Consideration for Curriculum Development• Amendments to IDEA• Promulgation of Standard-based education• No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation
Definition of Curriculum• Courses taught in school• A document that includes a design that others have developed and that teacher implement in the classroom• Patton & Hoover(2004) as planned and guided learning experiences under the direction of the school with intended educational outcome• Armstrong(1990) “master plan for selecting content and organizing learning experiences for the purpose of changing and developing learners’ behaviors and insights”.
Primary Concern Of CD• “functionality” in the meeting the need of the individual student.• It means the degree to which the curriculum prepares students for the environments in which they will live, work, and learn.• And that careful attention be given to how a student’s needs can be met within the context of the general education curriculum while placed in the inclusive settings
Curriculum TypesExplicit curriculum – (intended curriculum) refers to the formal and stated curriculum that teachers and students are expected to follow.• Is found in a state standards/school• It includes specific goals and objectives for different subject areas across grade levels.
Curriculum TypesHidden curriculum – (taught curriculum) refers to the actual curriculum implemented in the classroom.• It is what the students are exposed to on a daily basis.• It is likely to include much of the explicit curriculum as well as topics other than those that are stated in curriculum guides.• It also includes the insertion of content that the teacher chooses to cover, either by necessity based on student needs (e.g. study skills instruction) or by personal interest (enrichment)
Curriculum TypesAbsent curriculum – refers to the curriculum that , for whatever reason, is not included in school.• Content that is not covered because certain content is not part of the explicit curriculum.• Other times it is a choice made by the teacher
Comprehensive Curriculum• Refers to a program of study that is guided by the reality that each student is in school on a time-limited basis.• its goal is to develop an outcome focus that is consistent with the diverse needs of these students• The real test of the value of the curriculum is how students fare once they exit the program
Central Attributes of CC• Responding to the needs of an individual student at the current time• Accommodating the concurrent needs for maximum interaction with nondisabled peers• Developing curriculum from a realistic appraisal of potential adult outcomes of individual student• Ensuring consistency with each individual’s transitional needs across level of schooling and life span• Remaining sensitive to graduation goals and specific diploma track requirements
Universal Design for Learning• Pisha & Coyne(2001) – development of educational curricula and materials that include potent supports for access and learning from the start, rendering them effective for a far wider range of students than traditional materials.• It attends to the general need in a general fashion that does not draw attention to any one individual• UDL capitalizes on new technologies and electronic devices• Provide a new way of looking at students with disabilities
Differentiated Instruction• Is the process to approach teaching and learning for students of differing abilities in the same class.• The intent is to maximized each student’s growth and individual success by meeting each student where he or she is and assisting in the learning process.
Access to the General Curriculum Special Education and Related Services Expanded Curricula General Curriculum No Accommodations Accommodations Modifications Alternate or ModificationNo changes in: No changes to: Changes in some •Individualized•Content •Content or all of: curriculum goals•Performance •Performance •Content area •Separateexpectation expectations •Performance curriculum•Sequence and Changes to: expectationstimelines •Sequence and •Sequence and•instruction timelines timelines •instruction •instruction
Impact of the NCLB• Increased accountability• Parent and student choice• Greater flexibility• Putting reading first• Highly qualified teachers
Standard-based education• Means what it taught must be cited to the state-derived content and performance standards that now exist in all states in the core subject areas of language arts/English, mathematics, social studies and sciences• Its features: – content standard (knowledge, skills, etc.) – performance standard ( level of achievement)
General Education Curriculum without Supports/Accommodation• Refers to curriculum that students with and without specific learning needs experience.• Students may flounder, receive poor grades, and be at risk of dropping out
General Education with Supports/Accommodation• Appropriate support are being provided in the general education classroom• Its goal is to enhance success in the classroom• It presumes that students will profit from the curriculum offered.
General Education with Supports/AccommodationCooperative Teaching• Collaborative teaching• Monitoring students• Developing units for general education teachers• Sharing materials and expertise in programming• Demonstrate special techniques and strategies
General Education with Supports/AccommodationTutorial Assistance Concerns:• Materials taught are relevant and powerful enough for the learning needs• Instruction is responsive to an individual student’s long-term needs• Possible undertraining of special education teachers• Possible overtraining that can be handled by paraeducators
Specialized Curriculum with a Focus on Academic and Social Skills Development and Remediation• Academic Remediation – major attention of instruction should focus on developing academic skills• Social Skills – emphasizing social competence typically recognized as critical to life adjustment.
Specialized Curriculum with Focus on Adult Outcomes• Life Skills – emphasizes a comprehensive life-demands view of the postschool adjustment process• Vocational training- it provides specific training skills for life beyond the school setting• Apprenticeship