a natural language (or ordinary language) is any language which arises in an unpremeditated fashion as the result of the innate facility for language possessed by the human intellect. A natural language is typically used for communication, and may be spoken, signed, or written. Natural language is distinguished from constructed languages and formal languages such as computer-programming languages or the "languages" used in the study of formal logic, especially mathematical logic.
A phoneme is a unit of sound that combines with other sounds to form words. A phoneme is the smallest unit of language. It is distinguished from the other language dimensions in that a phoneme alone does not convey meaning.
There are approximately 45 phonemes in the English language, classified as either vowels or consonants. Vowels are categorized according to where they are produced in the mouth. The tongue may be moved up, down, forward, or backward in producing vowels. These different tongue positions are used to classify as high, mid, or low and front, central, or back.
Jakobson and Halle (1956) propose three principles that influence the order of phoneme acquisition:
Children learn to distinguish sounds first that have the fewest features in common, such as oral-nasal /p/,/m/), labial-dental (/p/ and /m/ precedes the development of back consonants such as /k/ and /g/.
Development of front consonants such as /p/ and /m/ preces the development of back consonants such as /k/ and /g/
Phonemes that occur infrequently among the languages of the world—such as the English short a in bat (even though it may be frequent in the child’s native language) –are the last to be acquired.
A morpheme is the smallest unit of language that conveys meaning. It can be a root word, such as dog, run, or her. Free morphemes are root words that convey meaning and stand alone. A morpheme can also be a prefix (such as un) or a suffix (such as ed)
Syntax is a system of rules that determines how words or morphemes are combined to make grammatically correct sentences. Syntax is frequently referred to as grammar.
Rules of grammar emerge between 18 and 24 months of age, evidenced in children’s production of two-word sentences. The child does not change abruptly from single words to grammatical two-word sentences. There is a period of transition in which a distinction can be made between two-word utterances and tow words in grammatical form.
Semantics refers to meanings attached to words and word relationships. For example, the rod cup has a meaning of a container from which to drink and refers to an object in the child’s world. An example of meaning attached to word relationships is the phrase “Daddy’s cup” these words add the meaning of possessiveness in relationship to each other: the cup belongs to daddy.
Bruner (1974/1975) defines pragmatics as the “directive function of speech through which speakers affect the behavior of others in trying to carry out their intention”
Two broad functions: controlling or influencing the listener’s action (give me the doll ) and influencing attitudes ( I think jane would make a good class president) these functions are also referred to as the speaker’s intent
Students will be in a group of 4 or 5 members. The whole game has 4 areas/types: spelling, jumbled words and letters and phrasal verbs. The group should have one representative for each question. The player will answer the question that is presented orally or through a power point slide. The player who can answer first and correctly gets a point.
Another representative shall be sent in front to answer the next question. For the final round, all the members will work now as a group. The group with the highest points wins the game.
Students will be able to use phrasal verbs correctly in sentences and enrich their vocabulary by identifying the correct meaning of these phrasal verbs. A phrasal verb will be flashed on the screen, groups should construct a sentence with the phrasal verb in it.
The first group to finish their sentence with the correct syntax gets a point.
shop around - compare prices
I want to shop around a little before I decide on these boots.
blew up -explode
The racing car blew up after it crashed into the fence.
Do away with - discard
It's time to do away with all of these old tax records.