This course deals with concerns and issues that challenge regular and special education.
In response to the various societal changes and mandates, the
educational systems throughout the world are moving towards including students with disabilities into the mainstream of regular schools.
The aim is to provide the students working knowledge of the current trends in special and regular education and the issues that arise in the process of integrating students with special needs into regular classrooms.
The course further aims to equip the students with the necessary knowledge and skills for making the process of integration successful.
be knowledgeable about the current trends of teaching children with special needs in inclusive setting by developing the right attitude and mind set toward it.
acquire a working knowledge and skill in teaching children with special needs in general education settings
be aware of the challenges teachers often meet in teaching students with special needs in inclusive setting;
contribute in the process of including students in the mainstream of regular schools through advocacy
be familiar with effective strategies for meeting the needs of students with learning problems being served in regular classroom
The “What” and “Why” of IE
Definition of Terms
Least Restrictive Environment
Special Education -is the education of students with special needs in a way that addresses the students' individual differences and needs.
Ideally, this process involves the individually planned and systematically monitored arrangement of teaching procedures, adapted equipment and materials, accessible settings, and other interventions designed to help learners with special needs achieve a higher level of personal self-sufficiency and success in school and community than would be available if the student were only given access to a typical classroom education.
LRE-"each public agency shall ensure that: to the maximum extent appropriate, a pupil with an educationally disability shall be educated with children who are not educationally disabled; special classes, separate schooling or other removal of a pupil with an educational disability from the pupil's regular class occurs only when the nature or severity of the educational disability is such that education in the pupil's regular class with the use of appropriate supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily."
The mainstreamed student's primary placement is in a self-contained class for students with disabilities.
These students are taken out of separate classrooms for specific portions of the school day and placed in classrooms with their non-disabled peers, often with no supports or accommodations, and with performance expectations similar to those of the typical students.
Mainstreaming is offered primarily to students with mild disabilities, and often involves only non-academic subjects, such as gym, art, music and lunch.
The primary placement is in the general education classroom, although instruction may also be provided in other settings based on the student's needs.
Supports and performance expectations vary based upon the student's needs and goals as stated in the Individualized Education Program (IEP).
Students may be engaged in the same activity with or without modifications, or may be engaged in parallel activities (i.e., same content area but different activity).
Inclusion has come to be preferred primarily because it connotes that students with disabilities are considered part of the general education classroom.
The “What” and “Why” of IE
Development of Education for Students with Disabilities
Civil Rights Movement
Categories of Disability
Philosophical Roots of SpEd
The Principle of Normalization
Espoused in Scandinavia, 1969 believed that we should use “means which are as culturally normative as possible in order to establish and/or maintain personal behaviors and characteristics which are culturally normative as possible.
Historical Roots of Sped
Samuel Gridley Howe
Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet
Alexander Graham Bell
Ann Sullivan Macy
Victor “the wild boy” of Aveyron
Advocates for Change
Pres. John F. Kennedy – established the Commission on Mental Retardation
Political and social activism of black Americans for equal access and opportunities
Wolfsenberger articulated Normalization
Inclusion & its best practices
Growth of the Discipline Parents Professionals Advocates Laws Litigations
Diana v. Board of Education (1970)
Larry P. V. Riles (1979)
Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Citizens v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
Mills v. Washington, D.C. Board of Education (1972)
The Three Laws Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) PL 101-336 Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Section 504)PL 93-112 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) PL 94-142 A Federal civil rights statute. A Federal funding statute. Passed in 1990 to provide a comprehensive approach to eliminate discrimination on the basis of a disability throughout the nation. Passed in 1973 to eliminate discrimination on the basis of disability in any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. Passed in 1975 to provide Federal financial assistance to state and local education agencies to assist them to educate children with disabilities. Applies to all public and certain private entities whether or not they receive Federal financial assistance. Applies to state and local education agencies which receive IDEA funds. Applies to recipients of Federal financial assistance. Covers employment practices, public services, public accommodations and commercial facilities, and telecommunications services. Covers employment practices, program accessibility, preschool, elementary, and secondary education programs, post- secondary education programs, and health, welfare and social services. Covers the provision of special education and related services to eligible disabled children aged 3 through 21. A Federal civil rights statute.
Foundations of IDEA
Free and Appropriate Public Education and the provision on IEP
Least Restrictive Environment
Due Process and Procedural Safeguards
The Philippine Laws
Republic Act 7277 Magna Carta for Disabled Persons
Magna Carta for Disabled Persons (RA 7277)
Rights and Privileges of Disabled Persons
Chapter I Employment
Chapter II Education
Chapter III Health
Chapter IV Auxiliary Social Services
Chapter V Telecommunications
Chapter VI Accessibility
Chapter VII Political and Civil Rights
Prohibition on Discrimination Against Disabled Persons
Chapter I Discrimination on Employment
Chapter II Discrimination on Transportation
Chapter III Discrimination on the Use of Public Accommodations & Services