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4616192 the-present-tense-between-english-and-arabic-a-comparative-by-abdulbaseer-jamal-eid Document Transcript

  • 1. ZARQA PRIVATE UNIVERSITY <The Present Tense Between English and Arabic: A Comparative Study Submitted by : T. Abdulbaseer Jamal Eid 2006 This paper is meant to show the differences and the Jordan Amman similarities between English and Arabic present tense. 962788120771+ abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 2. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY ‫بسم الله الرحمن‬ ‫الرحيم‬ I am Abdulbaseer Eid. I was born in Lebanon. I have finished my secondary school in Zarqa city Jordan in 2003. I faced many difficulties in learning English at the beginning during my study at :‫قال تعالى‬ school so I decided to concentrate on studding English language and to be ‫{ َا أي َا الّا ُ ِّا خَقَا ُم‬ ‫ي ّه ن س إن َل ْن ك‬ specialist in this language in order to make it easy for Arabic students to learn it. I became a student in Zarqa Private University immediately after I had finished my secondary school. During my study, I wrote three researches in English language; "The Sound Systems between English and Arabic: a Comparative Study", ْ‫ّن َك ٍ َ ُنَى َ َعلْنا ُم‬ ‫م ذ َر وأ ث و ج َ ك‬ "The Present Tense between English and Arabic: a comparative Study", and "English foundational Grammar". The idea that emerged from the first two researches is to make studding English familiar to our Arabic students because they deal with the similarities and the differences between English and Arabic language. I have graduated from my University and I employed immediately at Al-Omareyah Schools in Amman. I am happy in working there because it has has a wide ‫ش و َق ئل ِتع َف ِن‬ ّ ‫ُع ُبا و َبآِ َ لَ َار ُوا إ‬ reputation with its excellent teaching with Islamic vision. I have taken many courses that deal with my work as a teacher and I have given there a preliminary TOFEL levels. Now I am still working on myself. I am doing my higher Diploma in ICT "Information Communication Technology" ْ‫َك َ َ ُمْ ِن َ ا ِ َت َا ُم‬ ‫أ ْرمك ع د ل أ ْق ك‬ in Education under the umbrella of Yarmouk University/Jordan and INHOLLAND University/ The Netherlands. In addition; I am also I am about to finish a book under the title of "The Easy Way to the High Education' this material is }ٌ ‫إ ّ ا َ عِ ٌ خِي‬ ‫ِن ل َلم َب ر‬ prepared for Al-Tawjihe Students in Jordan. It contains all the passages with a sufficient package of questions to promote students understanding "The sky is the limit to what I can do" is my slogan. -5- Teacher Abdulbaseer Jamal Eid Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 3. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY ‫صدق الله العظيم‬ "13" ‫سورة الحجرات / آيه رقم‬ Dedication To those people who mean something to me… To those who have touched my life in one way or another… To those who make me smile when I really need it…. To those that make me see the brighter side when I am really down… To those who I want to let them know that I appreciate their love and support… My Dear Father, Mother… My wife… To All of my family… My sisters, Brothers … To My friends whom I have non-forgettable moments with them… Those who share me the moments of pleasure and labor… -5- Abed Al-Qader,Khaleel, Qabas … Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 4. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY I dedicate this work. Acknowledgment I am very much indebted to my supervisor, Dr. Mua'yyed Jum'a. Without his invaluable suggestions, helps, patience and continuous guidance, I might not have complete this research in its present shape. Special thanks are addressed to all the people who have helped me throughout my work and support me in every way they could. My appreciation goes also to my family for their support, and guiding me through my educational journey. -5- Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 5. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY The Abstract This paper is meant to show the differences and the similarities between English and Arabic present tense. The first chapter shows the four forms of the present tense in English; present simple, present continuous, present perfect and perfect continuous. English like all languages; it is full of problems for the foreign learner. Some of these points are easy to explain like the form of the verb in each type of these tenses, or the spilling of the third person singular for the present simple tense. But other problems are more tricky and cause difficulty even for advance students and teachers like the use of these tenses above. E.g. present simple may give past meaning and future meaning not only present meaning. However, this chapter shows the use of each type in an easy way to be understandable for the readers in different level. The second chapter shows the main types of the Arabic present tense and the conjugation of the Arabic present tense in an easy way, showing to the readers the agreement between the subject and verb in the Arabic present tense, and how it changes the form of the verb. Moreover, this chapter shows the cases of the Arabic present tense; Inflection Case and Non-inflection Case, and the use of the Arabic present tense. -5- Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 6. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY The third chapter shows the differences and similarities between English and Arabic present tense, in the use and the form, by using explanations and examples from the two languages to be clear to the readers to note the differences and the similarities. -5- Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 7. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY List of Contents Page Number Chapter 1.The Present Tense in English 1.1 Introduction…………………………………………………....................... 1 1.2 Present Simple Tense……………………………………………………. 2 1.2.1. The definition of the Present Simple Tense…………………….. 2 1.2.2. The Form of the Present Simple Tense……………………... 2 1.2.3. Spelling of the third person singular forms…………………….. 3 1.2.4. Pronunciation of the third person singular forms…………….. 3 1.2.5. The Use of the Present Simple Tense…………………………….. 4 1.2.5.1. Present Simple refers to the Present Time………… ….............................................................................. 4 1.2.5.2. Using Simple Present Tense to refer to the future meaning………………………………………………………… 6 … 1.2.5.3. Using Present Simple to refer to the past meaning…… ……………………………………………………… 7 1.3. Present Continuous Tense………………………………………….. 8 1.3.1. The Definition of the Present Continuous Tense………………… 8 1.3.2. The Use of Present Continuous Tense…………………………….. 9 1.3.2.1. Present continuous tense for action happening now………… 9 1.3.2.2. Present continuous tense for the future…………………......... 9 1.4. Present Perfect Tense: (Past Time)…………………………............. 10 1.4.1. The Definition of the Present Perfect Tense…………………… 10 1.4.2. The Form of the Present Perfect Tense………………………… 10 1.4.3. The Use of the Present Perfect Tense………………………….. 10 1.4.3.1. Finish events connect with the present………................... 10 1.4.3.2. Finished events: new……………………………………….. 11 1.4.3.3. Finished events with expressions of 'time up to now'… 11 1.4.3.4. Repetition and continuation to now………………….......... 11 1.4.3.5. Time not mentioned…………………………………............. 11 2.5. The Present Perfect Continuous Tense: (Past Time)….........….. 12 2.5.1. The Definition of the Present Perfect Continuous…………... 12- 5 - 2.5.2. The Form of the Present Perfect Continuous Tense……...... 12 2.5.3. The Use of the Present Perfect Continuous…………………. 