeless way of building. It is a thousand years old, and the same today as it has ever been. The great traditional buildings of the past, the villages and tents and temples in which man feels at home, have always been made by people who were very close to the center of this way.” 24
  25. 25. Christopher Alexander - Patterns 25
  26. 26. Christopher Alexander - Patterns 26
  27. 27. Christopher Alexander - Patterns Identify patterns for thinking and acting 27
  28. 28. Donald Norman The Design of Everyday Things, 1988 Action Lifecycle, Seven Stages of Action “In the world” and “In the head” “Simplification is as much in the mind as it is in the device.” “Design is really an act of communication.” 28
  29. 29. Donald Norman - HCI 29
  30. 30. Donald Norman - HCI 30
  31. 31. Donald Norman - HCI 31
  32. 32. Donald Norman - HCI Identify the cycle we all use for interaction 32
  33. 33. Roy T. Fielding Architectural Styles and the Design of Network-based Software Architectures, 2000 Created “REST” Key in the startup and operation of the “Apache Foundation” Representations and Hypermedia “A resource is not the thing that is transferred across the wire or picked up off the disk or seen from afar while walking your dog. Each of those is only a representation. Do I think of a different identifier every time I see my dog, or do I simply think of my dog as one identity and experience many representations of that identity over time (and on into memory and imagination)? 33
  34. 34. Roy T. Fielding - REST 34
  35. 35. Roy T. Fielding - REST 35
  36. 36. Roy T. Fielding - REST 36
  37. 37. Roy T. Fielding - REST Codify a model for creating new systems based on patterns and interactions 37
  38. 38. Affected Systems Christopher Alexander (1979) Identify patterns for thinking and acting Donald Norman (1988) Identify the cycle we all use for interaction Roy T. Fielding (2000) Codify a model for creating new systems based on patterns and interactions 38
  39. 39. FUTURES 39
  40. 40. Git/Github Launched in 2008 A web-based hosting service for software development projects that use the Git revision control system. “Bad programmers worry about the code. Good programmers worry about data structures and their relationships.” – Linus Torvalds 40
  41. 41. Git/Github – social coding 41
  42. 42. Git/Github – social coding 42
  43. 43. Git/Github – social coding 43
  44. 44. Git/Github – social coding 44
  45. 45. Git/Github Enable collaborative interaction at distances (of time and space) 45
  46. 46. Ryan Dahl Node.js, 2009 Makes network latency “a feature” “Node.js [is] perfect for data-intensive real-time applications that run across distributed devices.” – Ryan Dahl It is more like C than it is like Python, and that is by design.” – Isaac Schlueter 46
  47. 47. Ryan Dahl – Node.js 47
  48. 48. Ryan Dahl – Node.js 48
  49. 49. Ryan Dahl – Node.js 49
  50. 50. Ryan Dahl – Node.js 50
  51. 51. Ryan Dahl – Node.js 51
  52. 52. Ryan Dahl – Node.js Embrace latency as a feature in networks 52
  53. 53. Rich Hickey Clojure 2007, Datomic, 2010 “Code is data” “The past doesn’t change” “Clojure is a functional language that explicitly supports programs as models and provides robust and easy-to-use facilities for managing identity and state in a single process in the face of concurrency.” “ We need to move away from a notion of state as ‘the content of this memory block’ to one of ‘the value currently associated with this identity’” 53
  54. 54. Rich Hickey - Datomic 54
  55. 55. Rich Hickey - Datomic 55
  56. 56. Rich Hickey - Datomic 56
  57. 57. Rich Hickey - Datomic Recognize that all data is immutable, we just have lots of copies w/ shared identity 57
  58. 58. Eric Schweikardt Cubelets, 2012 PhD in Architecture at Carnegie Mellon University “Unlike contemporary robots in which a single “brain” controls the entire robot, robots formed with [Cubelets] are made up of individual parts that have different functions, yet work in unison to form the entire model.” “People have a hard time thinking about complex problems.” 58
  59. 59. Eric Schweikardt - Cubelets 59
  60. 60. Eric Schweikardt - Cubelets 60
  61. 61. Eric Schweikardt - Cubelets 61
  62. 62. Eric Schweikardt - Cubelets 62
  63. 63. Eric Schweikardt - Cubelets 63
  64. 64. Eric Schweikardt - Cubelets Design systems to enable emergent behaviors 64
  65. 65. Futures Ryan Dahl Embrace latency as a feature in networks Rich Hickey Recognize that all data is immutable, we just have lots of copies with shared identity. Eric Schweikardt Design systems to enable emergent behaviors 65
  66. 66. CHOICES 66
  67. 67. Choices What does the future hold? 67
  68. 68. Imperative vs. declarative 68
  69. 69. Centralized vs. distributed 69
  70. 70. Bigger/”smarter” vs. Smaller/”dumber” 70
  71. 71. Controlled vs. Collaborative 71
  72. 72. ONE POSSIBLE FUTURE 72
  73. 73. One possible future What I would like to see… 73
  74. 74. One possible future The type of system I’d like to use… 74
  75. 75. One possible future The kind I want to help build… 75
  76. 76. One possible future That future would be… 76
  77. 77. One possible futureSystems composed of many small independent units… 77
  78. 78. One possible future Each unit based on timeless patterns… 78
  79. 79. One possible futureAble to bridge the gulf of execution and evaluation… 79
  80. 80. One possible future All widely distributed… 80
  81. 81. One possible future Capable of operating as a collective 81
  82. 82. One possible future In order to augment human intellect. 82
  83. 83. However… There is no single possible future… 83
  84. 84. There is no single possible future… The choice is ours. 84
  85. 85. Future Interface: What 50+ years of modern computing history may tell us aboutMike Amundsen the future.Principal API Architect@mamund 85

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