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THIS IS THE PDF FILE FOR YOU OF NEO CLASSICAL PERIOD,,,,,DOWNLOAD NOW AND LIKE IT,,,,,AND DONT FORGOT TO LIKE AND FOLLOW ME,,,,

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FOR MORE DETAILS:- +919872297936(MR. RHYTHM MURGAI)

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Neo Classical Neo Classical Presentation Transcript

  • Presented by : Ar.Shruti
  • v Neoclassical architecture was a reaction to Rococo and Baroque architectural styles. New discoveries of Greek and Roman architecture led Neoclassical period, which lasted 1850-1900. v Neoclassical buildings have few defining characteristics: Clean, elegant lines Uncluttered appearance Free standing columns Massive buildings  
  • v The ideal form that Neoclassical architecture looks at was the temple. Which was represented classical architecture in its purest form. v Columns were used to carry the weight of the building's structure. But later they became used as a graphical element. v Roof is usually flat and horizontal and often is visible from the ground. v Neoclassical architecture style had no domes or towers. v Building's facade is flat and long. Often having a screen of free-standing columns. v Exterior was built in such ways as to represent classical perfection. Doors and windows were built to represent that perfection. Decorations were reduced to a minimum on outside. v There were often gardens around buildings completed in geometric patterns.
  • Building's Facade, consisting of flat and long rows of columns. Simplicity and massive size is emphasized here. Exteriors
  • Notice uncluttered appearance and columns that carry the building's weight.
  • Interiors
  • The Arc de Triomphe was commissioned by French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte in 1806; it was designed by French architect Jean-Francois- Thérèse Chalgrin, but was completed after his death by French architect Jean-Armand Raymond.
  • The Place Vendôme Column erected by Napoleon, executed by a team of sculptors including Pierre-Nolasque Bergeret, Jean Joseph Foucou, Louis-Simon Boizot, François Joseph Bosio, Lorenzo Bartolini, Claude Ramey, Francois Rude, Corbet, Clodion. Its veneer of 425 spiraling bas-relief bronze plates were made out of cannon taken from the combined armies of Europe. On the the top, a late statue of Napoleon by Augustin Dumont.
  • •  Jean-­‐Nicolas-­‐Louis  Durand  (Paris,  September  18,   1760  –  Thiais,  December  31,  1834)  was  a  French  author,   teacher  and  architect.  He  was  an  important  figure  in   Neoclassicism,  and  his  system  of  design  using  simple   modular  elements  anticipated  modern  industrialized   building  components.  Having  spent  periods  working   for  the  architect  Étienne-­‐Louis  Boullée  and  the  civil   engineer  Jean-­‐Rodolphe  Perronet,  in  1795  he  became  a   Professor  of  Architecture  at  the  École  Polytechnique.  
  • —  The  categories  Durand  used  generally  fall  within  two   major  groups:  historical  (Egyp-­‐tian  temples,  Roman   palaces,  Moorish  de-­‐tails)  and  functional  (theaters,   markets,  hospitals).     —  There  is,  however,  one  plate  in  the  book  that  falls  outside   these  two  main  categories.   —   The  title  of  the  third  plate  is:  "Round  temples"  (Figure  2).     —  This  is  not  a  historical  or  functional  classification,  but   rather  one  that  considers  form  as  a  distinc-­‐tive  feature  of  a   building.9     —  This  significant  exception  among  the  plates  of  the  Recueil   opens  a  new  path  of  theoretical  develop-­‐ment  and   anticipates  the  direction  that  Durand  took  in  his  next   book,  the  Precis  des  le'ons.    
  • —  based  on  the  distinction  between,  on  the  one  side,   simple,  geometric  forms  and,  on  the  other,  complex   and  more  architectural  ones.   —   According  to  this  distinction,  a  type  corresponds  to  a   simple,  geometric  form,  from  which  more  elaborate   forms  can  be  derived.   —   It  is  this  concept  of  type  that  epitomizes  the  genuine   principles  of  archi-­‐tecture  that  Durand  pretended  to   find.    