12 Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 8. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY Chapter 2.The Present Tense in Arabic………………………………. 13 2.1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………… 13 2.2. The Conjugation of the Arabic Present Tense……………………… 14 2.3. The inflection Case of the Arabic Present Tense………………… 16 2.3.1. Subjunctive Case (‫……………………………………………)حالة النصب‬ 16 2. 3.2.2. Jussive Case (‫..……………………………………………………)حالة الجزم‬ 16 2.3.3. Nominative Case (‫………………………………………………)حالة الرفع‬ 17 2.4. The Non-inflection of the Arabic Present Tense……………………. 17 2.4. The Use of the Arabic Present Tense…………………………………….. 18 2.4.1 Statements of Fact…………………………………………………………… 18 2.4.2. Habitual Activities…………………………………………………………… 18 2.4.3. Present Situations……………………………………………………………. 18 2.4.4. Progressive Situations……………………………………………………… 19 Chapter 3. The Similarities and the Differences between the English and Arabic Present Tense……………………………………………. 20 3.1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………... 20 3.2. English Simple Present and Arabic Present Tense……………… 21 3.3. English Present Progressive and Arabic Present Tense………… 22 3.4. The English Present Perfect and the Arabic Present Tense… 24 3.5. The English Present Perfect Progressive and Arabic Present Tense ………………………………..………………………………………………………….. 25 Chapter 4. The Conclusion……………………………………………………….. 26 Appendix………………………………………………………………………………. 27 English Bibliographies………………………………………………………... 35 Arabic Bibliographies…………………………………………………………. 56 -5- Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 9. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY List of Tables Page Number Table 1.1 The Form of the Present Simple Tense………………………………… 2 Table 1.2 Affirmative, Question and Negative form of the Simple Present Tense…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3 Table 1.3 Spelling of the third person singular…………………………………… 3 Table 1.4 The most common of the non-progressive verbs………………….. 5 Table 1.5 The structure of the present continuous tense…………………….. 8 Table 1.6 The structure of the present perfect tense………………………….. 10 Table 1.7 The structure of the present perfect continuous tense……………. 12 Table 2.1 The Conjugation of the Arabic Present Tense………………………. 15 -5- Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 10. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY Chapter: one The Present Tense in English 1.1 Introduction: Time is frequently perceived as a continuum with three main divisions: past, present, and future. The past and future times are defined in relation to the present time (now). Past tense refers to any time before the present time, and future tense refers to any time after the present. Not all languages perceive this relationship as a linear one, nor do these categories characterize all possible times. Tense, then, is a grammatical expression of time reference. The correlation between tense and time is not necessarily one-to-one; languages do not recognize as many oppositions of tense as they have conceptions of time. English has past, present, and future times, but only a past and a non-past opposition of tense. (encyclopedia Britannica: 2004) In English we, have For Basic Tenses that refer to the present time, Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, and Perfect Continuous. It is important not to confuse the name of a verb tense with the way we use it to talk about time. For example, a present tense does not always refer to present time: 'I hope it rains tomorrow.' "rains" is present simple, but it refers here to future time (tomorrow). The verb form that usually indicates present time is here used to indicate future time. Other example "That will be $5.00, please." The second sentence, the verb form usually indicating future time is here used to indicate present time. Also past tense does not always refer to past time: 'If I had some money now, I could buy it.' "had" is past simple but it refers here to present time (now), but The past form of the verb generally refers to past time, to a narrated event prior to the speech event. (ibid) -5- Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 11. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY 1.2 Present Simple Tense: 1.2.1. The definition of the Present Simple Tense: The tense of a verb that expresses action or state in the present time and is used of what occurs or is true at the time of speaking and of what is habitual or characteristic or is always or necessarily true, that is sometimes used to refer to action in the past, and that is sometimes used for future events. (Merriam- Webster: 2003) The natural and most frequent use of the present tense is in contexts of present time, whether actual (The door is open) or habitual (The door is always open / Paris is the capital of France). It is also used of past events in certain contexts, such as newspaper headlines (Clinton says he is sorry) and in narrative. (Allen: 1999) 1.2.2. The Form of the Present Simple Tense: FORM SYMPOL EXAMPLE FUNCTIONS (1)base V call (a) all the drink present tense put except 3rd person singular. I/you/we/they call every day. (2) –s form (3rd V-s calls 3rd person person singular drinks singular present present) puts tense: He/she/it calls every day. Table 1.1 The Form of the Present Simple Tense Adopted from Quirk et al. (1973) -5- Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 12. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY Affirmative Question Negative I work. Do I work? I don't work. You work. Do you work? You don't work. They work. Do they work? They don't work. We work. Do we work? We don't work. He works. Does he work? He doesn't work. She works. Does she work? She doesn't work. Table 1.2 Affirmative, Question and Negative form of the Simple Present Tense Adopted from Swan (1992) 1.2.3. Spelling of the third person singular forms: Most verbs: work-works Add-s to infinitive sit-sits stay-stays Verbs ending in consonant + y: cry-cries Change y to i and add -es hurry-hurries reply-replies Verbs ending in –s, -ch, -sh, or –x: miss- misses Add-es to infinitive buzz-buzzes watch-watches push-pushes fix-fixes Exceptions: have-has go-goes do-does Table 1.3 Spelling of the third person singular Adopted from Swan (1992) 1.2.4. Pronunciation of the third person singular forms: "The present allomorphs are also similar to the plural allomorphs. They belong to the present morpheme added to the base verb when subject is third person singular e.g. … he goes" (Alkhuli, M. 2005: ) -5- 1. "After one of the hissing sounds (/s/, /z/, / č /, / š /, /ž/, and / ĵ /) pronounced /iz/. E.g., watch/watches. Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 13. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY 2. After any other voiceless sound (/p/, /f/, /Ө /, /t/, /k/, /h/) pronounced /s/. E.g. sit/sits. 3. If the singular final is voiced, the allomorph is /z/, e.g. go/goes stay/stays." (ibid: ) 1.2.5. The Use of the Present Simple Tense: According to the definition of the Present Simple Tense it refer to the present time, but in some cases we use it to refer for future time or even past time. However, we are going to explain each case alone. 1.2.5.1. Present Simple refer to the Present Time: a. Statements of Fact: To express scientific statement of fact indicating that something was true in the past, is true in the present and will be true in the future. In addition, it refers to express general statements of fact referring to actins and states that are expected to remain for a long time. (Farghal and Shunnaq, 1999: 64) 1. The earth revolves around the sun. 2. Gold is a shining metal. 