- Believes that the infants begins with no knowledge of language but possesses the ability to learn it.
- Child possesses an innate capacity for dealing with linguistic universals.
- Believes that the child must internalize linguistic structures from the environment.
There are numerous programs available from which the educator can choose. Selection is influenced by two primary factors:
a. The population the program serves
b. The theoretical model on which it is based
Used with mildly handicapped students based on the behavioral model.
DISTAR language program
- is a very structured approach to language intervention. The program use a didactic approach with repetitive group drills.
*The program provides a recommended procedure for teaching each objectives based on imitating the teacher.
a. Interactive Learning Programs
- is a syntax development program that is appropriate use in preschool through primary grades.
b. Semel Auditory Processing Program
- designed to remediate problems in morphological and syntactic rule learning.
*both of these programs have shown success in remediation of language problems.
a. Meaning is brought to a child’s language through interaction with the environment.
b. The child uses speech to control the environment.
Direct Teaching Method
- The teacher directs the learning and dictates the content, pace, and sequencing of the lesson.
- The child dictating the content, pace, and sequencing of the lesson.
is a term most commonly used to refer to so called “ natural languages ”.
is a system of signs (symbols, indices, icons) for encoding and decoding information.
- symbols are strongly arbitrary
- the meanings of signs may be arbitrary, but the process of assigning meaning is not
a natural language (or ordinary language) is any language which arises in an unpremeditated fashion as the result of the innate facility for language possessed by the human intellect. A natural language is typically used for communication, and may be spoken, signed, or written. Natural language is distinguished from constructed languages and formal languages such as computer-programming languages or the "languages" used in the study of formal logic, especially mathematical logic.
The scientific study of natural language
The Prelinguistic Stage
The Holophrase or One-Word Sentence
The Two-Word Sentence
More Complex Grammatical Structures
Adult-Like Language Structure
Oral Language is a learned behavior that enables people to transmit their ideas and culture from generation to generation. It is powerful tool to control the environment.
Form (phonology, morphology, syntax)
A phoneme is a unit of sound that combines with other sounds to form words. A phoneme is the smallest unit of language. It is distinguished from the other language dimensions in that a phoneme alone does not convey meaning.
There are approximately 45 phonemes in the English language, classified as either vowels or consonants. Vowels are categorized according to where they are produced in the mouth. The tongue may be moved up, down, forward, or backward in producing vowels. These different tongue positions are used to classify as high, mid, or low and front, central, or back.
Jakobson and Halle (1956) propose three principles that influence the order of phoneme acquisition:
Children learn to distinguish sounds first that have the fewest features in common, such as oral-nasal /p/,/m/), labial-dental (/p/ and /m/ precedes the development of back consonants such as /k/ and /g/.
Development of front consonants such as /p/ and /m/ preces the development of back consonants such as /k/ and /g/
Phonemes that occur infrequently among the languages of the world—such as the English short a in bat (even though it may be frequent in the child’s native language) –are the last to be acquired.
A morpheme is the smallest unit of language that conveys meaning. It can be a root word, such as dog, run, or her. Free morphemes are root words that convey meaning and stand alone. A morpheme can also be a prefix (such as un) or a suffix (such as ed)
Syntax is a system of rules that determines how words or morphemes are combined to make grammatically correct sentences. Syntax is frequently referred to as grammar.
Rules of grammar emerge between 18 and 24 months of age, evidenced in children’s production of two-word sentences. The child does not change abruptly from single words to grammatical two-word sentences. There is a period of transition in which a distinction can be made between two-word utterances and tow words in grammatical form.
Semantics refers to meanings attached to words and word relationships. For example, the rod cup has a meaning of a container from which to drink and refers to an object in the child’s world. An example of meaning attached to word relationships is the phrase “Daddy’s cup” these words add the meaning of possessiveness in relationship to each other: the cup belongs to daddy.
Bruner (1974/1975) defines pragmatics as the “directive function of speech through which speakers affect the behavior of others in trying to carry out their intention”
Two broad functions: controlling or influencing the listener’s action (give me the doll ) and influencing attitudes ( I think jane would make a good class president) these functions are also referred to as the speaker’s intent
Students will be in a group of 4 or 5 members. The whole game has 4 areas/types: spelling, jumbled words and letters and phrasal verbs. The group should have one representative for each question. The player will answer the question that is presented orally or through a power point slide. The player who can answer first and correctly gets a point.
Another representative shall be sent in front to answer the next question. For the final round, all the members will work now as a group. The group with the highest points wins the game.
-power point presentation
- pen/ marker
- answer sheets
Objective: The student will be able to use their prior knowledge in spelling skills whether it is spelled orally or written.
Representatives for each group will be asked to write down or spell orally the word mentioned by the teacher.
2) JUMBLED letters
Students will develop and spelling and thinking skills by guessing or giving the right order of letters. They will be exercising their trial-error skills
Representatives for each group will try to rearrange and correct the order of the letters to come up with the correct English word.
3) PHRASAL VERBS
Students will be able to use phrasal verbs correctly in sentences and enrich their vocabulary by identifying the correct meaning of these phrasal verbs. A phrasal verb will be flashed on the screen, groups should construct a sentence with the phrasal verb in it.
The first group to finish their sentence with the correct syntax gets a point.
shop around - compare prices
I want to shop around a little before I decide on these boots.
blew up -explode
The racing car blew up after it crashed into the fence.
Do away with - discard
It's time to do away with all of these old tax records.
look after - take care of
I have to look after my sick grandmother.
4) JUMBLED WORDS
Objective: Students will develop thinking skills by guessing or giving the right order of words to produce a grammatically correct sentence. They will be exercising their trial-error skills
The incorrect jumbled sentence will be flashed on the screen. The students should analyze and give the correct order of words in the sentence.
1) in watch your Do television evening? parents the
Ans: Do your parents watch television in the evening?
2.) Monday eight bus Thomas on takes o’clock mornings. the
Ans: Thomas takes the eight o’clock bus on Monday mornings.
3) the morning. I Z-Gorres tomorrow parents will of interview
Ans: I will interview the parents of Z-Gorres tomorrow morning.
4) school. her back Mrs.Smith on asked from buy his to stamps way son
Ans: Mrs.Smith asked her son to buy stamps on his way back from school.