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Motivation Models



30 slides on employee motivation models taught in business school

30 slides on employee motivation models taught in business school



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Motivation Models Motivation Models Presentation Transcript

  • Motivation
  • Motivation The willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need.
  • The Motivation Process Un- Reduction Search Satisfied satisfied Tension Drives of behavior need need tension Figure 15-1
  • Early Theories Hierarchy of Needs Theory Theory X - Theory Y Motivation - Hygiene Theory
  • Maslow Physiological Needs Safety Needs Social Needs Esteem Needs Self-Actualization Need
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self- actualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological Figure 15-2
  • McGregor Theory X Dislike work Must be coerced Shirk responsibility Security most important Little ambition
  • McGregor Theory Y Work is natural Self direction & self control Average person can accept RESPONSIBILITY Ability to make good decisions is widely dispersed through the population
  • Theory X and Theory Y Assumptions THEORY X THEORY Y Employees inherently dislike Employees view work as being as work and will attempt to avoid natural as rest or play. it, whenever possible. Employees must be coerced, Employees will exercise self- controlled, or threatened with direction and self-control if they punishment to achieve desired are committed to the objectives. goals. Employees will shirk response- The average person can learn to bilities and seek formal accept, and even seek, direction whenever possible. responsibility. Most workers place security The ability to make good decisions above all other factors asso- is widely dispersed through the ciated with work and will population and isn’t necessarily the sole ability of managers Table 15-1 display little ambition.
  • Herzberg - Hygiene Factors Supervision Company Policy Relationship with Supervisor Relationship with Peers Relationship with Subordinates
  • Herzberg - Hygiene Factors - continued Personal Life Working Conditions Status Security
  • Herzberg - Motivators Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth
  • Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Motivators Hygiene Factors •Achievement •Supervision •Recognition •Company policy •Work itself •Relationship with •Responsibility supervisor •Advancement •Working conditions •Growth •Salary •Relationship with peers •Personal life •Relationship with subordinates •Status •Security Extremely satisfied Neutral Extremely dissatisfied Figure 15-3
  • Contemporary Theories Three Needs Theory Goal-Setting Theory Reinforcement Theory Equity Theory Expectancy Theory
  • Three Needs Theory Need for Achievement Need for Power Need for Affiliation
  • Goal-Setting Theory Specific goals increase performance Difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance
  • Reinforcement Theory Behavior is a function of its consequences Purpose directs actions Behavior is externally caused Reinforcers control behavior Ignores goals, expectations, and needs Focuses on consequences of actions
  • Equity Theory Compares Inputs and Outputs to others and corrects inequities Distorts their own or others I/O Induces others to change I/O Change own I/O Choose different comparison Person Quits the job
  • Equity Theory continued Payment by time: Overrewarded employees produce more than those equitably paid Payment by Qty.: Overrewarded employees produce fewer , but higher quality than equitably paid Payment by time: Underrewarded employees produce less, poorer quality Payment by Qty.: Underrewarded employees produce large number , low quality than equitably paid employees
  • Equity Theory PERCEIVED RATIO COMPARISONa EMPLOYEE’S ASSESSMENT Outcomes A Outcomes B Inequity (underrewarded) < Inputs A Inputs B Outcomes A Outcomes B Equity = Inputs A Inputs B Outcomes A Outcomes B Inequity (overrewarded) > Inputs A Inputs B aPerson A is the employee, and person B is a relevant other or referent. Table 15-2
  • Expectancy Theory Individual acts in a certain way based on the expectation of outcome Individual acts in a certain way based on the effort involved Individual acts in a certain way based on the attractiveness of reward
  • Simplified Expectancy Model Organiza- Individual Individual B Individual A C tional effort performance goals rewards A = Effort-performance linkage B = Performance-reward linkage C = Attractiveness Figure 15-11
  • Designing Motivating Jobs Job Enrichment Job Enlargement Job Characteristics Model
  • Guidelines for Job Redesign Suggested Action Core Job Dimensions Skill variety Combining tasks Task identity Forming natural work units Establishing client relationships Task significance Vertical loading Autonomy Opening feedback channels Feedback Figure 15-9
  • Job Enrichment Increases Job Depth Degree of control people have over their work
  • Job Enlargement Job Scope - Vertical expansion of a job by adding planning and evaluating responsibilities
  • Job Characteristic Model Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance Autonomy Feedback
  • Motivating in Today’s System Compressed work weeks Flexible Time Job Sharing Tele-commuting
  • Suggestions Recognize differences Match people to jobs Use goals Insure that goals are attainable Individualize rewards Link reward to performance Check the system for equity
  • Suggestions for Motivating Employees Recognize individual differences. Match people to jobs. Use goals. Ensure that goals are perceived as attainable. Individualize rewards. Link rewards to performance. Check the system for equity. Don’t ignore money. Table 15-3