3. Khalid runs a factory. 4. Ali is a baker. b. Present Situations: With English Verbs that are not usually used in the progressive tenses, the simple present may indicate situations that exist right now, at the moment of speaking. (ibid: 68) There are a number of verbs in English that we cannot normally be used in continuous forms. They frequently describe -5- states of being, thinking, possessing or feeling: 5. Most people don't believe in the existence of ghosts. (Not: most people aren't believing in the existence of ghosts.) Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 14. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY 6. -I like tea. (Not: I'm liking this tea.) .I think that the world's problems are getting worse .7 .It weighs 100 kilos .8 9. The sign means 'stop' (Foley and Hall, 1988: 47) Verbs of existing or being be, consist of, contain, exist. Verbs of possessing belong to, have(= own), include, lack, own, possess. Verbs of feeling or wanting Adore, desire, despise, detest, dislike, envy, hate, like, love, need, pity, prefer, trust, want, and wish. Verbs of thinking or believing Believe, doubt, expect, feel, (= think), forget, imagine, intend, know, realize, recognize, remember, see (=understand), suppose, think, understand. Verbs of appearance appear, resemble, seem. Other verbs concern, depend, deserve, fit, matter, measure, mean, mind, weigh. Table 1.4 The Most Common of the Non-Progressive Verbs Adopted from Foley and Hall (2003) We use Present Simple to describe series of events and actions: usual in radio commentary on sport. It is instantaneous. 10. Ali kicks off, Zidan passes to Henry, Henry cuts. 11. From here you cross the road, go through an Iron Gate and follow the path west. 12. First I take a bowl and break two eggs into it, next...etc. (ibid: 46) c. Repeated action or events: expressing habitual activities: We use the simple present with adverbs of frequency like: (always, usually, often, sometimes, never, every day, every week, every…etc). -5- Similarly, we use in Arabic some expressions to give adverbs meaning of frequency like: Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 15. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY 13. Iplay tennis every week. 14. Ahmad always eats a sandwich for lunch. (Farghal and Shunnaq, 1999: 66) 1.2.5.2. Using Simple Present Tense to refer to the future meaning: We can use the present simple to talk about timetabled events, subordinate clauses, without using future forms provided it refers to the future, with as and than present and future are possible, and in some informal style. (Swan,M., 1995: 460) a. Timetabled events: When an event is on a schedule or timetable (for example, the take-off time for a plane), we often use the present simple to express the future. We usually also use a future word (expressed or understood) like tomorrow, at 6.30pm, next week. Only a few verbs are used in this way, for example: be, open, close, begin, start, end, finish, arrive, come, leave, and return. (ibid: 460) 15. The bus arrives at 11.45 16. I start my new job tomorrow. 17. The summer term starts on April 10. 18. What time does the bus arrive in Seattle? 19. My plane is at three o'clock. We can also use the present simple to give suggestions by using "why don’t you …?" 20.Why don’t we go to library tomorrow? (ibid:460) b. Subordinate clauses: Present tenses are often used instead of will + infinitive to refer to the future in subordinate clauses. This happens not only after conjunctions of time like 'when',' until', 'after', 'before', 'as soon as', but most other subordinate clauses-for instance after 'if', 'wither', and 'on condition that', after question words and relatives, and in indirect speech. (ibid: 556) 21. I'll tell you what I find out. (NOT…I'll tell you what I will -5- find out.) (ibid: 556) Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 16. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY c. With as and than present and future are both possible to use in the sentence to refer for future: 22. He will be on the same bus as we are/will tomorrow. 23. We will get the station sooner than you do/will. (ibid: 557) d. After certain expressions: in case, I hope, I bet, it does not matter…etc. 24. I hope you enjoy your time. 25. I bet he passes the exam. 26. It does not matter where we spend our holiday. 27. It does not care who comes. (ibid: 557) 1.2.5.3. Using Present Simple to refer to the past meaning: Some times, we use Present Simple form to refer to past meaning but this case is on common use, it is just in some cases like headlines in the newspapers or in narrative. (Foley and Hall: 1988, 47) a. I hear… with that-clause: The simple present tense form is used with a perfect or past meaning in introductory expressions like (I hear, I see, I gather, I understand) are often used to introduce pieces of news which one has heard, read or seen on television. 28. I hear that your sister is expecting a baby. 29. I see (that) the police are going to attack. 30. I hear you're getting married. 31. I see there's been trouble down at the shop. Understand and gather are often used when the speaker is checking information. We use the present simple form to refer to the past meaning. (ibid: 246) 32. 'I understand you're moving to a new job.' 'Yes, that's right.' 33. 'I gather you didn't like the party.' 'What makes you say that?' 34. I gather Peter's looking for a job. (ibid: 246) b. Quotations are often introduced with…says 'in -5- narrative'. Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 17. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY 35. No doubt, you all remember what Hamlet says about suicide. 36. It says in the paper that petrol's going up again. (ibid: 559) c. The simple present can be used to express the past events in newspaper headlines to give more immediacy to the event: (Foley and Hall, 1988: 47) 37. Abbas tries to curb Hamas building in West Bank. 38. Iran suggests talks with West amid fading Prospects for UN sanctions. 39. Bomber Kills Iraqi shoppers despite Mecca peace call. 40. Sharia judges thank king for land allocation. 41. Rice gets Russia assurances on N.Korea. 42. Ministry downgrades factory for violating workers' rights. 43. Prince Hassan pays Ramadan visit to Bahrain. (THE JORDAN TIMES 2003: October, 22) 1.3. Present Continuous Tense: 1.3.1.The Definition of the Present Continuous Tense: 'The tense that you use to refer to actions or events that are happening now or developing.' The Form of the Present Continuous Tense: subject + auxiliary verb + main verb be base + ing subject auxiliary main verb verb + I am speaking to you. + You are reading this. - She is not staying in London. - We are not playing football. -5- ? Is he watching TV? ? Are they waiting for John? Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 18. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY Table 1.5 The Structure of the Present Continuous Tense 1.3.2.The Use of Present Continuous Tense: We use the present continuous tense to talk about: 44.action happening now 45.action in the future 1.3.2.1. Present continuous tense for action happening now: a) For action happening exactly now b) For action happening around now The action may not be happening exactly now, but it is happening just before and just after now, and it is not permanent or habitual. (Farghal and Shunnaq, 1999: 66) 46. Muriel is learning to drive. 47. I am living with my sister until I find an apartment. 