Morphology

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  • The interpretation of speech involves perceiving these sound waves as individual words. Done effortlessly in a language you know, but listening to a foreign language makes you realize that it is difficult to pick out individual words in a new language.
  • Smallest meaningful part of a word;
  • Share Ruth Heller books. Carry the main meanings in sentences. Also referred to as open-class words because new words that come into English through processes like borrowing are always content words.
  • Determiners and quantifiers are words that precede nouns. Three kinds: articles like a, an and the; demonstratives like this and these, and possessives like my and their. Quantifiers serve the same purpose as determiners the difference is that they specify an amount or quantity. Pronouns are words that are used in place of noun phrases. Do not carry meaning by themselves take meaning from noun they refer to. Example: I saw the sweet elderly lady down the street. I saw her. Different kinds of pronouns: personal (I, my); indefinite (someone, anything); interrogative (who, where); possessive (mine, his); relative (who, which). Auxiliaries are often refered to as helping verbs. They are the words that tell more about the tense or aspect of a verb. English has a complex verb system. Can add inflections to verbs and also use auxiliaries to express shades of meaning. The auxiliaries occur in a fixed order. Example: I been have should asked to go. Must be acquired too complex to teach and learn. Prepoisitions show place or time relationships. Example: the pen is on the table. On shows the relationship in space between the pen and the table. Conjunctions also show relationships connects two complete ideas and joins two verbs. Particles are little words added to verbs to make two- or three word verbs example he ran up a big bill. Intensifiers are words used to qualify an expression making it stronger or weaker. Example he is very happy. Or he is somewhat happy.
  • Morphology

    1. 1. English Morphology
    2. 2. Focus <ul><li>What is a word? </li></ul><ul><li>How do new words enter a language? </li></ul>
    3. 3. Morphology <ul><li>The study of words </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual units, not physical units </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of word associated with written language than spoken language </li></ul>
    4. 4. How words are formed <ul><li>Morphemes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free morphemes-units that can stand alone as words by themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tree </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bound morphemes-units that must be attached or bound to a free morpheme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tree s </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Bound morphemes <ul><ul><li>Affixes (prefix/suffix) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflectional morphemes add to a word without changing the part of speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does not change the meaning of the base word </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 inflectional affixes in English </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-s, -es (plural), -s (possessive), -s, -ing, -ed, -en (show tense), -er, -est (show comparison) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Derivational affixes when added to a base word, a new word is derived </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May change the part of speech of the base word </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. English Morphemes Free Morphemes Bound Morphemes Tree <ul><li>Prefixes </li></ul><ul><li>Derivational (un-) </li></ul><ul><li>Suffixes: </li></ul><ul><li>Derivational (-ion) </li></ul><ul><li>Inflectional (-s) </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Prefixes help readers understand the meaning of a word. </li></ul><ul><li>Suffixes tell more about the part of speech than the meaning of the word. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Types of Words <ul><li>Simple words </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Words with just one free morpheme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tree </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Complex words </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Words with a free morpheme and one or more bound morphemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>trees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Compound words </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Words that consist of two free morphemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>teacup </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Word Classifying <ul><li>Content Words </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parts of speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Noun </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Verb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adjectives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adverbs </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Parts of speech Can add these inflectional suffixes Can add these derivational suffixes Noun ~s or ~es (plural): trees , bushes ‘ s (possessive): animal’s Commence ment Prevent ion Neat ness Clar ity Depend ence Farm er parachut ist Verb ~s (third-person singular): He walks. ~ing (progressive): He is walking. ~ed (past): He walked. ~en (past participle): He has driven Clas sify Character ize evalu ate Adjective Adverb ~er (comparative): Bigger/faster est (superlative): Biggest/fastest Mischiev ous Color ful Fest ive Reg al Flexi ble Quickl y (adverb)
    11. 11. Function Words <ul><li>Determiners </li></ul><ul><li>Quantifiers </li></ul><ul><li>Pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>Auxiliaries </li></ul><ul><li>Prepositions </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunctions </li></ul><ul><li>Intensifiers </li></ul><ul><li>Particles </li></ul>
    12. 12. Types of Function Words Type Example Example Example Determiners The This My Quantifiers One Every Several Pronouns You Yourself Who Auxiliaries Is Has Might Prepositions In Before Of Conjunctions And If However Particles Up Down Around Intensifiers Rather Very so
    13. 13. How New Words Enter a Language <ul><li>Coining-someone makes up a name for an object and the name sticks </li></ul><ul><li>Compounding-joining two free morphemes. </li></ul><ul><li>Clipping-when a word is shortened </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematics-math </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gasoline-gas </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. How New Words Enter a Language <ul><li>Acronyms-words made up of the first letters of several words. Acro is Greek for “high,” so acronyms are “high names,” names made up of the tall (capital) first letters. </li></ul><ul><li>Scuba (self-contained underwater breathing apparatus) </li></ul>
    15. 15. How New Words Enter a Language <ul><li>Blending-combining two words </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brunch (breakfast + lunch) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motel (motor + hotel) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Back-formation-noun to verb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peddler peddle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Borrowing-using words from other languages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boutique (French) </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Text Analysis <ul><li>Take a passage of one hundred consecutive words. Working in pairs, classify each word by placing it on a chart similar to the one that follows. All function words go in the rightmost column. If a word is repeated, list it each time it appears. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Text Analysis SIMPLE COMPLEX COMPOUND FUNCTION NOUNS BOY BOYS TOOTHBRUSH THE THROUGH VERBS GO PRIORITIZE ADJECTIVES GREEN UNSATISFACTORY ADVERBS FAST SLOWLY
    18. 18. Analyze your results <ul><ul><li>What percent of the words are function words? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What percent are simple words? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What percent are complex words with inflection suffixes? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What percent are complex words with derivational suffixes? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What percent are compound words? </li></ul></ul>

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