  • —  The  fundamental  elements  of  a  building  and,  by  extension,  of   architecture  were  for  Durand  those  that  can  be  found  in  any   building,  regardless  of  its  style  or  ep-­‐och.  Thus,  he  argued,  the   simplest  elements  that  can  be  found  in  most  buildings  include   walls  and  openings,  columns  and  the  parts  to  which  they  give   support,  slabs  and  roofs,  and  vaults.     —  Porches,  lobbies,  stairs,  lounges,  and  courts  are  those  parts  of   the  buildings,  or  parties,  which  result  from  the  combination  of   the  simplest  elements.     —  Fi-­‐nally,  the  last  step  is  the  ensemble  des  edifices,  which  meanst   o  combinet  he  parties  to  produce  a  building."  Durand  considers   the  dlements  des  idifices  to  be  "that  which  words  are  to  dis-­‐ course,  and  notes  are  to  music."12  However,  the  comparison  of   language  or  music  with  architecture  is  not  completely  justified   in  this  case  because  words  and  notes  are  purely  abstracts   ymbols,w  hereasD  urand'sd  liments  des  edifices(  walls,c  olumns,   and  vaults)a  re  not  abstractions,  but  ratherp  hysicalc  ompo-­‐ nents  that  make  up  a  building    
  • —  At  this  point  in  his  theoretical  dis-­‐course,  Durand  ran   across  one  of  the  permanent  dilemmas  of  architecture:  the   separation  between  the  abstract  and  the  physical  realms.'3     —  He  responded  to  this  di-­‐lemma  immediately  after  defining   the  ildments,  when  he  wrote  that  the  study  of  those   elements  will  be  considered  from  two  points  of  view:  first,   with  regard  to  materials  and  construction,  and,  second,   form  and  proportions.   —   The  illustration  of  the  elements  re-­‐flects  this  separation   of  the  abstract  and  physical  realms.  Some  elements,  like   the  pitched  roofs  and  slabs,  are  de-­‐picted  in  much  the   same  way  as  they  would  appear  in  a  construction  manual.     —  The  drawings  of  vaults,  on  the  other  hand,  are  more   conceptual  and  schematic.  They  are  reduced  to  geometric   figures  and  symbols.   —   In  the  light  of  Durand's  elements,  a  distinction  between   building  and  architec-­‐ture  has  to  be  made.  As  the  title  of   the  plate  properly  indicates,  Durand's  ele-­‐ments  are  in  fact   the  elements  of  buildings,  but  they  could  barely  become   the  elements    
  • —  The  Method  of  Composition  Once  the  elements   of  architecture  have  been  defined,  the  next   logical  step,  accord-­‐ing  to  Durand's  strategy,  is  to   define  a  method  of  composition  by  which  the   most  primitive  elements  may  be  combined,  in  a   logical  fashion,  into  more  complex  ones  to   produce  a  building.     —  The  definition  of  ar-­‐chitecture  at  the  beginning   of  the  Precis  is  consistent  with  this  principle  of   composi-­‐tion:  "Architecture  is  the  art  of   composing  and  executing  allpublic  and  private   build-­‐ings.”  To  design,  then,  is  to  compose,  that   is  to  say,  to  combine  some  previously  deter-­‐ mined  elements  according  to  certain  proce-­‐dures   that  can  be  made  explicit.’  