1.3.2.2. Present continuous tense for the future: We can also use the present continuous tense to talk about the future—if we add a future word! We must add (or understand from the context) a future word. "Future words" include, for example, tomorrow, next year, in June, at Christmas etc. We only use the present continuous tense to talk about the future when we have planned to do something before we speak. We have already made a decision and a plan before speaking. (Foley and Hall, 2003: 74) 48. We are eating in a restaurant tonight. We have already booked the table. -5- 49. They can play tennis with you tomorrow. They are not working. 50. When are you starting your new job? Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 19. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY In these examples, we have a firm plan or programmed before speaking. The decision and plan were made before speaking. (ibid: 74) 1.4. Present Perfect Tense: (Past Time) 1.4.1. The Definition of the Present Perfect Tense: The Present Perfect Tense in English is used to express something that happened or never happened before now at an unspecified time in the past. (Farghal and Shunnaq, 1999: 77) 1.4.2. The Form of the Present Perfect Tense: The structure of the present perfect tense is: subject + auxiliary verb + main verb have past participle subject auxiliary main verb verb + I have seen ET. + You have eaten mine. - She has not been to Rome. - We have not played football. ? Have you finished? ? Have they done it? Table 1.6 The Structure of the Present Perfect Tense 1.4.3. The Use of the Present Perfect Tense: :Finish events connect with the present .1.4.3.1 -5- We use the simple present perfect to say that a finished action or event is connected with the present in some way. If we Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 20. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY say that something has happened, we are thinking about the past and the present at the same time. .I con not go on holiday because I have broken my leg .53 (Swan, 1994: 419) Finished events: news .1.4.3.2 The simple Present perfect is the most normal tense for giving .news of recent events And here are the main points of the news again. The pound has fallen against the dollar. The Prime Minister has said that the government's economic policies are working. The number of unemployed has reached five million. There has been a fire…. (ibid: 420) 1.4.3.3. Finished events with expressions of 'time up to now' We often use the simple present perfect for past events when we are thinking of a period of time continuing up to now the present- for example when we use indefinite time adverbs that mean 'at some/any time to now', like ever, before, never, yet, already. 54. Have you ever seen a ghost? (ibid: 420) 1.4.3.4. Repetition and continuation to now We can use the simple present prefect to say that something has happened several times up to the present. 55. I have written six letters since lunchtime. 56. How often have you been in love in your life? (ibid: 420) -5- 1.4.3.5. Time not mentioned Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 21. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY We use the present perfect when we are thinking of a period of 'time up to now', even if we do not mention it. On the other hand, we do not use the present perfect when we are thinking of a particular finished time, even if we do not mention it. 57. Have you seen 'Rome and Juliet'? (Have you ever seen it?) (ibid: 420) 2.5. The Present Perfect Continuous Tense: (Past Time) 2.5.1. The Definition of the Present Perfect Continuous: English uses the present perfect continuous tense to talk about actions and state which start in the past but which have a link with the present. (Foley and Hall, 2003: 62) 2.5.2. The Form of the Present Perfect Continuous Tense: The structure of the present perfect continuous tense is: subject + auxiliary verb + auxiliary verb + main verb have been base + ing has subject auxiliary verb auxiliary verb main verb + I have been waiting for one hour. + You have been talking too much. - It has not been raining. - We have not been playingfootball. ? Have you been seeing her? ? Have they been doing their homework? Table 1.7 The Structure of the Present Perfect Continuous Tense -5- 2.5.3. The Use of the Present Perfect Continuous Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 22. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY We use the present perfect continuous, in general, to talk about situations which started in the past and are still going on, or which have just stopped and have present result. (Swan, 1994: 424) 58. Sorry I'm late. Have you been waiting long? 59. 'You look hot.' 'Yes, I've been running.' (ibid: 424) Chapter Two The Present Tense in Arabic -5- 2.1. Introduction: Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 23. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY There are two main tenses in the Arabic language: Firstly, Perfect Tense: The action is completed in the perfect tense. You may also call this as the past tense because the action is completed before the present so it belongs to the past. E.g. 'I ate'. (ُ ‫ )أكل‬The action of eating was finished in ‫ت‬ the past.The past could be a few minutes or a few decades before the present time. (Salim: 2006) Secondly, Imperfect Tense or the Present Tense: the action is still continuing. E.g. "you knock on the door and walk in." "I am eating." The action is still continuing, he is still eating while talking to you. This is the present tense in English. It is also the "imperfect tense" in Arabic. We say in Arabic (ُ ‫( .)آك‬ibid) ‫ُل‬ The Arabic Verb (ُ ‫ )آك‬means, "I am eating" or "I eat". ‫ُل‬ There is not such a thing as the future tense in Arabic. This is done by adding the prefix "‫ "ســ‬or the word "‫ "سوف‬to the imperfect form of the verb. E.g. (ُ ‫ )يأك‬we add "‫ "ســ‬to be ( ‫ُل‬ ‫ُل‬ ُ ‫ )سـَيأك‬which means "I will eat".(ibid) 2.2. The Conjugation of the Arabic Present Tense: The verb 'َ َ َ ' in Arabic conjugates into the first person ‫ر سم‬ -5- singular 'ُ ‫ 'أرْس‬like the form ' I do' in English. We add the prefix ' ‫ُم‬ ‫ 'أ‬at the first present singular to have the verb 'ُ ُ ْ‫ ,'أر‬which ‫سم‬ Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 24. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY means in English 'I draw'. This rule applies to the trilateral verbs fro example '‫ 'رسم‬the three consonant are unchanged. (ibid) The present tense is formed by adding suffixes as well as prefixes to the "َ ‫ "أك‬which it is in the perfect tense. Before we ‫َل‬ can add prefixes and suffixes, we have to derive the "stem" from the root verb. This is done by making "sakeen" of the first and the last letter of the root. The first root letter becomes "sakeen" by throwing its diacritics "ْ‫ "أكل‬then we can add prefixes and suffixes for the stem " ْ‫ " أكل‬to be " ُ ‫( ." َأك‬ibid) ‫ي ُل‬ We add the prefix '‫ 'أ‬for the first person singular, '‫ 'ت‬for the second person singular and so on… and the most important is the vowels or symbols on the top of each consonant. (ibid) Pay extra attention to the diacritics written in Arabic, the three small symbols ( َ ُِ ) are very important in the tables below, because they play the role of vowels, ( ََََََََ = vowel a) ( ُُُُُُ = vowel u) ( ِِِِِِِِ = vowel i or e). (Ibid) Some of the trilateral verbs(‫ )الفعال الثلثية‬have some slightly different, the word 'ُ َ ‫ 'أس‬swim, it has a vowel ' َ ' after '‫,'بــ‬ ‫بح‬ basically instead of using the vowel ' ُ ' , we use the vowel " َ " with some trilateral verbs, like: '‫ 'لعـب‬to play, ' ‫ ' فـعل‬to do, '‫'ذهـب‬ to go, and ' ‫ ' سبح‬to swim…but the rest of the consonants stay unchanged. (ibid) Singular -5- I draw = ُ َ‫أرسُ ُ / أسب‬ ‫ح‬ ‫م‬ Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 25. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY you draw (singular masculine) = ُ َ‫تر ُ ُ / تسب‬ ‫ح‬ ‫سم‬ you draw (singular feminine) = َ ‫تر ُ ِي َ / تس َحي‬ ‫ب ن‬ ‫سم ن‬ he draws = ُ َ‫َر ُ ُ / يسب‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ي سم‬ she draws = ُ َ‫َر ُ ُ / تسب‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ت سم‬ Dual you draw (dual male or female) = ِ ‫َرسمَا ِ / تسبَحا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ت ُ ن‬ they draw (dual male or female) = ِ ‫َر ُ َا ِ / يسبَحا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ي سم ن‬ Plural we draw = ُ َ‫َر ُ ُ / نسب‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ن سم‬ you draw (plural masculine) = َ ‫َر ُ ُو َ / تسبَحو‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ت سم ن‬ you draw (plural feminine) = َ ‫َر ُمْ َ / تسبَحو‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ت س ن‬ they draw (plural masculine) =َ ‫َرس ُو َ / يسبَحو‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ي ُم ن‬ they draw (plural feminine) = َ ‫َرسمْ َ / يسبَح‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ي ُ ن‬ Table 2.1 The Conjugation of the Arabic Present Tense Based on (Salim: 2005-2006) 2.3. The Inflection Case of the Arabic Present Tense: -5- (‫)الفعل المضارع المعرب‬ Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 26. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY The diacritics of the Arabic present verbs changed according to the situations. There are three cases that it can be: 1. Subjunctive (‫)منصوب‬ 2. Nominative (‫)مرفوع‬ 3. Jussive (‫)مجزوم‬ (Al-Jars and Amine, 1983: 54) 4. 2.3.1. Subjunctive Case (‫)حالة النصب‬ 5. If the Arabic verbs are proceeded by the Subjunctive articles: 'ْ‫ ' َنْ, َن , إ َنْ , كي‬then we put to the end letter the vowel ' a َ '. ‫أ لْ ذ‬ (ibid: 49) 1. ‫أري ُ أن ُحس َ السباحة‬ ‫د أ ِن‬ 'I need to learn swimming.' 2. َ ِ ‫لنْ أك‬ ‫َ ذب‬ 'I will never lie.' 3. ُ ‫إذنْ َفس َ الهوا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ي ْ ُد‬ 'So, will be bad smell.' 6. ‫جتك ت م‬ َ َ‫ِئ ُ َيْ أ َعل‬ 'I come to learn.' (ibid: 48) 2.3.2. Jussive Case (‫)حالة الجزم‬ If the Arabic verbs are proceeded by the Jussive articles: ', ‫لم‬ ْ‫ , ' ل الناهية , إن‬in this case there is no vowels at the end but it ends with consonant sound. (ibid: 55) 7. ‫ة‬ َ ‫لمْ يلعبْ عل ٌ الكر‬ ‫ي‬ َ 'Ali does not play football.' 8. ْ‫إنْ تدرسْ تنجح‬ ِ 'If you study you will succeed.' 9. ‫ر‬ ِ ‫ل ُسرعْ في السي‬ ‫ت‬ 'Don not walk quickly.' (ibid: 54) -5- 2.3.3. Nominative Case (‫)حالة الرفع‬ Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 27. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY Arabic present tense will be Nominative if it is preceded neither by the Jussive articles nor by Subjunctive articles. The final latter is with the diacritic ' ُ '. (ibid: 60) 7. ُ ‫تطي ُ الحمام‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ر‬ The pigeon flies.' 8. ُ ‫َنز ُ المط‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ي ِل‬ 'It's raining.' 10. ِ ‫الشم‬ ‫س‬ َ‫تدو ُ الر ُ حول‬ ‫ر ض‬ 'The earth goes around the sun.' (ibid: 59) 2.4. The Non-inflection Case of the Arabic Present Tense: (‫)بناء الفعل المضارع‬ Two cases make the Arabic present tense Non-inflection: The First Case: When we add the suffix ' ‫ ' ن ' 'نون التوكيد‬and the ّ prefix ' ‫ 'لَ ' ' لم القسم‬to the present form. We add ' ّ ' and ' َ ' to make emphasis. (ibid: 116) ‫ن‬ ‫ل‬ 10. َ ‫لستم َ ّ النصيح‬ ‫ة‬ ‫َ ِعن‬ 'I must listen to the advice.' / Strong '‫'ن‬ 11. ‫لسع َ ْ في الخير‬ ‫ين‬ 'I'm seeking for good.' / Weak "‫"ن‬ ‫تم َن‬ ّ ‫ / لـــَ + أســتمع + ّ = لَس َ ِع‬strong ‫ن‬ ْ‫ / لـــَ + أسعى + نْ = لسعين‬weak َ The Second Case: When we add the feminine suffix ' ‫نَ ' ' نون‬ ‫ ' النسوة‬to the Arabic present tense. (ibid: 116) It gives feminine meaning. 12. َ ‫الطاِبات َس َعن ال َصيح‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ل ُ ي ْم َ ن‬ 'They listen to the advice' ‫ـ ن‬ َ ‫يــسمع + نَ = يــَسـْمَعْـ‬ (ibid: 116) -5- 2.4. The Use of the Arabic Present Tense: 2.4.1. Statements of Fact: Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 28. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY The Arabic Present Tense is used to express scientific statements of fact indicating that something was true in the past, is true in the present and will be true in the future. In addition, it is used to express general statement of fact for action that may be remaining for long time. (Farghal and Shunnaq, 1999: 64) 13. ِ ‫يتكو ُ الماء من الهيدروجينِ والكسجي‬ ‫ن‬ ُ ‫ن‬ 'Water consists of hydrogen and oxygen.' 14. ِ ‫تدو ُ الر ُ حول الشم‬ ‫س‬ َ ‫ر ض‬ 'The Earth goes around the sun.' 15. ِ ‫يعم ُ خالد في المصن‬ ‫ع‬ ٌ ‫ل‬ 'Ali works in the factory.' (ibid:64) 2.4.2. Habitual Activities: We use the Arabic Present Tense to express habitual or everyday activities; we use with the sentence some adverbs of frequency to express habitual activities like: (/ ‫دائماً / غالبً / كل يوم‬ ‫ا‬ ‫( .) كل شهر / كل سنة / عادة / كثيرا ما / أبداً / أحيانا / نادراً ما‬always, ً ً ً usually, often, sometimes, never, every day, every week, every…etc). (ibid: 66) 16. ٍ ‫أمشي مسافة ميلين كل صبا‬ ‫ح‬ َ 'I walk for two miles every morning' 17. ً ‫يتناو ُ أحمد الغداء في البي ِ دائم‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ٌ ‫ل‬ 'Ahmad always eats lunch at home.' (ibid: 66) 2.4.3. Present Situations: The Arabic Present Tense may indicate situations that exist right now, at the moment of speaking. (ibid: 68) 18. ٍ ‫' يحتا ُ أحمد إلى مئ ِ دول‬Ahmad needs a hundred dollars.' ‫ر‬ ‫ة‬ ٌ ‫ج‬ -5- Further, we use the Arabic Present Tense to express a situation that began in the past and continues to the present. (ibid: 68) Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 29. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY 19. ‫أس ُ ُ في عمان من ُ سنتين‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫كن‬ 'I have lived in Amman for two years' 2.4.4. Progressive Situations: We use the Arabic Present Tense to express situation that in progressive at the moment of speaking, it may be still to the near future and it will end. We use adverbial markers to indicate present progressiveness. (ibid: 72) 20. ‫يعز ُ علي على البيانو في غرفة المعيش ِ الن‬ ‫ة‬ ِ ٌ ‫ِف‬ 'Ali is playing the piano in the living room.' 21. ِ ‫ُؤل ُ أحم ٌ كتابا عن اللغويات في هذه اليا‬ ‫م‬ َ ‫ي ِف د‬ 'Ahmad is writing a book on linguistics these days.' 22. ‫َ ُو ُ عل ٌ بكتابةِ رسالة في المكتبةِ الن‬ ٍ ‫يق م ي‬ 'Ali is writing a letter in the library now.' (ibid: 73) -5- Chapter three Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 30. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY The Similarities and the Differences between the English and Arabic Present Tense 3.1. Introduction The verb is a major component of any language, not to exclude English or Arabic. Every English sentence has a verb in its surface structure, but it may be argued that they have some kind of verb in the deep structure obligatorily delete. (Alkhuli: 1999, 43) E.g. 'Ali is a student' this sentence has the copula 'is' which calls linking verb; this verb is in the surface structure. When we translate this sentence into Arabic, we have 'ٌ ‫ "عل ٌ طال‬in this ‫ي ِب‬ sentence there is no verb 'it's verbless', the verb does not in the surface structure but in the deep structure, the verb is '‫.'يكون‬ However, it will be 'ٌ ‫( .'يكون عل ٌ طال‬Farghal & Shunnaq: 1999, ‫ي ب‬ 39) & (Alkhuli: 1999, 24) In this chapter, we will see how verb tenses are expressed in both English and Arabic and what are the similarities and the differences between the two languages. 