  • —  Method  to  Follow  in  the  Composition  ofAny  Project  In  the   didactic  manner  that  characterizes  his  whole  work,  Durand   describes  the  method  graphically  as  a  step-­‐by-­‐step  pro-­‐cess.     —  The  process  described  in  the  plate  is  based  on  six  stages.   —   The  first  stage  consists  of  the  layout  of  the  main  axes  of  the   composition.     —  In  the  second  stage,  a  new  grid  of  secondary  axes  complements   the  primary  ones   —   Then,  walls  are  laid  out  along  the  axes,  and  col-­‐umns  are  placed   within  the  areas  bounded  by  walls.   —   In  the  fifth  stage,  the  walls,  porticoes,  stairs,  and  other   architectural  elements  are  drawn  in  plan  view.   —   Finally,  the  elevation  and  the  section  are  generated  from  the   plan.  A  fundamental  aspect  of  the  method  is  the  fact  that  it  can   be  described  by  means  of  a  graphic.     —  The  graphic,  in  this  case,  is  much  more  than  a  mere  illustration   of  a  procedure  that  could  be  described  by  other  means;  it  is  the   expression  of  an  architec-­‐tural  concept  by  means  that  are   exclusively  architectural.  Because  of  this,  a  detailed  analysis  of   the  illustration  is  not  only  perti-­‐nent,  but  also  necessary  to   assess  the  scope  of  the  method  proposed  by  Durand.    
  • Chiswick House London   One  of  the  most  glorious  examples  of  18th-­‐century  British  architecture,  Chiswick  House  was  designed  by   the  third  Earl  of  Burlington  (1694-­‐1753).  A  promoter  of  the  Palladian  style  pioneered  by  Inigo  Jones,   Burlington  sought  to  create  the  kind  of  house  and  garden  found  in  the  suburbs  of  ancient  Rome.  To  do   this,  he  employed  William  Kent  to  design  sumptuous  interiors  to  contrast  with  the  pure  white  exterior.  An   exhibition  and  video  tell  the  story  of  the  house,  grounds  and  Lord  Burlington,  including  his  ‘grand   tours’  of  Europe.   As  you  walk  through  the  house,  take  in  the  splendour  of  the  Gallery  with  its  beautiful  painted  and  gilded   ceiling,  and  discover  the  Red,  Blue  and  Green  Velvet  rooms.  Then  step  into  the  classical  gardens  –  a  perfect   complement  to  the  house  itself.  The  grounds  are  fascinating  –  look  for  the  unique  statuary  in  the  Italianate   gardens  and  the  recently  restored  water  cascade.     This  villa  on  the  banks  of  the  Thames  west  of  London  has  puzzled  visitors.  It  lacked  a  kitchen,  dining   room,  and  service  facilities;  it  is  not  even  clear  that  it  originally  had  bedrooms.  It  is  relatively  small-­‐-­‐about   70  feet  square  in  plan.  It  certainly  served  as  an  art  gallery-­‐-­‐the  central  octagonal  domed  space  had  large   paintings  and  the  three  adjoining  rooms  on  the  garden  front  served  as  art  galleries.    
  • Richard  Boyle  and  William  Kent,  Chiswick  House,  1725,   London,  England  
  • Villa  Rotunda,    Palladio  
  • • Boyle:  amateur  architect   • Kent:  interior  and  garden  designer   • Influence  of  Palladio’s  Villa  Rotunda;  Palladio’s  statue  is  placed   at  far  left;  Palladian  motif  of  the  decorated  halls  on    the  balustrade   of  the  main  floor;  Palladian  low  dome;  main  floor  raised  over   exposed  basement  level;  pediments  over  windows  and  doors.  
  • • Jones  statue  at  far  right  (father  of  English  classicism)   • Symmetrical  balance  of  façade,  even  chimneys  were  balanced   • Un-­‐Italian  are  the  large  semicircular  dome  windows  and  oblesklike  chimneys   • Rusticated  bottom  floor  influenced  by  Italian  Renaissance  buildings   • Clear,  open,  white  stone  surface  above,  with  no  ornamentation  
  • • Baroque  tradition  lingers  in  the  double  staircase  that  changes  view   as  it  ascends   • Domed  central  room  is  an  art  gallery  containing  busts  and   paintings   • Not  a  real  residence,  but  a  pavilion  where  Boyle  would  entertain   guests  and  show  his  art  collection   • Richly  decorated  rooms  of  brilliant  color  
  • —  THANK  YOU