3.2. English Simple Present and Arabic Present Tense: -5- Statements of facts are used in both English and Arabic. 1. Water consists of hydrogen and oxygen. Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 31. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY ‫ن‬ ِ ‫1. يتكو ُ الماء من الهيدروجينِ والكسجي‬ ُ ‫ن‬ 2. The Earth goes around the sun. ‫س‬ ِ ‫2. تدو ُ الر ُ حول الشم‬ َ ‫ر ض‬ General Statement of fact is also used in both English and Arabic: 3. Ali works in the factory. ‫ع‬ ِ ‫3. يعم ُ خالد في المصن‬ ٌ ‫ل‬ Similarly, we use the present simple tense and present in Arabic to express past meaning in the headlines in newspaper to give more immediacy to the event. 4. Prince Hassan pays Ramadan visit to Bahrain. .‫4. يقو ُ المير حسن بزيارة رمضانيةٍ إلى البحرين‬ ‫م‬ 5. Bomber Kills Iraqi shoppers despite Mecca peace call. .‫5. تفجي ُ قنبلةٍ في السواقِ العراقية على الرغم من نداء مكة المكرمة للسلم‬ ‫ر‬ There are no differences between English and Arabic to indicate situations that exist right now, English verbs that are not usually used in the progressive tense, at the moment of speaking (present situations). 6. It is raining. .ُ ‫6. َن ِ ُ المط‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ي زل‬ 7. The pigeon flies. .ُ ‫7. تطي ُ الحمام‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ر‬ Similarly, there are no differences between English and Arabic in using habitual activities, in informal narrative and in -5- summaries, and in word (say). 8. We look forward to hearing for you. (More formal) Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 32. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY ‫8. نتطل ُ للجلوس معك‬ ‫ع‬ 9. I play tennis every week. . ‫9. ألع ُ التنس‬ ‫ب‬ 10. No doubt, you all remember what Hamlet says about suicide. ‫01. ل يوجد ش ٌ بأننا نعل ُ ما يقولُ هاملت عن النتحار‬ ‫م‬ ‫ك‬ In English, with the present simple, the only subject-verb agreement is the present morpheme suffixed to the verb if the subject is third-person singular, e.g., he look+s, she go+es, it seem+s. (Alkhuli, 1999: 43) In Arabic, with every verb in any tense, the verb morphology is made to agree with the subject, and a subject copy is suffixed to the verb. The agreement often requires adding a prefix to the verb as well, e.g., ‫.يذهب, تذهب, نذهب, أذهب‬ (ibid: 43) 3.3. English Present Progressive and Arabic Present Tense: In Arabic, the present progressive is expressed by the present form. This means that present facts, present habits, and present progressive acts are expressed in the same form. However, in terms of translation, the Present Progressive is problematic because Arabic does not formally mark present verbs for progressiveness. (ibid: 44) & (Farghal & Shunnaq, 1999: 72) 11. They are playing. 11. ‫هم يلعبون‬ Arabic depends on the time adverb to make the difference between facts and habits on one side and progressive acts on the other side, whereas English varies the forms of the verbs. -5- (Alkhuli, 1999: 44) 12. Ali is playing in the garden now. Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 33. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY ‫ة‬ ِ ‫21. يلع ُ عل ٌ ال َ في الحديق‬ ‫ب ي ن‬ In addition, we can express the present progressive in Arabic by utilizing the present form of the Arabic verb '‫' 'يقوم‬to perform' plus the nominalized form of the verb in the sentence. (Farghal & Shunnaq, 1999: 73) 13. Ali is writing a letter in his office now. .‫31. يقو ُ عل ٌ بكتابةِ رسال ٍ في مكتبه الن‬ ‫ة‬ ‫م ي‬ 14. The engineer is examining the equipment now. 14. ‫.يقوم المهندس بفحص التجهيزاتِ الن‬ (ibid: 73) We can use Present Progressive in English to express futurity, but we cannot do this in Arabic. (See page 9 & 1) 15. Maha is seeing the doctor next week. .ِ ‫51. ستذه ُ مهى الى الطبيبِ في السبوعِ المقب‬ ‫ِل‬ ‫ب‬ 16. I am leaving for Cairo tomorrow morning. .ً‫61. سأغاد ُ الى القاهر ِ غداً صباح‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ر‬ (ibid: 73) We can express to futurity in Arabic by adding the prefix '‫ 'ســ‬to the present form. E.g. ُ َ‫ســ + يلع ُ = َـ َلع‬ ‫ب سي ب‬ (ibid: 73) 3.4. The English Present Perfect and the Arabic Present Tense: -5- Formally, the present perfect has no corresponding tense in Arabic. Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 34. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY English uses 'has' or 'have' plus the past participle to express the present perfect. The formula is have/has+ V3. A perfect tense in English requires verb to have plus the past participle, e.g., 'I have done the homework'. Tense is an obligatory component; the choices are present, past, and future resulting in have/has, had, and will have, respectively. (Alkhuli, 1999: 44) Arabic has the perfective aspect although it is not formally classified as the verb to express the present perfect preceded by the particle '‫ 'قد‬or '‫ 'لقد‬to make the perfect aspect. (Forghal & Shunnaq, 1999: 77) & (Alkhuli, 1999: 44) The following English sentences along with their Arabic counterparts illustrate this: 17. George and Mary have moved into a new apartment. .ٍ ‫71. لقد انتق َ جورج و ماري الى شقةٍ جديد‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ل‬ 18. He has done the homework. .‫81. قد عملَ الواجب البيتي‬ َِ Further, the present perfect in English may be used to express a situation that began in the past and continues to the present. In this case, Arabic uses the simple present or simple past form of the verb as can be illustrated bellow: 19. I have lived in Amman for two years. ‫91. سَكن ُ / أسكن في عمان من ُ سنتين‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ت‬ (Forghal & Shunnaq, 1999: 77) 3.5. The English Present Perfect Progressive and Arabic Present Tense: -5- The present perfect progressive in English is used to indicate the duration of an activity that began in the past and continues to the present or a general activity in progress Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 35. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY recently. In Arabic, the meaning of the present perfect progressive is expressed by using ‫ , ما زال, ل يزال, لم يزل‬plus the simple present form of the verb. (ibid: 78) English uses this formula to express the present perfect progressive: has / have + been + V-ing. In contrast, Arabic uses this formula: ‫ ما زال‬or ‫ ل يزال‬or ‫ + لم يزل‬present form, and it requires Subject Verb agreement with the two verbs, ‫ زال‬and the present form. (Alkhuli, 1999: 44-45) 20. I have been playing basketball since ten o'clock. .ِ ‫.02 ل أزا ُ / لم أزل / ما زل ُ العب كرةَ السل ِ من ُ الساع ِ العاشر‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ة ذ‬ ُ َ ‫ت‬ ‫ل‬ 21. Huda has been thinking about changing her major. .‫.12 ل تزا ُ / لم تزل / ما زالت هدى تفك ُ في تغيير تخصصها‬ ‫ِر‬ ‫ل‬ Chapter 4. The Conclusion According this research, we note that there are some -5- differences and similarities between the two languages; English and Arabic. We cannot make all languages completely similar or completely different because each language has separate Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 36. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY linguistic system. However, we study this contrast between the two languages English and Arabic, for basic purpose, which is to accommodate one's language to those who learn English or Arabic as second languages with correct way. There are some similarities and differences between English and Arabic in using the present; we can use the present simple in English and Arabic present tense in statements of facts, general statement, and habitual activities. In addition, present continuous in English and Arabic present tens with actions that happen now. We use the present simple and continuous in English to refer for future time but we cannot do it in Arabic present tense without adding prefix '‫ 'ســ‬to the present form or the word '‫'سوف‬ before the Arabic present verb. English language use the present perfect and perfect continuous as a present tense to give an attention to the duration of the action, but it refer to past time in Arabic present tense. Arabic language can do this by using both forms past and present with using the word to show the duration like '‫ 'منذ‬and '‫ما‬ ‫ .'زال‬Arabic has the perfective aspect although it is not formally classified as the verb to express the present perfect preceded by the particle '‫ 'قد‬or '‫ 'لقد‬to make the perfect aspect. We can note that the differences between the two languages in my research are not only in the form of the verb or the use of the verb, but we find that it's in the structure of the sentence; we find the verb like copula 'is' is shows in the English present sentence, but it's not in Arabic present sentence. Appendix A -5- Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle arise arose arisen awake awakened / awoke awakened / awoken B Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 37. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY backslide backslid backslidden / backslid be was, were been bear bore born / borne beat beat beaten / beat become became become begin began begun bend bent bent bet bet / betted bet / betted bid (farewell) bid / bade bidden bid (offer amount) bid bid bind bound bound bite bit bitten bleed bled bled blow blew blown break broke broken breed bred bred bring brought brought broadcast broadcast / broadcasted broadcast / broadcasted browbeat browbeat browbeaten / browbeat build built built burn burned / burnt burned / burnt burst burst burst bust busted / bust busted / bust buy bought bought C cast cast cast catch caught caught choose chose chosen cling clung clung clothe clothed / clad clothed / clad come came come cost cost cost creep crept crept crossbreed crossbred crossbred cut cut cut D daydream daydreamed / daydreamt daydreamed / daydreamt deal dealt dealt dig dug dug disprove disproved disproved / disproven dive (jump head-first) dove / dived dived dive (scuba diving) dived / dove dived do did done draw drew drawn dream dreamed / dreamt dreamed / dreamt drink drank drunk -5- drive drove driven dwell dwelt / dwelled dwelt / dwelled E Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 38. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY eat ate eaten F fall fell fallen feed fed fed feel felt felt fight fought fought find found found fit (tailor, change size) fitted / fit fitted / fit fit (be right size) fit / fitted fit / fitted flee fled fled fling flung flung fly flew flown forbid forbade forbidden forecast forecast forecast forego (also forgo) forewent foregone foresee foresaw foreseen foretell foretold foretold forget forgot forgotten / forgot forgive forgave forgiven forsake forsook forsaken freeze froze frozen frostbite frostbit frostbitten G get got gotten / got give gave given go went gone grind ground ground grow grew grown H hand-feed hand-fed hand-fed handwrite handwrote handwritten hang hung hung have had had hear heard heard hew hewed hewn / hewed hide hid hidden hit hit hit hold held held hurt hurt hurt I inbreed inbred inbred inlay inlaid inlaid input input / inputted input / inputted interbreed interbred interbred interweave interwove / interweaved interwoven / interweaved interwind interwound interwound -5- J jerry-build jerry-built jerry-built K Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 39. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY keep kept kept kneel knelt / kneeled knelt / kneeled knit knitted / knit knitted / knit know knew known L lay laid laid lead led led lean leaned / leant leaned / leant leap leaped / leapt leaped / leapt learn learned / learnt learned / learnt leave left left lend lent lent let let let lie lay lain lie (not tell truth) REGULAR lied lied light lit / lighted lit / lighted lip-read lip-read lip-read lose lost lost M make made made mean meant meant meet met met miscast miscast miscast misdeal misdealt misdealt misdo misdid misdone mishear misheard misheard mislay mislaid mislaid mislead misled misled mislearn mislearned / mislearnt mislearned / mislearnt misread misread misread misset misset misset misspeak misspoke misspoken misspell misspelled / misspelt misspelled / misspelt misspend misspent misspent mistake mistook mistaken misteach mistaught mistaught misunderstand misunderstood misunderstood miswrite miswrote miswritten mow mowed mowed / mown O offset offset offset outbid outbid outbid outbreed outbred outbred outdo outdid outdone outdraw outdrew outdrawn outdrink outdrank outdrunk -5- outdrive outdrove outdriven outfight outfought outfought outfly outflew outflown Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 40. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY outgrow outgrew outgrown outleap outleaped / outleapt outleaped / outleapt outlie (not tell truth) REGULAR outlied outlied outride outrode outridden outrun outran outrun outsell outsold outsold outshine outshined / outshone outshined / outshone outshoot outshot outshot outsing outsang outsung outsit outsat outsat outsleep outslept outslept outsmell outsmelled / outsmelt outsmelled / outsmelt outspeak outspoke outspoken outspeed outsped outsped outspend outspent outspent outswear outswore outsworn outswim outswam outswum outthink outthought outthought outthrow outthrew outthrown outwrite outwrote outwritten overbid overbid overbid overbreed overbred overbred overbuild overbuilt overbuilt overbuy overbought overbought overcome overcame overcome overdo overdid overdone overdraw overdrew overdrawn overdrink overdrank overdrunk overeat overate overeaten overfeed overfed overfed overhang overhung overhung overhear overheard overheard overlay overlaid overlaid overpay overpaid overpaid override overrode overridden overrun overran overrun oversee oversaw overseen oversell oversold oversold oversew oversewed oversewn / oversewed overshoot overshot overshot oversleep overslept overslept overspeak overspoke overspoken overspend overspent overspent overspill overspilled / overspilt overspilled / overspilt overtake overtook overtaken overthink overthought overthought -5- overthrow overthrew overthrown overwind overwound overwound overwrite overwrote overwritten Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 41. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY P partake partook partaken pay paid paid plead pleaded / pled pleaded / pled prebuild prebuilt prebuilt predo predid predone premake premade premade prepay prepaid prepaid presell presold presold preset preset preset preshrink preshrank preshrunk proofread proofread proofread prove proved proven / proved put put put Q quick-freeze quick-froze quick-frozen quit quit / quitted quit / quitted R read read (sounds like "red") read (sounds like "red") reawake reawoke reawaken rebid rebid rebid rebind rebound rebound rebroadcast rebroadcast / rebroadcasted rebroadcast / rebroadcasted rebuild rebuilt rebuilt recast recast recast recut recut recut redeal redealt redealt redo redid redone redraw redrew redrawn refit (replace parts) refit / refitted refit / refitted refit (retailor) refitted / refit refitted / refit regrind reground reground regrow regrew regrown rehang rehung rehung rehear reheard reheard reknit reknitted / reknit reknitted / reknit relay (for example tiles) relaid relaid relay (pass along) REGULAR relayed relayed relearn relearned / relearnt relearned / relearnt relight relit / relighted relit / relighted remake remade remade repay repaid repaid reread reread reread rerun reran rerun resell resold resold resend resent resent -5- reset reset reset resew resewed resewn / resewed retake retook retaken Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 42. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY reteach retaught retaught retear retore retorn retell retold retold rethink rethought rethought retread retread retread retrofit retrofitted / retrofit retrofitted / retrofit rewake rewoke / rewaked rewaken / rewaked rewear rewore reworn reweave rewove / reweaved rewoven / reweaved rewed rewed / rewedded rewed / rewedded rewet rewet / rewetted rewet / rewetted rewin rewon rewon rewind rewound rewound rewrite rewrote rewritten rid rid rid ride rode ridden ring rang rung rise rose risen roughcast roughcast roughcast run ran run S sand-cast sand-cast sand-cast saw sawed sawed / sawn say said said see saw seen seek sought sought sell sold sold send sent sent set set set sew sewed sewn / sewed shake shook shaken shave shaved shaved / shaven shear sheared sheared / shorn shed shed shed shine shined / shone shined / shone shit shit / shat / shitted shit/ shat / shitted shoot shot shot show showed shown / showed shrink shrank / shrunk shrunk shut shut shut sight-read sight-read sight-read sing sang sung sink sank / sunk sunk sit sat sat slay (kill) slew / slayed slain / slayed slay (amuse) REGULAR slayed slayed -5- sleep slept slept slide slid slid sling slung slung Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 43. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY slink slinked / slunk slinked / slunk slit slit slit smell smelled / smelt smelled / smelt sneak sneaked / snuck sneaked / snuck sow sowed sown / sowed speak spoke spoken speed sped / speeded sped / speeded spell spelled / spelt spelled / spelt spend spent spent spill spilled / spilt spilled / spilt spin spun spun spit spit / spat spit / spat split split split spoil spoiled / spoilt spoiled / spoilt spoon-feed spoon-fed spoon-fed spread spread spread spring sprang / sprung sprung stand stood stood steal stole stolen stick stuck stuck sting stung stung stink stunk / stank stunk strew strewed strewn / strewed stride strode stridden strike (delete) struck stricken strike (hit) struck struck / stricken string strung strung strive strove / strived striven / strived sublet sublet sublet sunburn sunburned / sunburnt sunburned / sunburnt swear swore sworn sweat sweat / sweated sweat / sweated sweep swept swept swell swelled swollen / swelled swim swam swum swing swung swung T take took taken teach taught taught tear tore torn telecast telecast telecast tell told told test-drive test-drove test-driven test-fly test-flew test-flown think thought thought throw threw thrown -5- thrust thrust thrust tread trod trodden / trod typecast typecast typecast Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 44. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY typeset typeset typeset typewrite typewrote typewritten U unbend unbent unbent unbind unbound unbound unclothe unclothed / unclad unclothed / unclad underbid underbid underbid undercut undercut undercut underfeed underfed underfed undergo underwent undergone underlie underlay underlain undersell undersold undersold underspend underspent underspent understand understood understood undertake undertook undertaken underwrite underwrote underwritten undo undid undone unfreeze unfroze unfrozen unhang unhung unhung unhide unhid unhidden unknit unknitted / unknit unknitted / unknit unlearn unlearned / unlearnt unlearned / unlearnt unsew unsewed unsewn / unsewed unsling unslung unslung unspin unspun unspun unstick unstuck unstuck unstring unstrung unstrung unweave unwove / unweaved unwoven / unweaved unwind unwound unwound uphold upheld upheld upset upset upset W wake woke / waked woken / waked waylay waylaid waylaid wear wore worn weave wove / weaved woven / weaved wed wed / wedded wed / wedded weep wept wept wet wet / wetted wet / wetted whet REGULAR whetted whetted win won won wind wound wound withdraw withdrew withdrawn withhold withheld withheld withstand withstood withstood wring wrung wrung -5- write wrote Written Englishpage.com (1998-2005) Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 45. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY English Bibliographies 1. …… . (2003), October 22. The Jordan Times. Amman: Jordan: Jordan Press Foundation. 2. …… . (2003). Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary. Cambridge: (Cambridge University Press). 3. Alkhuli, M. (2004). English Phonetics and Phonology. (Amman: Dar Alfalah). 4. Alkhuli,M. (1999). Comparative Linguistics: English and Arabic. (Amman: Alfarah). 5. Azar, B.S. (1999). Understanding and Using English. (New York: Prentice Hall). 6. Aziz,Y. (1989). A Contrastive Grammar of English and Arabic. (Baghdad: Al-Watania). 7. Farghal, M., and A. Shunnaq. (1999). Translation with Reference to English and Arabic: a Practical Guide. (Irbid: Dar Al-Hilal for Translation). 8. Foley, M., and Hall, D. Advanced Learners' Grammar. (London: Longman). 9. Murphy, R. (1994). English Grammar in Use. Cambridge: (Cambridge University Press). 10. Quirk, R. et al. (1985). A University English Grammar. (London: Longman). 11. Swan, M. (1995). Practical English Usage. (New York: Oxford University Press). 12. Salim ( 2006). Arabic Present Tense. speak7.com. Arabic References ‫المصادر العربية‬ -5- Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com
  • 46. ‫6002 ,1 ‪December‬‬ ‫‪THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY‬‬ ‫1. الجازم ، علي و أمين، مصطفى: النحو الواضح في قواعد اللغة‬ ‫العربية / .... – دار المعارف )3891(.‬ ‫2. عبد الحميد، محي الدين: التحفة السنية بشرح المقدمة الجرومية /‬ ‫بيروت – المكتبة العصرية )0002(.‬ ‫الخلصة‬ ‫الدف من هذا البحث هو توضيح الزمن الضارع من إختلفاتٍ‬ ‫وتشاباتٍ بي كلتا اللغتي العربية والنليزية. لتيسر على الطلبة تعلمَ اللغة‬ ‫-5-‬ ‫الكتسبة بالشكل الصحيح.‬ ‫‪Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com‬‬
  • 47. ‫6002 ,1 ‪December‬‬ ‫‪THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY‬‬ ‫يوضح الفصل الول من البحث الشكال الربعة للزمن الضارع ف‬ ‫اللغة النليزية ؛ الضارع البسيط و الضارع الستمر و الضارع التام و التام‬ ‫الستمر. فاللغة النليزية كغيها من اللغات تلك الكثي من الشاكل‬ ‫للمتعلمي الجانب. بعض هذه الشاكل سهلة الشرح ؛ كأشكال هذه‬ ‫الزمنه الذكورة. أو أملءُ هذه الزمنة. ولكن هناك مشاك ُ أخرى من‬ ‫ل‬ ‫الصعب تعلمها حت على الطلبة التقدمي أو حت على بعض الدرسي، من‬ ‫المثلة على هذه؛ إستخدامات لكلٍ من هذه الزمنة. مثلً: الزمن الضارع‬ ‫البسيط يكن إستخدامه ف التعبي عن الستقبل و الاضي ليس فقط ف التعبي‬ ‫عن الزمن الال فحسب. لذلك يوضح هذا الفصل إستخدامات الزمن‬ ‫الضارع ف اللغة النليزية بطريقةٍ سهلةٍ ويسيةٍ ومفهومةٍ للقراءِ ف متلفِ‬ ‫ُستوياتِهم.‬‫م‬ ‫يوضح الفصل الثان من هذا البحث بطريقةٍ سهلة وبسيطةٍ كيفية‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫تصريف الفعل ، وكيف أن الفعل ف اللغة العربية يتل ُ شكلة مع إختلف‬ ‫ف ُ‬ ‫الفاعل. ليس هذا فحسب، بل و يظهر حالت الفعل الضارع ف اللغة‬ ‫العربية من مبن ومعربٍ و إستخدامات الزمن الضارع ف اللغة العربية. أما‬ ‫الفصل الثالث من هذا البحث فيوضح الختلفات والتشابات بي كلتا‬ ‫اللغتي العربية والنليزية للزمن الضارع . مستخدما ف ذلك توضيحاتٍ و‬ ‫أمثلةٍ لتصبحَ مبينةً و جليةً للقارئ.‬ ‫الهلية‬ ‫الزرقاء‬ ‫جامعة‬ ‫-5-‬ ‫‪Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com‬‬
  • 48. December 1, 2006 THE PRESENT TENSE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ARABIC: ACOMPARTIVE STUDY ‫الـمـضـارع‬ ‫الـزمـن‬ ‫فـ ـي‬ :‫اللغة العربية والنج ليز ية‬ ‫دراسة مقارنة‬ :‫إعداد‬ ‫عبد البصير جمال أحمد عيد‬ 2006 ‫ديسمبر/كانون الول لعام‬ -5- Submitted by:Abed Al-Baseer Jamal Eid | abedaed85@yahoo.com